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WAWERU HANNAH

NYAKIO
B02/53847/2012

PERSPECTIVE DRAWING

Perspective drawing is a drawing technique used to illustrate


dimension through a flat surface. It is an approximate
representation of a three-dimensional object on a flat surface
as it is seen by the eye.

The two most characteristic features of perspective are that


objects are drawn:

I.

Smaller as their distance from the observer increases

II.

Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along


the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across
the line of sight.

There are many forms used under perspective drawing such


as, one perspective, two-point perspective, three-point
perspective, four-point perspective, five-point perspective,
birds eye view, worms eye view and others.

FORESHORTENING
Foreshortening is the visual effect or optical illusion that
causes an object or distance to appear shorter than it actually
is because it is angled toward the viewer.
Additionally, an object is often not scaled evenly: a circle often
appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid.
Although foreshortening is an important element in art where
visual perspective is being depicted, foreshortening occurs in
other types of two-dimensional representations of threedimensional scenes.
Some other types where foreshortening can occur include:
I. Oblique parallel projection drawings. Two different projections
of a stack of two cubes, illustrating oblique parallel projection
foreshortening ("A") and perspective foreshortening ("B")
II. Epimetheus (lower left) and Janus (right). The two moons
appear close because of foreshortening; in reality, Janus is
about 40,000 km farther from the observer than Epimetheus.

(i)

(ii)

ONE POINT

A linear perspective in which all


parallel lines meet at a single
point on the horizon.
Therefore one establishes the
flat side of the object, then
makes all the receding lines to
meet at a single vanishing point.

TWO POINT

A graphical technique in which a


three-dimensional object is
represented in two- dimensions
and in which parallel lines in two
of its dimensions are shown to
converge towards two vanishing

THREE-POINT

Linear perspective in which


parallel lines along the width of
an object meet at two separate
points on the horizon and
vertical lines on the object
meet at a point on the

FOUR POINT

Four-point perspective, also called infinite-point perspective, is the


curvilinear variant of two-point perspective.
As the result when made into an infinite point version), a four point
perspective image becomes a panorama that can go to a 360 degree
view and beyond when going beyond the 360 degree view the
artist might depict an "impossible" room as the artist might depict
something new when it's supposed to show part of what already
exists within those 360 degrees.
This elongated frame can be used both horizontally and vertically
and when used vertically can be described as an image that depicts
both a worm's- and bird's-eye view of a scene at the same time.
Like all other foreshortened variants of perspective (respectively
one- to six-point perspective), it starts off with a horizon line,
followed by four equally spaced vanishing points to delineate four
vertical lines.
The vanishing points made to create the curvilinear orthogonals are
thus made ad hoc on the four vertical lines placed on the opposite
side of the horizon line. The only dimension not foreshortened in this
type of perspective is the rectilinear and parallel lines perpendicular
to the horizon line similar to the vertical lines used in two-point
perspective.

FIVE-POINT

A curvilinear perspective
with its vanishing points
are mapped into a circle
such that four vanishing
points are at the cardinal
headings i.e. n, w, s, e and
one at the circle origin.

ZERO POINT

Since vanishing points exist only when parallel lines are


present in the scene, a perspective with no vanishing points
("zero-point" perspective) occurs if the viewer is observing a
non-linear scene.

The most common example of a nonlinear scene is a natural


scene (e.g., a mountain range) which frequently does not
contain any parallel lines.

A perspective without vanishing points can still create a sense


of depth.

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

Several methods of constructing perspectives exist,


including:

Freehand sketching (common in art)

Graphically constructing (once common in architecture)

Using a perspective grid

Computing a perspective transform (common in 3D


computer applications)

Mimicry using tools such as a proportional divider


(sometimes called a (variscaler)

LIMITATIONS
i.

Only three sides of a component are shown.

ii.

No feature is a true proportion. They are not drawn to a


constant scale.

iii.

Sectioned perspective drawings are often confusing.

iv.

Sometimes a hidden outline is shown which can be


confusing.

v.

Dimensions are often difficult to show.

It is due to these disadvantages that engineering


drawings are rarely drawn in perspective projection.

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