You are on page 1of 77

PRESENTATION ON STANDARDS

FOR DESIGN OF HVAC NEEDS IN


NAVAL APPLICATION
BY

G.C.MODGIL
Sterling India Consulting Engineers
Innovative HVAC Solutions
E-104, KALKAJI, NEW DELHI - 19

E-mail: modgil@vsnl.com

Purpose of Standard
To relate the various controllable factors
to the comfort and well-being of the
people using the occupied space so that
the requirement of the system may be
specified to the designers and the
contractors.

Shipbuilding Industry

STANDARDS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS
Submarines

Aircraft Carriers

Destroyers

Cruisers

Frigates

Auxiliaries

Amphibious Warships

Supply Ships

Command Ships

Mine Hunters and Sweepers

Coast Guard Vessels

Dockside Units

AIRCRAFT CARRIER

DESTROYER

SUBMARINE

Frigates

WHY TO HAVE A STANDARD ?


STANDARD SHOULD COVER:

Design Goals & Criteria,


Design of Systems,
Performance Requirements,
Available System Options,
Pre-planning Requirements,
Noise & Vibration,
Safety Aspects,
Energy Conservation & Management,
Building Management Systems
Inspection,
Installation, Testing & Commissioning requirements.

Inside Design Conditions


Category

Restaurants
Office Areas
Rest Rooms
Conference rooms
Recovery Rooms
Operation Theatres
Equipment Rooms

Inside Design Conditions


Summer
DB 23 to 26 C
RH 55 to 60%

DB 23 to 26 C
RH 50 to 60%

DB 23 to 26 C
RH 50 to 60%

DB 23 to 26 C
RH 50 to 60%

Winter
DB 21 to 23 C
RH Not less than 40%
DB 21 to 23 C
RH Not less than 40%
DB 23 to 24 C
RH Not less than 40%
DB 23 to 24 C
RH Not less than 40%
DB 24 to 26 C
RH 45 to 55%
27 C
DB 17 to
RH 45 to 55%
DB 22 to 26 C
RH 40 to 50%

Outside Design Conditions


The service & type of vessel determine proper outside
Design temperature, which should be based on
temperature prevalent in a ships area of operation.
The climate design conditions as published in BIS
Standard 7896:2001 should be used to select ambient
Conditions, with special attention paid to high wet bulb.
A ships load is often driven by the latent load
associated With the outside air.

Minimum Outside Fresh Air


The fresh air supply is required to maintain an
acceptably non-odorous atmosphere [by diluting
body odorous and tobacco smoke] and to dilute the
carbon dioxide exhaled. This quantity may be
quoted per person and is related to the occupant
density and activity within the space .
ASHRAE Standard 62 specifies minimum outside air
For IAQ

Indoor Air Quality


Special air contaminant classes deals with
applicable indoor health and comfort
regulations.
Outdoor air contaminants
Indoor air contaminants and indoor air
quality
Flammable gases and vapors
Combustible dusts
Radioactive contaminants
Soil gases

RADIOACTIVE AIR
CONTAMINANTS
Radioactive

contaminants can be
particulate or gaseous

Most

radioactive air contaminants


affect the body when they are
absorbed and retained. This is
known as the internal radiation
hazard.

IMMUNE FACILITY

IMMUNISATION GOAL

Basis for Load Calculations


Solar Gain

Infiltration

Transmission between spaces

Ventilation

People

Equipment

Lights

Basics for Equipment


selection

Equipmentusedinshipshastobemuchmorerugged
thanthatforlanduse.
ASHRAEStandard26listHVACequipment
requirementformarineapplication.
Theequipmentshouldfunctionunderdynamicroll&
pitchandstatictrim&heelconditions.
Constructionmaterialshouldwithstandcorrosive
effectofsaltairandseawater.
Continuousoperation,standbycapacity,spareparts&
refrigerantcharge.
Systemshouldbeflexibleenoughtocompensatefor
climaticchangeswithminimalattentionfromships
crew.

