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Irreversibilities

Performance of system

## Work producing devices

produce less work
Work consuming devices
consume more work

## We need a criteria to measure (express) the degree of

decrease of performance of systems due to irreversibilities.

## We did this for some cyclic devices in Chapter 5.

heat engine
refrigerator
heat pump

Actual
H.E.

Compare

Ideal
H.E.
Carnot H.E.
Totally reversible

(i.e. ,TH=Const.

TL=Const.)

th
COPref
COPheat pump

COMPONENTS

Turbine
Compressor
Pump
Diffuser

flow
devices

Nozzle

## We will compare the decrease of performance of

some actual devices (turbines, compressors,
pumps, etc.) with ideal ones.

## (Under which process do ideal devices operate?)

Actual
device

Compare

Ideal
device

Turbine
There is some amount of hea transfer
Comp.
between these devices and surrounding
Pump
Diffuser However, these devces are intended to
Nozzle

## NOW WHAT IS THE IDEAL PROCESS THEN ?

Actual Process

Ideal Process
2. ????????
Ideal Process
2. No int. irreversibilities

isentropic

(Sgen, sys=0)

Actual Process
2. Int. Irrev.

Ideal Process
2. Int. Rev.

isentropic

Note
If the actual process is not adiabatic, the ideal process is not isentropic process

Actual
Process
2. Int. Irr.

Compare
HOW ?

Ideal Process
2. Int. Rev.

Isentropic efficiency is a measure of the deviation of
an actual processes from the ideal one
It is the measure of int. irriversibilities (friction etc.)
It has meaning only for adiabatic processes

Measured

tur

Wa

## Ideal (Isentropic) work produced Ws

Calculated

q w h ke pe w hi he h1 h2
0

neglect

neglect

tur

tur

wa h1 - h 2a

ws h1 - h 2s
%90 (Large turbines)
%70 (Small turbines)

## Example 6-16 : Steam enters an adiabatic turbine steadily at 3 MPa

and 400 C and leaves at 50kPa and 100 C. If the power output of the
turbine is 2 MW and the kinetic energy change of steam is negligible,
determine
a) The adiabatic efficiency of the turbine,
b) The mass flow rate of the steam flowing through the turbine.

## a) Adiabatic efficiency of turbine =

1

h1 - h 2a
h1 - h 2s

2a

P1= 3 MPa
T1=400 C

2s

P2a=50 kPa
T2a=100 C

h1>hg Sup.heat.
h1=3 kJ/kg
s1=6.9212 kJ/(kg.K)

P2a=50 kPa
s2s=s1= 6.9212 kJ/(kJ.K)

h2a>hg Sup.heat.
h2a=2682.5 kJ/kg
X 2s

sf=1.0910 kJ/(kg.K)
sg=7.5939 kJ/(kg.K)
Sf < s2s <sg Saturated mixt.
s 2 s sf 6.9212 1.0910

0.897
sfg
6.5029

h2s=hf+x2shfg=340.49+0.897(2305.4)=2407.4 kJ/kg

h1 - h 2a
3230.9 - 2682.5
T

0.667 66.7%
h1 - h 2s
3230.9 - 2407.4

b) The mass flow rate of the steam flowing through the turbine :
.

Q W m h ke Pe
0

W m. h1 h 2a

2 x1000
m 3230.9 2682.5
.

m 3.65 kg / s

comp

Wa

comp

ws h 2s - h1

wa h 2a - h1

pump

ws h 2s - h1

wa h 2a - h1

## Ws=Reversible steady-flow work= dP ( P2 P1 )

pump

ws h 2s - h 1 ( P2 P1 )

wa h 2a - h 1
h2 a h1

NOTE:
Isentropic

Ideal

Comp. with
cooling

Ideal

Comp. with
cooling

Ideal

Isentropic

## and we can not define

Int. Rev.+Isothermal

## Example 6-17 : Air is compressed by an adiabatic compressor

from 100 kPa and 12 C to a pressure of 800 kPa at a steady rate
of 0.2 kg/s. If the adiabatic efficiency of the compressor is 80
percent, determine
a) The exit temperature of air and
b) The required power input to the compressor.

2a

2s

T1= 285 K

P2 = 800 kPa

P2 = 800 kPa
T2a = ?

h1=285.14 kJ/kg
Pr1=1.1584
P2 Pr2

P1 Pr1

s const .

P2
800
1.1584
Pr2 Pr1
9.2972
P
100

h 2s - h1
0.80
h 2a - h1

0.80

517.05 - 285.14
h 2a - 285.14

## b) Required power input to compressor :

0

Q a W a m h ke Pe a
.

