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The World of Innovative

Management Sciences
By
Prof.& Lawyer P. Guru
Prasad
M.B.A., M.Com., M.Phil., L.L.B., ICFAI CMF., PGDFTM., (PhD) at
JNTUK.,

Senior Faculty for Management


Sciences,
Vasireddy Venkatadri Institute of
Technology,

Management
The attainment of organizational
goals in an effective and efficient
manner
through
planning,
organizing, leading, and controlling
organizational resources

Organization
A formally structured collection
of individuals working toward
common (shared) goals.

Organizational
Performance
Effectiveness : the degree to which the
organization achieves a stated goal
Efficiency : the use of minimal
resources (input) to produce a
desired volume of output.
Efficient, but not Effective:
- Goals not achieved
Effective, but not Efficient
- Wasted Resources
(You may have to choose between the
two.)

The Four Functions of


Management
Planning

Controlling

Select goals
& ways to
attain them

Monitor
activities &
make
corrections

Leading
Use
influence to
motivate

Organizing
Assign
responsibility
for tasks

MANAGEMENT LEVELS AND


TIME SPENT ON
FUNCTIONS
Plan. Organ.
Control.
Top
28%
36%
14%
Middle 18%
33%
13%
Lower
15%
24%
10%

Lead.
22%
36%
51%

Management Skills
Conceptual Skills : cognitive ability
to see the organization as a whole
and the relationship among its
parts
Human Skills : ability to work with
and through other people and to
work effectively as a group member
Technical Skills : understanding of
and proficiency in the performance
of specific tasks.

What Is It Like to Be a
Manager?
Managerial Activities
- Long hours
- Most time spent in
oral communication
- Characterized by
variety,
fragmentation, and
brevity

- Fast paced and


require a high energy
level to be successful

Managers give up
the right to:
- Be one of the
gang
- Put your selfinterest first
- Ask others to do
things you
wouldnt do
- Vent your
frustrations
- Resist change

Supervisors
Responsibilities

Plan and
schedule work
Clarify tasks and
gather ideas for
improvement
Appraise and
counsel
employees
Recommend job
assignments
and pay

Inform employees
of organizational
goals
Inform higher
managers of
work unit needs
and
accomplishments
Recruit, train, and
develop workers
Encourage and
maintain high
and enthusiasm

Informational Roles to
develop and maintain
The monitor seeks current
information
network
information from many sources.
The disseminator transmits
information to others both inside
and outside the organization.
The spokesperson provides official
statements to people outside the
organization about company
policies, actions, or plans.

Interpersonal Roles
pertain to relationships
The others
figurehead engages in
with

ceremonial activities
The leader motivates,
communicates, and
influences subordinates.
The liaison develops
relationships outside his/her
unit both inside and outside
the organization.

Decisional Roles to make


choices requiring conceptual &
The skills.
entrepreneur initiates
human
change.
The resource allocator
allocates resources to
achieve outcomes.
The negotiator bargains for
his/her unit.
The disturbance handler
resolves conflicts.

How Do You Learn to


Manage?
50% from job experience
30% from other persons
20% from education & training
(Based on study of successful
managers at Honeywell)

Successful Managers
Attributes
Leadership
Team-Building

Skills
Self-objectivity
Analytic
Thinking
Creative
Thinking
Behavioral
Flexibility

Oral

Communication
Written
Communication
Personal Impact
Resistance to
Stress
Tolerance of
Uncertainty

Some Types of Changes


Impacting Organizations:
Products
Technologies
Markets
Speed Requirements
Management Techniques

Pre-Classical Management
Anything before about 1900:e.g.,
Attila the Hun: Between 434 and 453 A.D., Hun
forces led by the Mighty Attila battered the Roman Empire
relentlessly, including invasions of the southern Balkan provinces,
Greece, France, and Italy almost total Europe continent.

Out of all the barbarian leaders of the late Roman era,


Attilas name is the only one most people actually
remember.

Henry

Towne:

Yale

&

Towne

Manufacturing

Co.