PRACTICAL APPROACH
Chiller

selection based on

Cooling load profile


Electricity consumption evaluation for various

options such as Screw, Centrifugal with VFD etc.


Cooling Load Distribution
Life Cycle Cost

Cooling Load Distribution (Proposed Case)


2831

3000

Number of Hours

2500
2000

1619

1500
1097
1000

804

809

802

798

121-160

161-200

201-240

241-260

500
0
0-40

41-80

81-120

Cooling Load (Tons)

ENERGY SAVING MODES


in System Design
Energy

recovery wheels / heat

pipes
Chiller Sequencing
Variable Volume Water Flow in
Chilled water circulation
VFDs in cooling tower fans
Economisers in AHUs
VFDs in supply air fans
Sensor based ventilation

Problems Related with Humidity Control in Ships


Proper humidity levels
ASHRAE Recommended

Health Problems

10

Mildew Growth

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

% Relative Humidity

Fresh Air in Air conditioned Spaces

Provided To

Maintain IAQ
Avoid VOC Concentration Build up
Other Pollutant Build up
Odour Control

Conventional Practice in TFAs


Air

is cooled to supply conditions or slightly lower

Saturated
air, 23C

Warm humid
air, 39C

Condensation

Conventional Practice for Humidity Control in Ships


Generally

the air is overcooled and then heated

12C

Warm humid
air, 39C

Condensation

Reheat Coil

Comfortable air,
18 - 22C

The pay-off
Overcooling

means an increased cooling load.


=increasedrunningcosts.
This in turn means a larger chiller unit.
Require additional equipment and added complexity
=increasedcapitalcosts.
Re-heating will require even more energy.
=increasedrunningcosts.
Re-heating will also.
=increasedcapitalcosts.

The Economic Solution


Ideally

air should be cooled to a


comfortable temperature and
remove moisture, but without
reheat.
The solution lies in run around
coil / heat pipe

Heat Pipe/ Run Around Coil Proposed


Plan

view of cooling coil.

Heat Pipe
pre-cool
Airflow

39.4/27.8C
27.6/24.9C

Cooling
Coil

Heat Pipe
reheat
Airflow

20.0/15.3C
11.7/11.7C

20.0 /oC15.3 C
18/14.1
o
11.7 / 11.7
C
o24.9 C12/11.8 C
27.6
/
36/27.1 C
39.4 /oC
27.8 C
42/28.5

Airflow

Benefits
Requires

low/no energy to run.

No

maintenance.

No

cross contamination.

Can

be sized to suit the ductwork or AHU.

Easy

condensation removal.

VFDs for Cooling Towers


Saves

Energy under part load conditions

Wet

Bulb approach based sensor linking for


optimising on power consumption

Improves

life of CT fan Motors

AC PLANTS

Reciprocating Semi - Hermetic

Screw Semi-Hermetic

Screw Lobes

Centrifugal Chiller

Impeller

Range and power


consumption of different
Technologies

TYPE OF COMPRESSOR MOTORS AND


THEIRSELECTION
The water chilling machines are generally provided with either of
followingtypeofcompressormotor:

Hermeticallysealedtype;wherebythemotorandcompressorare
mountedonthesameshaftandaresealedinonecasingin
factory.Thesecompressorscannotbeopenedatsiteandhavetobe
sentbacktofactoryforanytypeofrepairs.Inthiscasethemotoris
cooledbyRefrigerantandisgenerallyverycompactandsmallerin
size.
Semi-Hermetictype;wherebyconstructionissameasthatof
Hermeticmotorbutthecompressorcasingcanbeopenedatsitefor
rectificationofminorrepairs.

TYPE OF COMPRESSOR MOTORS


AND THEIR SELECTION
Opentypemotors;wherebythemotorandcompressor
are mounted on different shafts and are joined through a
coupling. The compressor shaft has to be sealed with Orings;whichincaseofmalfunctioningcanleadtoleakage
ofrefrigerant.Themajorbenefitofthesemachinesisthat
the motor can be opened at site for repairs. The cost of
these repairs is also very low for open type motors as
comparedtohermetic/semi-hermeticmotors.
a.

