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YOUR TOPIC :CELLULAR

TELEPHONY

Cellular Telephone System

A radio telephone system that


works full duplex and allows
connection to Public Switched
Telephone Network with cellular
units or handsets
D.H. Ring envisions the cellular
concept

World Cellular Standards and


Technologies
First Generation
-

Analog with reliable networks


Limited service offerings

a). AMPS
Advance Mobile Phone System
Developed in 1983
Allows voice messages to travel trough
30 KHz Voice Channel

-range of frequencies between 824 and


894 MHz
Why 30 KHz for channel width?
-

666 channels simplex channels


In 1989, the simplex channels increase
to 832 (416 duplex channels)

ft = 0.03N +825
(1<N<866)
= 0.03(N-1023)+825 (990<N<1023)
fr = ft + 45 MHz

b) NAMPS
-Narrowband Advanced Mobile
Phone Service
-three times as many calls as the
original version
-voice channel is three 10 KHz
narrowband voice channels
-operate in the 800 MHz band

c)ETACS
-Extended Total Access
communication Systems
-voice message to travel through 25
KHz voice channels
d) CNET
- 450 MHz based system first
introduced in Germany
- Adopted in South Africa and
Portugal

Second Generation(2G)
-Digital Cellular
-processes voice and data
-SMS, MMS
-GSM,GPRS
Advantages of Digital Cellular:
1.
No cloning
2.
Convenience

Digital Standards:
a).JDC
- Japan Digital Cellular
- Developed by R and D Center for
Radio Systems in Japan
b). NADC
- North American Digital Cellular
- Dual mode
c) CDMA
-IS 95

Third generation(3G)
-digital cellular
-voice/high speed data
-CDMA 2000
-video streaming
-example of 3G system is the UMTS

2G important services:
SMS
MMS

Have a PICTURE on
HOW

SMS
WORKS?

Mobile Originated
SMS
MESSAGE
Hello
There
SENT

IWMSC
ack

S
BSS
Network

SMSC

GMSC

Subs A sends short message to subs B


A

SMSC sends acknowledge message to subs

Mobile Terminated
SMS
M
BSS
Network

S
C

Hello
There

IWMSC
SMSC
GMSC

SMSC sends the message to the


GMSC.
GMSC then search for the location of
the terminating MS in the HLRG.
HLRG gives the VLR address and the
MSC address of the terminating MS.

SUBS - B

GMSC delivers the message to the


terminating subs

Mobile Terminated
SMS
M
BSS
Network

IWMSC

S
C

SMSC
GMSC

If no errors will be encountered, the


MS will give a positive
acknowledgement to GMSC.
GMSC sends delivery report to SMSC.
SMSC then tag the message as
DELIVERED and deletes in the database.

SUBS - B

Have a picture on HOW

MMS
WORKS?

Sending of multimedia messages to MMS capable phone

Termina
l
Gatewa
y

GSM/
GPRS

WAP
Gatewa
y

MMSC

SMSC
MMS Terminal-A sends multimedia
message to MMS Terminal-B.

Retrieving
Message

WAP
Push

MMS Terminal-B receives WAP Push


SMS notification for receipt of
multimedia message.

Receiving of multimedia messages by MMS capable phone


MSISDN-A
Termina
l
Gatewa
y

MSISDN-B

GSM/
GPRS

WAP
Gatewa
y

MMSC

MMS Terminal-B initiates automatic


WAP session via GPRS to retrieve
multimedia message located in the
MMSC.
Multimedia message will be displayed
on MMS terminal.

Receiving of multimedia messages by MMS capable phone


MSISDN-A
Termina
l
Gatewa
y

MSISDN-B

GSM/
GPRS

WAP
Gatewa
y

MMSC

MMS Terminal-B initiates automatic


WAP session via GPRS to retrieve
multimedia message located in the
MMSC.
Multimedia message will be displayed
on MMS terminal.

MOBILE NETWORK
EVOLUTION

MITRC

Data Rate Improvement

MITRC

Network evolution
HW/SW Changes

HLR & AC & EIR


IP Networks

BTS

BSC

TCSM

MSC&VLR

PSTN
ISDN

BTS

BSC

Value Added
Service Platform(s):
SMSC, VMS

TCSM
SGSN
3G-SGSN

IN

TRX Change & Transmission Upgrade


GGSN
IP Networks

BTS

RNC

MGW

UMTS
Rel'3;
new
BTS,
Radio
Network
Controller,
Media
Higher
data
rates
are
obtained
byby
introducing
EDGE
in
the
A GSM
Even
IN
Data
GPRS
was
Rates
at
isnetwork
introduced
the
added
in
start,
GSM
to
is existing
VAS
made
for
are
new
(value
increased
from
networks
services
added
3 Sub-Systems
and
to
services)
implementation
support
differentiation
(BSS,
were
Packed
NSS
part
of Data
Featu
and
of GS
O
Gateway,
3G-SGSN
GSM
M I network
T
RC
(e.g.
Pre-Paid)

GSM Parameters
GSM FREQUENCY BANDS
-900 ,1800 , 1900 and 800 MHz

Duplex Distance
for GSM 900 = 45 MHz

Carrier Separation
For GSM = 200 KHz

Transmission rate = 270 Kbps


Modulation : Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

GSM Bandwidth

GSM 900
890

915

935

960

1805

1880

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

GSM 1800
1710

1785

Duplex distance : 95 MHz

Channel Spacing: 200 kHz

Usual Bandwidth values (GSM 900): 5 to 8 MHz per operator in one or more
sub-bands

ROAMING AND HAND-OFF


ROAMING
-service offered to allow subscribers to use
their cellular phones while traveling
outside their home service areas
Hand Off
-transfer of jurisdiction from 1 cell site to
another
a) Hard hand off (break before make)
b). Soft hand off ( make before break)

Capacity and Frequency


Reuse
-number of frequencies
in a cell determines the cells
capacity
Cell Splitting
-when a call volume in a cell exceeds its capacity, the cell is
divided into 2 or more cells

Cell Splitting

3G Parameters

MITRC

Specification Bodies
3G

3G.IP

MITRC

3GPP Specifications

Release 3 (known as Rel' 99)


Compatibility with GSM
Inter-operability
Services
UTRAN specifications, including
WCDMA
air interface (Uu)

Release 4 and 5 (known as Rel'00)


Release 4 mainly specifies All-IP
core network
Release 5 will specify VoIP and
adding features to Release 4
MITRC

END OF LECTURE