## W a m h2 a h1 = -0.2 (575.03-285.14) = -58.0 kW

Actual KE at exit
V22a
N
2
Ideal(izantropic) KE at exit V2s

h1 - h 2a
N
h1 - h 2s
N > 90%

ENTROPY BALANCE
Energy Balance :
Total
energy
entering

Total
energy
leaving

Change in the
total energy of
the system

Ein-Eout= Esys
Net energy transfer

Entropy Balance :
Total
entropy
entering

Total
entropy
leaving

Total
entropy
generated

## Energy Transfer (Ein & Eout) :

Heat transfer
Work transfer
Mass transfer

Change in the
total entropy of
the system

Sin-Sout+Sgen= Ssys
Net entropy transfer

## Entropy Transfer (Sin & Sout) :

Heat transfer
2
Q
Q
Work transfer
S heat
k
T
Tk
1
Mass transfer

Swork=0
Smass=ms

Closed
Systems

Sin-Sout+Sgen= Ssys
2

Q
1 T S gen S sys
Qk
T S gen S sys
k

Qk
T S sys
gen
k

Qsurr
T
surr

## For closed systems

previously we obtained :
2

Q
S gen
T
1

S sys

Open
Systems

## Sin-Sout + Sgen= Ssys

2

Q
1 T mi si me se S gen S sys ( S 2 S1 ) cv
Entropy transfer
by heat

Entropy transfer
by mass

Qk
T mi si me se S gen S sys ( S 2 S1 ) cv
k
.

.
.
.
.
Qk
T mi si me se S gen S sys
k

.

.
.
.
Qk
T mi si me se S gen 0
k

## For steady-flow & single-stream systems :

.

.
.
Qk
T m si se S gen 0
k

## through a 5mx6m brick wall of a house. On a day when

the temperature of the outdoors is 0 C, the house is
maintained at 27C. The heat transfer rate from house
to outdoors is 1035 W. The temperatures of the inner
and the outer surfaces of the brick wall are measured to
be 20C and 5C respectively. Determine the rate of
heat transfer through the wall, the rate of entropy
generationin the wall, and the rate of total entropy
generation associated with this heat trnasfer process.
For the wall :
.

.

Q
T

Q

T
in

S gen 0

1035 1035 .

S gen 0
293 278

out

## For the wall + surroundings:

1035 1035 .

S gen ,tot 0
300 273

S gen,tot 0.341 W / K

S gen 0.191 W / K

## Example 6-20 : Steam at 7 MPa

and 450C is throttled in a valve to
pressure of 3 MPa during a steadyflow process. Determine the entropy
generated during this process and
check if the increase of entropy
principle is satisfied.

P1=7 MPa
T1=450 C
.

h1=3287.1 kJ/kg
s1=6.6327 kJ/kg.K

2
h2=h1

## S in S out S gen S sys

.

m s1 m s2 S gen 0

S gen m( s2 s1 ) or s gen s2 s1

sgen=s2-s1=6.9919-6.6327=0.3592 kJ/(kgK)

## Example 6-21 : A 50-kg block of iron casting at 500 K is thrown into

a large lake which is at a temperature of 285 K. The iron block eventually
reaches thermal equilibrium with the lake water. Assuming an average
specific heat of 0.45 kJ/(kg.K) for the iron, determine
(a) the entropy change of the iron block
(b) the entropy change of the lake water
(c) the total entropy change for this process.

## a) Iron block incompressible substance

Siron = m(s2-s1) = mCaveln(T2/T1)
= 50x0.45xln (285 /500)
b) Water

= -12.65 kJ/K
Temperature of the water is constant during the process
(thermal reservoir).
Q-W = U+KE+PE
Qiron = mCave(T2-T1) = 50 x 0.45 x (285-500) = - 4837.5 kJ
Qwater= -Qiron= +4837.5 kJ
S water

Q water
4837.5 kJ

16.97 kJ/K
Twater
285 K

## c) Stotal = Siron+Swater= -12.65+16.97 = 4.32 kJ/K

Stotal >0 irreversible process

## figure 6-15, contain a saturated mixture of water at 100 C. During a

constant-pressure process, 600 kJ of heat is transfered to the
surrounding air which is at 25 C.
As a result, part of the water vapor contained in the piston-cylinder
device condences.
Determine,
a) The entropy change of water
b) The entropy change of surrounding air
during this proses
c) Whether this proses is reversible,
irreversible, or impossible.

2
Sat. mixt.
T2=100 C
P2= P1

1
Sat. mixt.
T1=100 C

a)

Swater Ssys m( s2 s1 )
Can not be read from tables.
Because, x can not be calculated.

## Not given, can not be

calculated with the data given

Q
S gen , sys
T

Swater

Qsys 600

1,61 kJ / K
Tsys
373

Ssur

Qsur 600

2,01 kJ / K
Tsur 298

## c) S = S + S = -1.61 + 2.01 = 0.4 kJK

tot
sys
sur
Stot>0 Processs is irreversible