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Thematic

Mapping

Copyright, 1998-2005 © Qiming GEOG1150.


Thematic maps
 A map showing qualitative and /or
quantitative information on specific features
or concepts in relation to the necessary
topographic details
 The main objectives is to portray
geographical relationships regarding
particular distributions
 Emphasize spatial pattern of one or more
geographic attributes
 Aimed at a specific group of users to whom
spatial information must be efficiently
communicated

Thematic Mapping 2
See notes
Thematic.pdf

Thematic Mapping 3
Classification
 Degree of generalization
 Function
 Subject

Thematic Mapping 4
Degree of
generalization
 An analytic map-showing distribution of
one or more elements of the phenomenon
using nominal data
 A complex map- superimposition of
several more or less mutually related
spatial distribution each with its own
respective nominal or ordinal data
 A synthesis map-integrated spatial
structure, maps that answers questions at
all levels

Thematic Mapping 5
Function

 Inventory
 Educational
 Analytical

Thematic Mapping 6
Subject
 Decimal indexing
 0-base maps
 1-Natural phenomena
 2-Population &culture
 3-Economic
 4-Communication
 5-Political-administrative
 6-Historical
 7-Planning &environmental management
 8-Cosmological
 9-Composite &miscellaneous content-ecological,
tourists

Thematic Mapping 7
Base maps
 A map containing topographic information
and on which the thematic information can
be plotted
 Base map has to be made functional to the
thematic map
 Application of detailed or generalized base
map depends on the scale, purpose and
subject of the thematic map
 Better to use as a source document for base
map - a map on a larger scale than the final
thematic map than on a smaller scale

Thematic Mapping 8
Elements of base
maps
 Graticule/grid
 Drainage pattern
 Relief
 Settlements
 Communication system
 Administrative units
 Geographical names
 Projection-scale, purpose, place, size of area
to be presented

Thematic Mapping 9
Thematic Mapping
 Objectives of map design
 Data measurement
 Basic statistical concepts and processes
 Thematic map representations

Thematic Mapping 10
Objectives of Map
Design
 Geographical variables are so diverse
and complex, we must understand
their essential nature.
 Geographical ordering - locational
relationships.
 Discrete phenomena.
 Continuous phenomena.

Thematic Mapping 11
Discrete
phenomena
 A distribution that does not occur everywhere
in the mapped area
 Can only occupy a given point in space at
any time
 Can be measured in integers, categories
 Discontinuous phenomena that can only be
ascertained at particular location and not
elsewhere e.g. Vegetation types, population

Thematic Mapping 12
Continuous
phenomena
 Data that are distributed continuously
without interruption across the surface
 Describes data that can be measured
everywhere e.g. temperature, air
pressure, elevation

Thematic Mapping 13
See notes
j.b.krygier

Thematic Mapping 14
Data
Measurement
 Scales of measurement
 Nominal
 Ordinal
 Interval
 Ratio
 Use of the scales of measurement in
thematic mapping

Thematic Mapping 15
Nominal Scales of
Measurement
Point Line Area
Town River Swamp

Mine Road Desert

Church Graticule Forest

Bench Boundary Census


mark regions

Examples of differentiation of point, line and area


features on a nominal scale of measurement.
After Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 16
Ordinal Scales of
Measurement
Point Line (roads) Area
Large National Industrial regions
Provincial Major Minor
Medium
County
Small Township
Smoke pollution

Examples of differentiation of point, line and area


features on an ordinal scale of measurement.
After Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 17
Interval-Ratio
Scales of
Measurement
Point Line (roads) Area

Examples of differentiation of point, line and area


features on an interval or ratio scale of measurement.
After Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 18
Basic Statistical
Concepts and
Processes
 It is often necessary to manipulate raw
data prior to mapping.
 Pre-map data manipulation stage:
 Making data to be mapped comparable.

Thematic Mapping 19
Absolute and
Derived Data
 Absolute qualities or quantities: observed,
measured or counted quantities
“raw data” maps showing land use
categories, production of goods, elevations
above sea level, etc.
 Derived/relative values.
 Calculated, Summarisation or relationship
between features.
 Four classes of relationships: averages, ratios,
densities and potentials.