Townewas one of the first engineers to seemanagementas


a new social role for engineers and that the development
ofmanagementtechniques
was
important
for
the
development of the engineering profession. He laid out his
ideas about themanagementrole for the engineer in his
"The Engineer as Economist."

Classical Perspective
Emphasized
a
rational,
scientific
approach to study of management and
sought
to
make
workers
and
organizations like efficient operating
machines
Classical Categories
Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

Bureaucratic Organizations
Max Weber

Administrative Principles
Henri Fayol

Scientific Management
Develop

a standard method for


performing each job
Select appropriate workers
Train workers in standard method
Plan work and eliminate
interruptions
Provide incentives for increased
output.

Bureaucratic
Organizations

Clearly

defined authority and


responsibility
Set procedures for each
situation
Goals of fairness and efficiency
Separation of management and
ownership

i.e., run by professional mgrs.

Bureaucratic
Organizations
Become
dysfunctional
when:

-There is no
effort to recognize
exceptions to rules
or to change rules
when necessary

-Enforcement of
rules takes
precedence over
pursuit of the
organizations
mission

Relatively

High
in Bureaucracy:
United Parcel
Service
U.S. Postal
Service

Relatively

Low
in Bureaucracy:
Hewlett-Packard
Disney Studios

14

Administrative
Management - Henri
Five basic
Fayol
Principles

Unity of command
Division of work
Unity of direction
Scalar chain-ofcommand
Authority=Responsi
bility
(etc.)

management
functions
Planning
Organizing
Commanding
Coordinating
Controlling

Humanistic Perspective

Emphasizes enlightened treatment of


workers and power sharing between
managers and employees.

Emphasized satisfaction of employees


social/psychological needs as the key to
increased worker productivity.

Supported by Hawthorne Studies

The Hawthorne Studies


Social

Man
Methodological Problems, but
Profound Influence on
Management Thought
Hawthorne

Effect
Interviewing Techniques

The Human Resources


Perspective

Jobs

should be designed to allow


workers to use their full
potential
Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs (Ch. 12)
Douglas McGregors Theory X vs.
Theory Y (comparison of
Classical Mgmt to Human
Resources)

Theory X
(Classical):
People dislike
work and prefer
to be directed
Must be coerced
to work
Want to avoid
responsibility
and have little
ambition
Want security
above
everything

Theory Y
(Human
Resources):
People will accept
responsibility
Have intellect that
could be applied
to organizational
goals
Only partially use
their intellectual
potential.

FEATURES of theory
z
William G. Ouchy:
LONG-TERM EMPLOYMENT
COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING
INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY
SLOW EVALUATION AND PROMOTION
INFORMAL CONTROL WITH FORMALIZED MEASURES
MODERATELY SPECIALIZED CAREER PATH
HOLISTIC CONCERN

Behavioral Sciences
Approach = Applied Social
Study of human behavior in
Sciences
organizations
Draws on Disciplines of:
Economics
Psychology
Sociology
Communication
Anthropology

Management Science
Perspective

Involves Mathematics, Computers


Examples:
Forecasting
Inventory control
Scheduling
Break-even analysis

Contemporary Approaches
Systems

Theory

How the parts fit together (Synergy is


a key concept)
How the org. interacts with its
environment
Understanding systems requires
Conceptual Skills

Contingency

View

Integrates many of the other viewpoints


No one best way to manage - the best
way depends on the situation

Emphasizes Continuous Improvement in all


Contemporary
Management
Organizational Processes

Practices
Total Quality Management
Operations

Management
Functional Management
Project Management
Strategic Management
Just In Time (JIT)

Professor & Lawyer


Puttu Guru Prasad

Visit My Blog:
Puttuguru.blogspot.in

Prof.& Lawyer P. Guru


Prasad
M.B.A., M.Com., M.Phil., L.L.B., ICFAI CMF., PGDFTM., (PhD) at
JNTUK.,

Senior Faculty for Management


Sciences,
Vasireddy Venkatadri Institute of Technology,

Nambur Guntur.
My Blog: puttuguru.blogspot.in.

CSE 4/2, Management Science, JNTUK University,VVIT, NAMBUR