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RESIDENTIAL

BUILDINGS:
STEEL AS
CASE
STUDY
STRUCTURAL

TWO SYSTEMS

Load Bearing Framed walls


Load Bearing Component
Framed Structure

SIMILARITY BETWEEN RCC &


STEEL STRUCTURES
In both the systems there are
three basic divisions:

Foundation
Plinth
Super structure

FOUNDATION
Since foundations are below ground level,
steel is more susceptible to corrosion,
hence it needs to be protected by material
which will prevent any corrosion.
Two foundation alternatives are used :
RCC: Re-bars + Concrete.
Steel Components encased in Concrete.

SUPER STRUCTURE
COMPONENTS
Two concepts are adopted for
Exclusive Steel Structures:
Light weight galvanized cold rolled
channel load bearing wall frames.
Columns / beams frame with
trapezoidal metal deck / concrete
composite floors.

In both cases Stairs can be built with cold


rolled lightweight or hot rolled
conventional components.

FOUNDATION BOLTS

MOV00972-18-6.AVI

Light weight galvanized cold rolled


channel framed load bearing wall frames.
Framing consist of light
weight galvanized channels
connected by self tapping
screws. Boards, (plywood,
gypsum board or any other
similar material) are screwed to
both sides of the total frame.
This panel- assembly
becomes a load bearing wall.
The sizes of channels are
predesigned.
Open lip channels are used
as floor channel and ceiling
channel. Closed lip channels
are placed vertically (at 16 or
24 c to c) between floor and
ceiling channels.

Columns / beams frame with trapezoidal metal deck


/ concrete composite floors.
In case of hot rolled
structural steel sections, frame
consist of columns, beams,
either by welding or nutbolting.
Metal deck is then laid on
the beams and shear stud
welded to connect beams and
decking sheets.
PCC is poured with
galvanized weld mesh to
control shrinking/cracking.

TECHNOLOGY
Steel building, the structural frame is not
monolithic like in-situ RCC.
Columns, beams etc. are connected to each other
by various types of connection.
The connections are riveted, nut-bolted or
welded, however now, riveting is obsolete.
When the foundation system consists of RCC
footings, stub columns etc. the super structure is
connected to the foundation by means of
foundation bolts are secured in footings or stub
columns.

CONSTRUCTION
PROCESS
Line out on site for
steel building is no
different than any
conventional RCC
frame or a load
bearing wall system.
Excavation for
foundation is also
same as RCC building
frame.

Site engineer with the construction crew mark the line-out of


the building. String, white marking powder, stakes, measuring
tape are basic tools required for the task.

After locating center line of footings, foundations are marked on


ground with some permanent bench marks.

PROCESS

What is critical?
It is the embedding of
foundation bolts in
footings or stub columns.
All the bolts need to be
at exact locations shown
on the structural
drawings with a very
little tolerance (+/-5mm).
The structural frame
pre-engineered, meaning
the components are prefabricated separately and
then connected at the
construction site
rectification will be time
consuming as well costly.

FOUNDATION
The accuracy should
start at the footings.
The column centers
marked on footings.
A variety of jigs can be
made to ensure that
the disposition of
foundation bolts will
be kept as accurate as
possible.
The group of FDN
bolts secured at
position by concrete.

FABRICATION OF
COMPONENTS
Structural design for a Steel frame building

is
little different than RCC frame building. In both
the systems load, live and dead, consideration is
same. However, in case of steel frame Designer
has to check the strength of various connections,
viz the foundation bolt connection and column
beam connections and the beams and floor
system connections requires special attention.
Column beams connections are known as
Moment and/or Shear connections.
Selection of steel components largely depends on
market availability of particular sections like
I,C or L . Steel plate is very much required.

MARKET AVAILABILITY &


ALTERNATIVE
Few years back choice of steel sections was very
much limited. Now in addition to conventional
tapered hot rolled section Parallel Flange and H
sections are available.
When manufactured sections are not available,
Pre-Engineered section are used.
From base plate to top plate every connection is
designed for its specific purpose. This situation
make the design as economical and light weight.
Steel plates are cut to required shapes and size
for connections as well as to increase the length of
components as per requirement.