Thematic Mapping 20
Averages
 Measures of central tendency
 Three commonly used averages in
cartography:
 Arithmetic mean
 Median
 Mode

Thematic Mapping 21
Arithmetic Mean
Arithmetic Geographical
mean mean
n n

∑x i ∑a x i i
x= i =1
x= i =1
N A

Thematic Mapping 22
Median and Mode
 Median - the attribute value in the
middle of all ordered attribute values
 Geographic median - the attribute value
below which and above which half the
total area occurs
 Mode - the value that occurs most
frequently in a distribution
 Area modal class - the class which
occupies the greatest proportion of an
area

Thematic Mapping 23
Ratios
 Something per unit of something else
Ratio or rate Proportion Percentage
na na na
x= x= x = ×100
nb N N

 Quantities that are not comparable


should never be made the basis for a
ratio

Thematic Mapping 24
Densities
 Relative geographical crowding or
sparseness of discrete phenomena
n
D=
A

Thematic Mapping 25
Potentials
 Individuals comprising a distribution (e.g. people or
prices) interact or influence one another.
 The gravity concept: the degree of interaction is directly
proportional to the magnitudes of the phenomena and
inversely proportional to the distance between their
locations
 Pi-potential of place i, X j-value of X at each place, D I j-distance between
place I and j
 Repeat calculation at each place

n
xj
Pi = xi + ∑ (i ≠ j)
j =1 Di , j

Thematic Mapping 26
Thematic Map
Representations
 Indices of variation
 Mode - variation ratio
fm am
V = 1− ; V = 1−
N A
 Median - quantile range (quartiles, ceciles or
centiles (percentiles))
 Arithmetic mean - standard deviation

∑(x )
n
2
i −x
σ= i =1
N
Thematic Mapping 27
Scaling Systems

Scale Average Index of Variation


Nominal Mode Variation ratio
Ordinal Median Decile range
Interval Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
Ratio Arithmetic mean Standard deviation

Thematic Mapping 28
Some Basic
Statistical
Relations
 Regression analysis
 Correlation analysis
 Spatial autocorrelation

∑(x )( )
n

i − x yi − y
r= i =1

∑ ( x − x) ⋅ ∑ ( y )
n n
2 2
i i −y
i =1 i =1

Thematic Mapping 29
Regression
analysis
 The description of the nature of the relationship between two or more
variables; it is concerned with the problem of describing or estimating
the value of the dependent variable on the basis of one or more
independent variables.
 Statistical technique used to establish the relationship of a
dependent variable, such as the sales of a company, and one
or more independent variables, such as family formations,
Gross Domestic Product per capita income, and other
Economic Indicators. By measuring exactly how large and
significant each independent variable has historically been in its
relation to the dependent variable, the future value of the
dependent variable can be predicted. Essentially, regression
analysis attempts to measure the degree of correlation between
the dependent and independent variables, thereby establishing
the latter's predictive value.

Thematic Mapping 30
Correlation
analysis
 A causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal
relationship, especially a structural, functional, or
qualitative correspondence between two
comparable entities: a correlation between drug
abuse and crime.
 Statistics. The simultaneous change in value of two
numerically valued random variables: the positive
correlation between cigarette smoking and the
incidence of lung cancer; the negative correlation
between age and normal vision.
 An act of correlating or the condition of being
correlated.

Thematic Mapping 31
Example
Area Per Capita Personal Per Capita Educational Number of First-degree
Income ($) Expenditure ($) Graduates ($)
A 3882 273 330
B 4395 266 910
C 3870 240 500
D 5695 333 40
E 4282 273 870
F 4082 276 70
G 3952 210 240
H 5770 357 2920
J 5938 340 530
K 5550 390 1760
L 5304 314 460
M 4840 280 1670
N 4830 360 580
P 5745 376 0
Q 4570 287 2500
(Source: Robinson, et al., 1995)
Thematic Mapping 32
Regression
Analysis
3000
400 Yˆ = −335.67 + 0.2533 X
380
2500 r = 0.21
360
Per Capita Educational Expenditure ($)

Number of First-degree Graduates ($)


340 2000

320
1500
300

Yˆ = 19.85 + 0.5883 X
280
1000
260
r = 0.85
240 500

220
0
200
3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500
3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500
Per Capita Pe rsonal Income ($)
Per Capita Personal Income ($)

Scattergrams with fitted linear regression line.

