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LAN and WAN

by: Engr. Dela M. Buban,


ECE

12/08/16

CONFIDENTIAL

LAN and WAN

Identify media for a LAN ?


Identify cables, and connections for a LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
Identify cables and connections for a WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.
Compare and contrast network designs.

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LAN and WAN


A

Local Area Network (LAN)

supplies networking capability to a group of


computers in close proximity to each other
such as in an office building, a school, or a
home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources
like files, printers, games or other applications.
A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs,
and to the Internet. or other

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LAN and WAN


Within a LAN

Hubs and switches link hosts


Within a LAN

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LAN and WAN


Network Planning
1. Identifying the applications that you intend to use: Computer networking
may be required diverse environments such as Enterprise Resource Management
(ERM), Internet telephony, Instant Messaging (IM), eMail and others.
2. Traffic Requirements: Computing traffic requirements
3. Scalability Requirements: Scalability refers to the extent of network
growth that should be supported. For corporate network, scalability is a
major consideration. Provision must be made to add users, applications,
additional sites, and external network connections.
4. Geographical considerations: Consider the LAN and WAN links that may be
required. Offices that are separated by large distance (for example one in Delhi and
another in New York) can be linked together by a WAN (Wide Area Network) link.
Similarly, bucilding complexes within a compound can be linked by a LAN (Local Area
Network) link.
5. Availability: The availability of a network needs to be given careful
consideration while designing a network. It is the amount of time a network is
available to users over a period of time and is often a critical design
parameter. Availability has direct relation with the amount of redundancy

required.

6. Security and Accessibility: Security and accessibility are among the


important design phase steps. A security plan needs to be devised that
meets the required security specifications. You must specify:
7. Cost considerations: For LANs, the tendency is to minimize the equipment
cost. That is minimizing the cable cost, minimizing the per port cost, and the
labour cost. For WANs the primary goal is to minimize the usage of the bandwidth.
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LAN and WAN


Hub

Frame comes in. Hub


regenerates it and
forwardsIdentify
it through
all
media for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
ports except
incoming
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
port.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.

Shared medium, shared


bandwidth. Hosts are in
the same collision
domain.

Cheap.
JLD

For small LANs only.


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CONFIDENTIAL

LAN and WAN


Switch

Frame comes in. Switch


regenerates it and
forwards it to destination
only.
Segments network into
separate collision
domains.
More expensive but
better performance than
hub
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LAN and WAN


Router
A router interconnects two or more computer
network, and selectively interchanges packet
of data between
them.
Each data packet
Identify
media
for
a
LAN.
contains address
information
that aforrouter
can
Identify cables,
connections and standards
a
LAN.
use to determine
if the source and destination
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
are on thecables
same network, or if the data packet
Identify cables, connections
and standards
for a to
must be transferred
from
one
network
WAN.
another. Where
routersto aare
Make and multiple
use a console connection
Ciscoused in a
device. of interconnected networks,
large collection
the routers exchange information about target
system addresses, so that each router can
build up a table showing the preferred paths
between any two systems on the
interconnected networks.

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LAN and WAN


Router

Routers link networks together and


act as gateways
them.
Identify media for abetween
LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.

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CONFIDENTIAL

LAN and WAN

Choice of
router

Expandability will you want to add


extra modules?
Identify media for a LAN.
cables, connections and standards for a
Media Identify
serial
ports,
Ethernet
ports,
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
UTP or fibre
cables optic, how many of
cables, connections and standards for a
each? Identify
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.
Operating
System Features what
do you want the router to do? Will
you have enough memory to
upgrade the operating system?
What ports have our routers got?

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LAN and WAN


Router
interfaces
Identify media for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.

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LAN and WAN


Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference
model developed by ISO (International Organization for
Standardization) in 1984, as a conceptual framework of
standards for communication in the network across different
equipment and applications by different vendors.
Identify media for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.

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CONFIDENTIAL

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LAN and WAN


Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in
which two conductors (the forward and
return conductors of a single circuit) are
twisted together for the purposes of
canceling out electromagnetic interference
(EMI) from external sources; for instance,
electromagnetic radiation from unshielded
twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk
between neighboring pairs. It was invented
by Alexander Graham Bell and he was
granted US patent 244,426
Telephone-circuit
[1]
for the invention in 1881.

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LAN and WAN


Straight through
cable

Both ends
the
same
Identify
media
for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
LAN. to switch
Connect PC
straight through and crossover UTP
or hub Compare
cables
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Connect router
Make and useto
a console connection to a Cisco
switch ordevice.
hub
Installed cabling is
straight through

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LAN and WAN


Crossover
cable

Wire 1 swaps
with
3
Identify media
for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
LAN.
Wire 2 swaps
withthrough
6 and crossover UTP
Compare straight
cables
Identify cables, connections and standards for a
Connect similar
WAN.
Make
and use aother
console connection to a Cisco
devices to
each
device.
Connect PC direct to
router
Check all pins ?

