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Building on

Peter Olivas
10 Axioms for

Curriculum change is
inevitable, necessary and
Curriculum should be dynamic.
Teachers should respond to the
changes that occur in schools and in
its context. Societal development and
knowledge revolution come so fast
that the need to address the changing
condition requires new curriculum

Why are we now

implementing 12 years of
basic education?
The Philippines is the last country in
Asia and one of only three countries
worldwide with a 10-year preuniversity cycle (Angola and Djibouti
are the other two).
A 12-year program is found to be
the best period for learning under

These two additional years will

equip learners with skills that will
better prepare them for the future,
whether it be:
Skills Development
(Further Tech-Voc training)
Higher Education (College)

Curriculum reflects as a
product of its time
For a curriculum to be relevant, it
should respond to changes brought
about by current social forces,
philosophical positions, psychological
principles, new knowledge, and
educational reforms.

Curriculum changes made

earlier can exist
concurrently with newer
curriculum changes
A revision in curriculum starts and
ends slowly. More often, curriculum is
gradually phase in and phased out,
thus the changes that occur can
coexist and oftentimes overlap for
long period of times.

Curriculum change
depends on people who
will implement the change
Teachers who will implement the
curriculum should be involved in its
development, hence should know how
to design the curriculum. Because the
teachers are the implementers of the
curriculum, it is best that they should
design the changes. This will ensure

Curriculum development is
a cooperative group
Group decisions in some aspects of
curriculum development are
suggested. Consultations with
stakeholders when possible will add a
sense of ownership. Even learners
should participate in some aspect of
curriculum designing. Any significant

Curriculum development is
a decision-making process
made from choices of
A curriculum developer or designer
must decide what contents to teach,
philosophy or point of view to support,
how to provide multicultural groups,
what methods or strategies, and what
type of evaluation to use.

Curriculum development is
an ongoing process
Continuous monitoring, examination,
evaluation, and improvement of
curricula are to be considered in the
design. As the needs of learners
change, as society changes, and as
new knowledge and technology
appear, the curriculum must change.

Curriculum development is
more effective if it is a
comprehensive process,
rather than a piecemeal
It must be carefully planned, should
clearly establish intended outcomes,
support resources and needed time
available and should equip teaching
staff pedagogically.

Curriculum development is
more effective if it follows
a systematic process
A curriculum design is composed of
desired outcomes, subject matter
content complemented with
references, set of procedures, needed
materials and resources and
evaluation procedure which can be
placed in a matrix.

Curriculum development
starts from where the
curriculum is
Curriculum planners and designers
should begin with existing curriculum.
An existing design is a good starting
point for any teacher who plans to
enhance and enrich the curriculum.