Thematic Mapping 33
Areal Units

Thematic Mapping 34
Observed,
Predicted and
Residuals

Maps showing
observed per capita
educational
expenditures,
predicted per capita
educational
expenditures based
on per capita
income, and
residuals from the
regression.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 35
Observed,
Predicted and
Residuals (Cont.)

Maps showing
observed numbers
of first-degree
graduates,
predicted numbers
of first-degree
graduates based on
per capita income,
and residuals from
the regression.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 36
Data Classification
 Systematically grouping data based on one or more
characteristics
 Arrange data before displaying them
 3 reasons why we classify data:
 Technical constraints: manual vs digital
 Data accuracy: classification smooth out data inaccuracy
 Perceptional demands -Classification result in clearer map
image, Classification enables selective perception of
seeing groups and patterns, Classifications is helpful to
enhance insight in the data
 Classification is a generalization process-improve
understanding and readability

Thematic Mapping 37
Data classification
 classification is a key method of abstracting reality into
simplified map
 method of classification is important as effects ‘look’ of the
map
 classification scheme can easily be experimented with
(manipulated?) to give the pattern you want
 classification should ‘match’ data distribution
 number of classes. can reader interpret between them?
recommended max of 6
 distribution of zones into classes

Thematic Mapping 38
Same data plus
different classification
equal different looking
choropleth map!

Thematic Mapping 39
Classification
 Tobler(1973)-unnecessary to classify
data- (unclassed data)
 Resulting image not generalized
 Those oppose to Tobler: reason –
virtually impossible to perceive
differences between neighbourhoods
that are further apart geographically

Thematic Mapping 40
To classify or not
to classify?
 What is the map purpose?
 Interested in: to be able to determine
values of each area? or is it just an
overview?
 If decides to classify:
 nature of data
 What types of data are available?

Thematic Mapping 41
Conditions for
Clear Overview
 The final map should approach the statistical
surface as closely as possible
 A statistical surface exists for any distribution that
is mathematically continuous over an area and is
measured on an ordinal, interval or ratio scale.
(Robinson)
 A statistical surface is a 3-D representation of the
data in which the height is made proportional to
the values of data
 Visualization allows cartographic induction
 2 types: i.stepped-derived from choropleth
ii.smooth- derived from isoline maps

Thematic Mapping 42
Thematic Mapping 43
General Conditions for
Clear Overview
 The final map should display those
patterns or structures that are
characteristics for the mapped
phenomenon. Extreme high or low
values should not disappear.
 Each class should contain its share of
the observed values

Thematic Mapping 44
Cont..
 Encompass the full range of data- Class interval must
cover from the lowest to the highest value
 Classes may not overlap
 No class interval should be vacant
 The accuracy of the classification may not exceed the
accuracy of the original data
 If possible have a logical mathematical relationship
between class interval
 Rounded off class limits are better understood and
memorized
 The no. of classes must give good portrayal of the
distribution

Thematic Mapping 45
Primary Types of
Classification
 There is no one best way to classify data – depends on the
purpose of the map
 Simplicity is the top goal, no matter if the end result is visual
or mathematical
Exogenous
 Values not related to the actual data set are used to
subdivide into groups
 Example: A specific income level used to define 'poverty
level'
Arbitrary
 Constant, rounded values having no relation to the
distribution of data values are used to divide the data
 Usually used as a matter of convenience - easy to
implement
 Example: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, etc.