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Here is the pin-out for Crossover cable ("Uplink cable"):

LAN and WAN


Point A

Point B

TR+

Pin 1

-----

Pin 3

RCV
+

TR-

Pin 2

-----

Pin 6

RCV
-

Identify media for a LAN.


Identify cables, connections and standards for a
RCV+ Pin 3
----Pin 1 TR+
LAN.
Compare straight through and crossover UTP
cables
RCV- Pin 6
----Pin 2 TRIdentify cables, connections and standards for a
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
device.

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LAN and WAN


Rollover cable console

Our rollover cables a DB9 connector


at one end and do not need an
adaptor.
Rollover cables with RJ45 connectors
both ends need an adaptor.
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LAN and WAN


Hyper
terminal

You run aIdentify


terminal
emulator program
media for a LAN.
Identify cables, connections and
for a in
such as Hyperterminal
onstandards
the PC
LAN.
order to configure
theand
router.
Compare straight through
crossover UTP
cables
cables, connections and standards for a
WindowsIdentify
has
a built in Hyperterminal
WAN.
and use a console connection to a Cisco
program.Make
device.
We usually use Hilgraeve
Hyperterminal.

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LAN and WAN


Hyper
terminal

You set up the PCs serial port as


media for a LAN.
follows: Identify
Identify cables, connections and standards for a

LAN.
straight9600
through and
crossover UTP
Bits perCompare
second:
bps
cables
Identify
cables, connections and standards for a
Data bits:
8
WAN.
Make and use a console connection to a Cisco
Parity: None
device.

Stop bits: 1
Flow control: None

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LAN and WAN


Arranging
switches

Star for
small
networks
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Extended Star for


larger networks,
perhaps on several
floors
CONFIDENTIAL

Mesh to give
redundancy
fault tolerance.

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LAN and WAN


WAN
Wide Area Network spans a large
geographic
area, such as a state, province or
device.
country. WANs often connect multiple smaller
networks, such as local area networks (LANs)
or metro area networks (MANs). The world's
most popular WAN is the Internet. Some
segments of the Internet, like VPN-based
Extranets, are also WANs in themselves.
Finally, many WANs are corporate or research
networks that utilize leased lines.
WANs generally utilize different and much
more expensive networking equipment than
do LANs. Key technologies often found in
WANs include SONET, Frame Relay, and ATM.
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LAN and WAN


WAN
Topologies

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LAN and WAN

Peer topology

Simplest WAN topology


Least expensive
Easy to configure
No redundancy

Star topology

Most implemented design


Also know as the hub-and-spoke
topology
Simple hierarchical design
One central router acting as the hub
Several edge routers connect to hub
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LAN and WAN

Star topology

Most implemented design


Also know as the hub-and-spoke
topology
Simple hierarchical design
One central router acting as the hub
Several edge routers connect to hub

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LAN and WAN

Full mesh

Most expensive topology


Most fault-tolerant design
Each router has a connection to every
other router

Partial mesh

Compromise between star and full


mesh
Connection are made according to need
and traffic flow
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LAN and WAN

WANs connect LANs in geographically


separate areas
WAN connections typically function at the
Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI
reference model, and are made over serial
connections
WAN connections operate at a lower
speed than LAN connections, and can be
made as point-to-point, point-tomultipoint, and switched WAN connections

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LAN and WAN

Frame Relay, except that it uses


fixed-length cells instead of variablelength packets
In addition, the ATM protocol can be
used on LANs as well as WANs

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LAN and WAN

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LAN and WAN


WAN Connection through an ISP
A serial WAN link is a dedicated Point to
Point link, mainly used to connect two
sites through an telco ISP. A serial link
would appear to the routers at each end
to be always on. The way in which the
data gets between the two routers may
be very different depending on the
protocol and encapsulation methods
(e.g. it may be Packet-switched or
Leased Line).

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LAN and WAN


As can be seen in the diagram above in a serial
WAN setup there are a few bits of equipment
with different terminologies; DCE and DTE, these
terms relate to where in the end to end setup
the equipment is, A DTE (Data Terminating
Equipment) is the start and end points in the
serial setup, this is the Cisco routers at each
end. A DCE (Data Communications Equipment)
is the equipment which the router connects to,
usually provided by the ISP, and provides the
main link out of an office to the ISP (in the
example above, BT, these are equipment also
known as CSU/DSU's or Modem's). A DTE can
only talk to a DCE, but a DCE can talk to other
DCE's.

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LAN and WAN

The DTE is the endpoint of the users network,


which connects to the WAN interface
This is typically a router, computer, or terminal of
some type
The WAN service provider usually provides the
DCE, which is often a CSU/DSU, modem, or
terminal adapter
The DCE is then connected to a demarc, which is
a communications facility owned by the WAN
service provider
The local loop is the connection (usually copper
cable) that links the demarcation to the WAN
service providers CO switch, which is actually
part of the toll network or PSTN

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Thank you

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