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FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE

(1857 -1913)

mile Durkheim
(1858-1917)
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Sigmund Freud
He was a Physician and trained in Physiological laboratory (1876-

1882).
Learned anatomy of the brain.
Studied diseases of nervous system.
1885- association with Dr. Josef Breuer- learned and practiced
hypnotism and developed Psychoanalysis.
Practice of Hypnotic suggestive therapy
1893 publication of On the psychic mechanism of Hysterical
Phenomena with Josef Breuer.
Hysteria is a disease of the past.
Theory of Conscious and unconscious States.

Psychology of the Unconscious


Analysis and interpretation lead to Psychoanalysis.

Ego

Id

Super-ego

Impulse and resistance Nature and Culture.


Neurosis is a state of conflict between the Ego and the Id.
Dreams are constructed from neurotic or psychotic symptoms.
I must first dissect the dreams for him, then in connection

with each fragments, he gives me number of ideas which may


be described as the thought behind this part of the dream. (The
Interpretation of Dreams,1900)

Language and Mind are interconnected as parallel systems.

Louis Althusser (19181990)

Jacques Lacan (1901-1981)

Ferdinand de Saussure

1. Langue and Parole


2.Signifier : Sound image
3.Signified : Concept
4. Sign- Arbitrary relationship
5. Relations- Substance- Form (8.30 Train)
6. Differences Opposition between one signified

and another.
7. Syntagmatic paradigmatic
8.Synchronic and Diachronic

S/s- X1 Signifier/ Signified- Real

Sigmund
Freud

Jacques
Lacan

Ferdinand de
Saussure

Being

crits

Imaginary, the Symbolic, and the Real ( crits)

The Mirror Stage, the Ego, and the Subject


The young children, between the ages of six and eighteen

months, quickly acquire the ability to identify their own


images in reflective surfaces. At this time, infants are lacking
in most physical and mental abilities possessed by older
human beings.
According to Lacan, individuals spend their entire lives,
beginning thusly, chasing in vain after an unattainable state
of harmony and mastery first falsely promised by the mirror
Other persons' speech, gestures, postures, moods, facial
expressions, and so on frequently can be said to mirror back
to one an image of oneself, namely, a conveyed sense of how
one appears from other perspectives.

Inter-Subject/ Trans-Subject
The child's image is a receptacle for his/her parents' dreams and wishes, with

his/her body image being always-already overwritten by signifiers flowing from the
libidinal economies of other speaking beings.
Hence, recognizing the ego as me, as embodying and representing an authentic,

private, unique selfhood that is most genuinely my own, is tantamount to


misrecognizing that, at root, the ego ultimately is an alienating foreign introject
through which I am seduced and subjected by others' conscious and unconscious
wants and machinations.
To borrow one of Lacan's many neologisms, the ego ultimately is something

extimate (i.e., intimately exterior, an internal externality) insofar as it crystallizes


the desire of the Other (qua others' conscious and unconscious wants and
machinations). Or, as the Lacan of the eleventh seminar would put it, there is
something in the me more than the me itself to the extent that this moi essentially
is a coagulation of inter-subjective and trans-subjective alien influences.