Thematic Mapping 46
Cont..
Idiographic
 A long-used technique, most preferred by
cartographers
 Classes are determined by the "natural breaks" in the
data set
 Example: Given the data set, 1 2 3 6 7 8 11 12 14, the
breaks could occur between 3 and 6, 8 and 11
Serial
 Uses standard deviation, equal intervals, and
arithmetic and geometric progressions to divide up
the data sets
 Example: data showing a bell curve distribution

Thematic Mapping 47
Jenks and Coulson
(1963)
 Choose a map type
 Limit the number of classes. Research
revealed that humans can handle up
to max 7 classes to get an overview.
The exact no. of classes is influenced
by: the type of symbolization, the
theme’s geog. distribution and the
data range
 Define the class limits

Thematic Mapping 48
General steps in
Data Classification
-Robinson
Need to determine the no. of classes, the
sizes of the class intervals, the class
limits
 Put data into array
 Construct a dispersal graph/scatter diagram
 Produce graphic array (curve)
 Compare graphic array curve with theoretical
(mathematical) curve
 Determine the classification methods, select
most appropriate classification
 Decide no. of class, calculate class limits,
adjust class limits

Thematic Mapping 49
Thematic Mapping 50
How many
Classes/category?
 Factors
 User requirements
 Visual variables used
 No. of data values
 Size of areal units/symbols
 Distribution of data
 Grouping of data around the middle
value
Thematic Mapping 51
No. of Classes-ITC
Point Line Area
Size 4 4 5
Value 3 4 5
Texture 2 4 5

 Suggestion for CHECKING:


C=Log N/Log 2 (Wang Zhe Shen)
where C= no. of classes, N = no. of observations
N : 4-7 8-15 16-31 32- 36 64-127 128-255
C: 2 3 4 5 6 7

 7(+-)2 = 5 to 9

Thematic Mapping 52
Classification-
Class limits
 2 approaches
 Graphic
 Mathematic methods

Thematic Mapping 53
Classification-
Graphic approach
 Natural breaks/break points
 Sort observed values
 Observe discontinuities/break points-
function as class boundaries

 Frequency diagram
 Cumulative frequency diagram

Thematic Mapping 54
Classification-
Mathematic
approach
(Robinson)
Constant series or Equal steps/Equal interval
 Based on range
 Parameters of normal distribution
 Quantiles
 Systematically Unequal Stepped Class limits
 Arithmetic series
 Geometric series
 Irregular Stepped Class limits
 Frequency graph
 Clinographic curve
 Cumulative frequency curve

Thematic Mapping 55
Thematic Mapping 56
Thematic Mapping 57
Natural Breaks
 A method preferred by many
cartographers because it captures the
character of the data set
 Natural groupings in the data are
sought and their obvious breaks are
used as the class boundaries

Thematic Mapping 58
Thematic Mapping 59
Quantiles
 This method divides the data set into equal number of values in each
class
 This minimizes the importance of class boundaries, but it can be
misleading because one class could have widely differing values
 Common methods: quartiles (4 classes), quintiles (5 classes), deciles
(10 classes)
 This differs from constant intervals; in this you divide up the number of
values in the data set, not the values themselves as with constant
 Choose the number of classes, then compute limits using difference of
domain ranking
 rank the attribute data values in ascending order
 # of data observations / # of classes = # of
observations in each class
 apply symbolization to “mimic” the increasing/decreasing magnitudes

Thematic Mapping 60
Thematic Mapping 61
Equal
Interval/equal
steps
 This is a common method and very easy to use
 Imagine passing planes of an equal distance through a
data set (like elevation)
 This method encloses equal amounts of the total data
range into each class interval
 Choose the number of classes, then compute limits
using difference of range
 max data value – min data value =
range
 range / # of classes = class interval
 the # of classes establishes how many “equal intervals”
will be used
 apply symbolization to “mimic” the
increasing/decreasing magnitudes

Thematic Mapping 62
Equal interval
 Ex: Data set range from 0-36 and no.
of class is 4
 Class 1 0-9
 Class 2 10-18
 Class 3 19-27
 Class 4 28-36

Thematic Mapping 63
Thematic Mapping 64
Standard
Deviations
 If a data set displays a normal frequency
distribution, then this method can be used
 Measure for the spread of data around the
mean
 The mean is calculated and then the
standard deviation using statistical
mathematics
 Usually no more than 6 classes are
necessary to convey the information

