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Economic Advantages to

Using
Cutting
Fluids

Reduction of tool costs

Reduce tool wear, tools last longer

Increased speed of production


Reduce heat and friction so higher cutting
speeds
Reduction of labor costs
Tools last longer and require less regrinding,
less downtime, reducing cost per part
Reduction of power costs
Friction reduced so less power required by
machining

Heat Dissipation
Ideally most heat taken off in chips
Indicated by change in chip color as heat

causes chips to oxidize


Cutting fluids assist taking away heat
Can dissipate at least 50% of heat created

during machining

Characteristics of a Good
Cutting Fluid
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Good cooling capacity


Good lubricating qualities
Relatively low viscosity
Stability (long life)
Rust resistance
Nontoxic
Transparent
Nonflammable
Cost effective

Types of Cutting Fluids

Types of Cutting Fluid


Gases type of cutting fluid
Chemical Coolant

Pure Coolants
Coolants and Lubrication
Lubricating Coolants

Solid Lubricants and cutting


Sticks waxes and bar
fluid
Application are limited- tapping and

sawing operation
Grinding operation form of paste

Liquid cutting fluid


Water Solution
Excellent cooling medium
Little lubricating properties
Disadvantage
Course rust and corrosion
High Surface tention

Oil Base Cutting Fluid

Known as Straight oil


May be a mineral oil

Emulsifiable (Water Soluble)


Oils

Mineral oils containing soaplike material that


makes them soluble in water and causes them
to adhere to workpiece
Emulsifiers break oil into minute particles and
keep them separated in water
Good cooling and lubricating qualities
Used at high cutting speeds, low cutting
pressures

Mineral Oil
Blending with base cutting oil to obtain the

properties
for machining
Low viscosity oil is preferable

Straight fatty oil


These types of oil are not much in use

harmful effect to the health of operator


Gummy characteristics

Mineral lard oil


Mixture of mineral and straight fatty oil called

lard oil
Used for lubrication and heavy machining
operation are required

Sulphurised or Chlorinated
cutting
oil

When used machining tough alloy steel


Mixed with mineral oil and produces metallic
oxide and metallic film lubrication
When Sulfer is mixed with in lard oil called
Sulphurised cutting oil
When chlorine is mixed in mineral oil is called
chlorinated cutting oil
Both are lubrication and cooling qualities

Aqueous equation
Consist of water containing some amount of

alkalies which may be one of following

Sodium
Potassium
Carbonate
Borax

Sometime lard oil and soft soap are used to

improve
Aqueous solution consist of

one part of sodium ,carbonate, lard oil, soft soap and


remaining water

Gaseous type of cutting


fluid
Air(Still or compressed)
Carbon dioxide
Argon
Used in grinding, metal cutting

Chemical Cutting Fluids


Pure Coolants
Made of water
Very little lubricating properties
Coolants and Lubricants
Extra properties of wetting action such as
lubricating the surface
Lubricating Coolant
Water softener
Wetting agent
Chemical lubricating properties

Advantages of Synthetic
Fluids
1. Good rust control
2. Resistance to rancidity for long periods
3.
4.
5.
6.

of time
Reduction of amount of heat generated
during cutting
Excellent cooling qualities
Longer durability than cutting or soluble oils
Nonflammable - nonsmoking

5. Nontoxic??????
6. Easy separation from work and chips
7. Quick settling of grit and fine chips so they

are not recirculated in cooling system


8. No clogging of machine cooling system due
to detergent action of fluid
9. Can leave a residue on parts and tools

Functions of a Cutting
Fluid
Prime functions
Provide cooling
Provide lubrication

Other functions
Prolong cutting-tool life
Provide rust control

Cutting Fluid's Effect on


Cutting Tool Action

1. Lowers heat created by plastic deformation


2.
3.
4.
5.

of metal
Friction at chip-tool interface decreased
Less power is required for machining
because of reduced friction
Prevents built-up edge from forming
Surface finish of work greatly improved

Application of Cutting
Fluids
Cutting-tool life and machining operations
influenced by way cutting fluid applied
stream under low pressure so work and tool
well covered
Inside diameter of supply nozzle width of

cutting tool
Applied to where chip being formed