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The Scientific

Revolution
1400-1600

Which goes around which?


How do you know this?

The Scientific Revolution


In the 1500s and 1600s
the Scientific
Revolution changed the
way Europeans looked at
the world.

People began to
make conclusions
based on
experimentation
and observation,
instead of just
accepting traditional
ideas.

Why is it so difficult to get people


to understand something new?

Before the Scientific Revolution


Ptolemy
(87-140 A.D.)

Until the mid 1500s,


people accepted the
teachings of Ptolemy an ancient Greek
astronomer.
Ptolemy believed in
the Geocentric theory
earth in the middle,
earth the center of the
universe

Ptolemys geocentric
model of the solar
system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Earth
Moon
Mercury
Venus
Sun
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn

Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543


Polish astronomer who
studied in Italy.
Copernicus wrote On the
Revolutions of the
Heavenly Spheres,
published in 1543
In his book, Copernicus
made
two
conclusions:
1. The
universe
is
heliocentric - suncentered.
2. The Earth is one of
several planets
revolving around the
sun.
He used math to prove

1.

What is the Geocentric theory?


2. What is the heliocentric theory?
3. Who first came up with the heliocentric
theory?
4. Why did he make sure his book didnt
get published until after he died?

Review

Reaction to Copernicus
Most rejected his
theory because it went
against Ptolemy, the
Church, and because it
called for the Earth to
rotate on its axis.
Many scientists of the time also felt that if
Ptolemys reasoning about the planets was
wrong, then the whole system of human
knowledge could be wrong.

Johannes Kepler
Looked at LOTS of data and invented the
math to prove the Heliocentric model.

His calculations also


showed that the
planets moved in oval
shaped orbits, and
not perfect circles.

Galileo

New telescope
Further proved

Copernicus
theories
Church
arrested him

The Scientific Method


developed in the 1600s
1. State the problem
2. Collect information
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis
5. Record & analyze data
6. State a conclusion
The scientific method set Europe on
the road to rapid technological
progress.

Isaac Newton

Gravity

Natural Laws
discovered laws of light
and color, and formulated
the laws of motion:

1.A

body at rest stays at


rest
2.Acceleration is caused by
force
3.For every action there is
an equal opposite reaction

Invented
Calculus

These new ideas changed how humans looked


at the world. They discovered that the universe
is really big.

Advanced math was needed


because . . .

And this will lead us to


the Enlightenment
Combined with the horror that is Absolutism