Thematic Mapping 65
Cont..
Working from the mean outwards in units of
S, which gives an even no. of classes
 Class 1 <(mean-S)
 Class 2 (mean-S) to mean
 Class 3 mean to (mean+S)
 Class 4 >(mean+S)
Where S = Standard deviation

Thematic Mapping 66
Thematic Mapping 67
Arithmetic/Geome
tric Progressions
 Both of systematic/mathematical
classification methods
 Arithmetic is used only when the
shape of the data set approximates
the shape of a typical arithmetic
progression
 Geometric is used when the frequency
of the data declines with increasing
magnitude - something typical in
geographic data
Thematic Mapping 68
Arithmetic
Progressions
The width of class increases with
constant value .
Example:
 Class 1 0-2 width=2 or I
 Class 2 2-6 width=4 or 2I
 Class 3 6-12 width=6 or 3I

Thematic Mapping 69
Arithmetic
progression
If no. of class is known,
Xmin+I+2I+3I+4I+…..=Xmax
 If Xmin & Xmax , n are known
 Calculate I= Xmax-Xmin/(n(n+1)/2)
Where Xmax=max value
Xmin=min value
I=class interval
n=no. of class

Thematic Mapping 70
Geometric
progression
 Upper class limit increase in size by multiplying
with a constant factor
Example
 Class 1 1-10 10¹
 Class 2 11-100 10²
 Class 3 101-1000 10³
 etc
In the eg. the factor is 10. The upper limit is always 10 times
bigger than the previous upper limit

Thematic Mapping 71
Geometric
progression
 Determine the number of class, n
 Then calculate the interval, I
 I=sqrt(xmax/xmin)*n

Where Xmax=Max value


Xmin= Min value
n = no. of class

Thematic Mapping 72
Geometric
progression
 Classes then:
 Class 1 (Xmin) – (Xmin*I)
 Class 2 (Xmin*I ) –(Xmin*I²)
 Class 3 (Xmin*I²) –(Xmin*I³)
 etc

Thematic Mapping 73
Reciprocal
progression
 For very skewed distributions
 Class 1 (Xmin) to (1/Xmin-I)¹‫־‬
 Class 2 (1/Xmin-I)¹‫־‬to (1/Xmin-2I)¹‫־‬

Etc
 I =((1/xmin) – (1/Xmax))/n
 Where Xmin = min value of data range

Xmax = max value of data range


n = no. of class
Thematic Mapping 74
Jenks’
Optimization
Method
Cartographer George Jenks developed this
optimization system
 The goal: forming groups that are internally
homogeneous while assuring heterogeneity among
classes
 This has proven to be a very useful method, next to
natural breaks - but requires computing power to
perform
 A statistical approach based on “Min & Max” of
data variance
 data variance – how much data values vary in
magnitude among each other
 start with a single class: range (a single class) =
max data value – min data value
 introduce another group whereby:
 minimize within group variance (member data
values closer in value)
 maximize between group variance (difference in
group averages as great as possible)
Thematic Mapping 75
 Procedure
The Jenks optimization method is also known as the
goodness of variance fit (GVF). It is used to minimize the
squared deviations of the class means. Optimization is
achieved when the quantity GVF is maximized:
1. Calculate the sum of squared deviations between classes
(SDBC).
GVF = -------------------
2. Calculate the sum of squared deviations from the array
mean (SDAM).
3. Subtract the SDBC from the SDAM (SDAM-SDBC). This
equals the sum of the squared deviations from the class
means (SDCM).
The method first specifies an arbitary grouping of the
numeric data. SDAM is a constant and does not change
unless the data changes. The mean of each class is
computed and the SDCM is calculated. Observations are
then moved from one class to another in an effort to reduce
the sum of SDCM and therefore increase the GVF statistic.
This process continues until the GVF value can no longer be
increased.