THE APPLICATION OF THE


MACHINES AVAILABLE
1.

Reciprocating machines are used where the application calls for

a. A.
Single or Combination of 120 TR water chilling
machines.
b.
B.
Machines are used for constant load type of application.
c.
C.
Machines are to be used for Eight hours day time
application
whereby the machines shall be operating at more or less the
constant design entering condenser water temperature.

THE APPLICATION OF THE


MACHINES AVAILABLE
1.

Centrifugal type machines are used where the application calls

for
a.
b.

Combination of single machines greater than 300 TR.


Machines are used for constant load application over a period

of time.
c. Centrifugal machines can be safely used for 40-100% load
range

THE APPLICATION OF THE


MACHINES AVAILABLE
1.

Screw type water chilling machines are used where application

calls for
a.Combinationofsinglemachinesgreaterthan150-500TR
capacity.
b.
Application are for 24 hours time period as due to varying
outside

temperature

conditions,

the

condenser

water

Condenser Material
The condenser tube material should be
such that It should not scale during heat
exchange to sea water

AIR HANDLING UNIT

CENTRIFUGAL FAN

AXIAL FANS

AIR TERMINAL

HEAT RECOVERY WHEEL

DUCTWORK & ACCESSORIES

Operation Theatre

Heat Recovery from Exhaust


Use

of heat recovery wheel/ heat pipe


The Heat recovery unit straddles the supply and
exhaust ducts
A centre tube plate/purge prevents cross
contamination between airflows
Low powered motor for wheel rotation
No pump requirement in heat pipe

HEAT RECOVERY UNIT


73.0 F DB
55% RH

78.7 F WB
57.2 F WB

93.2 F DB
Exhaust Air

Supply Air

69.7 F WB

110.0 F DB
75.0 F WB

Solid Particles
Dusts
Fumes
Bioaerosols
viruses

Liquid Particles
Mists
Fogs

GASEOUS
CONTAMINANTS
Harmful

Effects of Gaseous
Contaminants
Toxicity.
Irritation.
Odors.

Complex Particles
Smokes
Environmental
Smog

tobacco smoke

Sizes of Airborne
Particles
Coarse
Fine

Filter Test Standard

ASHRAE Standard 52.2 defines a


laboratory method for assessing the
performance of media filters using an
OPC to measure particle counts
upstream and downstream of the filter
in 12 size ranges between 0.3 and 10
m. Filters are then given a minimum
efficiency reporting value (MERV)
rating based on the count data.

Table 4 Example Case of Airborne Fungi in


Building and
Outdoor
Air__________________________
Location

CFU/m3

Rank Order Taxa________

Outdoors
>
Aspergillus

210

Cladosporium > Fusarium


Epicoccum>

2500

Tritirachium > Aspergillus

Complainant
office #1
>

Cladosporium
Complainant
office #2

3000

Tritirachium > Aspergillus

STANDARDS
Ships

Mechanical Refrigeration and


Air-Conditioning Installations Aboard
Ship ASHRAE ANSI/ASHRAE 26-1996
Practice for Mechanical Symbols,
Shipboard Heating, Ventilation, and
Air Conditioning (HVAC)
ASTM ASTM F856-97 (2004)

Air Filters
Comfort,

Air Quality, and Efficiency by Design


ACCA ACCA Manual RS
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended
Practice, 24th ed. (2001), Selection of Air Filtration
Equipment
ACGIH
Method for Measuring Performance of Portable
Household Electrical Cord Connected Room Air Cleaners
AHAM ANSI/AHAM AC-1-1988
Commercial and Industrial Air Filter Equipment
ARI 850-93
Residential Air Filter Equipment
ARI 680-93

Air Filters
Code

Contd.

on Nuclear Air and Gas


Treatment ASME ASME AG-1-2003
Nuclear Power Plant Air-Cleaning
Units and Components
ASME ASME N509-2002
Testing of Nuclear Air-Treatment
Systems ASME ASME N510-1989
(RA95)