TRANSPORTATION AND
ERECTION COMPONENTS
Between the fabrication and erection of
steel components most difficult job is their
transportation from the shop to the
construction site, especially when its a
long haul.
A critical study of the route to site and on
or near site availability of aids required for
erection process like Electric power supply,
welding equipments, cranes; if the erection
crew is not non-local then, their lodging
facility

ERECTION PROCESS
Before shipping the components; Architect ,
Structural Engineer and the fabrication/erection
contractor should visit the foundations and the
accuracy of Foundation bolt centerlines to ensure
the smooth erection of the columns.
Some times columns and beams are connected
and the whole frame is lined and leveled. But it is
not always practical and initially only columns
are erected.
Next step is to execute the process to line (plumb)
and level of the columns.

ERECTION PROCESS
Once that is done then
the space between the
top of stub columns
and the under face of
base plate is filled
with Non Shrink
Grout. The reason for
using non shrink
grout is to avoid
uneven settlement of
the steel columns.

ERECTION PROCESS
Once the Columns are
erected and stabilized
then the process of
connecting beams is
done.
First peripheral and
internal main beams
and then the
secondary beams are
connected.

ERECTION PROCESS
First
peripheral
and internal
main beams
and then the
secondary
beams are
connected.

ERECTION PROCESS
After all the
connection well
secured with
specified nut/bolts
with washers then
floor decking
sheets are laid
down and shear
stud fastened.

SHEAR STUDS
A stud that transfers shear stress
between metal and concrete in
composite structural members in
which the stud is welded to the
metal component
Shear stud are similar to bolts. The
head of the stud is round and stem
has no threads.
Each stud placed at the lower
corrugation at the beam location
and is welded to deck and beam,
creating one homogeneous assembly
of beams and deck.
The galv. weld mesh is laid on the
top and PCC is poured maintaining
some conc. cover for weld mesh.

MOMENT CONNECTIONS
A Moment Connection in
structural design is a connection
joint between a beam and a
column where the end of the beam
is restrained from rotating, thus
creating a rigid frame without the
use of conventional cross-bracing.
Standard, or "pinned" connections
are usually bolted and/or welded
through the beam web and allow
the beam to "rotate" in the "Y"
direction when the beam is loaded.
A moment connection freezes, or
locks up the top and bottom
flanges of the beam, thus making
it "rigid".

SHEAR CONNECTION

A shear stress, denoted (tau), is


defined as a stress which is applied
parallel or tangential to a face of a
maA shear stress, denoted (tau), is
defined as a stress which is applied
parallel or tangential to a face of a
material, as opposed to a normal
stress which is applied
perpendicularly.terial, as opposed to a
normal stress which is applied
perpendicularly.

MOMENT CONNECTION

A Moment Connection in
structural design is a connection
joint between a beam and a
column where the end of the
beam is restrained from rotating,
thus creating a rigid frame
without the use of conventional
cross-bracing. Standard, or
"pinned" connections are usually
bolted and/or welded through the
beam web and allow the beam to
"rotate" in the "Y" direction when
the beam is loaded. A moment
connection freezes, or locks up
the top and bottom flanges of the
beam, thus making it "rigid".

BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION


Beam bottom flange
connected to top plate
(welded) on column.
Beam cantilevered

CROSS BRACINGS
cross bracing is a
system utilized to
reinforce building
structures in which
diagonal supports
intersect. "Cross bracing
can increase a buildings
capability to withstand
seismic forces from an
earthquake."

FLOOR CONCRETING:PCC
Concreting work for
terrace as well as floor
below is in progress.
Care should be taken to
maintain water/cement
ratio.
As concrete gains
strength over the
period. Water curing is
very much important.

THE HOUSE: BRICK CLADDING

This Power point Presentation is supported by Due Approval From


1.Shri Suresh Athawale, Charted Architect
The power point presentation has reference to his Projects
namely a. Thomas George Residence, Trivandrum
b. Abhyankar Residence, Kothrud, Pune