Thematic Mapping 76
Thematic Mapping 77
Standard curves

Thematic Mapping 78
Example: 30000

Maximum = 30127
World 25000

Minimum = 0

Population 20000
Mean = 291.3

Population Density (persons/sqkm)


Density 15000

10000
Std = 1947.1

5000

Thematic Mapping 79
Natural Breaks
1000
Class 1 Class 2

800
Population Density (persons/sqkm)

600

400

200

Thematic Mapping 80
0
35

Natural 30

Breaks
25

20

Frequency
(Cont.) 15

10

0
2 6 10 30 50 70 90 150 250 350 450 600 800 1000 3000 5000

Thematic Mapping 81
Equal Interval
1000
Class 1

800
Population Density (persons/sqkm)

600

400

200

Thematic Mapping 82
0
35

Equal 30

Interval
25

20

Frequency
(Cont.) 15

10

0
2 6 10 30 50 70 90 150 250 350 450 600 800 1000 3000 5000

Thematic Mapping 83
Equal Area
1000

Class 1

Class 2
Class 3 Class 4 Class 5

800
Population Density (persons/sqkm)

600

400

200

Thematic Mapping 84
0
35

Equal
30

Area
25

20

(Cont.)

Frequency
15

10

0
2 6 10 30 50 70 90 150 250 350 450 600 800 1000 3000 5000

Thematic Mapping 85
Quartile
1000

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5

800
Population Density (persons/sqkm)

600

400

200

Thematic Mapping 86
0
35

Quartile
30

25

(Cont.) 20

Frequency
15

10

0
2 6 10 30 50 70 90 150 250 350 450 600 800 1000 3000 5000

Thematic Mapping 87
Standard
Deviation 0 - 1 Std
1000

-1 Std - 0

800

Mean
Population Density (persons/sqkm)

600

Mean = 291.3
400

SD = 1947.1

200

Thematic Mapping 88
0
35
Mean +1 Std +2

Standard
30

Deviation
25

20

Frequency
15

10

0
2 6 10 30 50 70 90 150 250 350 450 600 800 1000 3000 5000

Mean = 291.3
SD = 1947.1

Thematic Mapping 89
Symbolising
Geographical
Features
 Point symbolisation
 Qualitative
 Quantitative
 Line symbolisation
 Qualitative
 Quantitative
 Area symbolisation
 Qualitative
 Quantitative

Thematic Mapping 90
Qualitativ
e Point
Symbolis
ation

Nominally scaled pictorial


symbols on a map
promoting winter activities
in a portion of the state of
Wisconsin. The map
legend lists 14 symbols.
Cited in Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 91
Qualitative Point
Symbolisation (Cont.)

Nominally scaled symbols are used to indicate four classes


of climatic stations. Left: the use of orientation of symbols.
Right: the use of the visual variable, shape.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 92
Quantitative Point
Symbolisation
 Various techniques are available to the
cartographer
 What technique to use depend on:
 Character of the feature to be mapped
 Type and complexity of the quantitative
information
 The purpose of the map and the map user
 Scale of the map
 Place/space available on the map

Thematic Mapping 93
Quantitative Point
Symbolisation
 Symbols with value indication
 Repeating principle
 The dot principle- each dot represent a unit value, gives
visual impression of distribution differences, factors: unit
value of dot, size of dot, location of dot
 Proportional symbols - sizes proportional to the quantity they
represent, 3 methods to calculate: sqrt method, J.J. Flannery,
range-graded (see notes Dotmap . pdf)
 Graphs and diagrams - Line graphs, Bar graphs, Population
pyramid, Pie graphs,Triangular graphs, Circular/clock graphs
 Adjacent symbols

Thematic Mapping 94
Quantitative Point
Symbolisation
 See Diagrams in Quantitative Point
Folder

Thematic Mapping 95
Quantitative
Point
Symbolisatio
n

Symbols are
proportionally
scaled so that
areas of the
symbols are in the
same ratio as the
population
numbers they
represent.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 96
Quantitative Point
Symbolisation (Cont.)

Left: symbols are range-graded to denote the population of


the cities. Right: symbols are ordinally scaled. The legends
are different due to the different levels or measurement.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 97
Quantitative Point
Symbolisation (Cont.)

Three legends whose symbols are identical. The added


information in the form of text puts one legend on an
ordinal scale, one on a range-graded scale, and one on a
ratio scale.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 98
Use of
Visual
Varia
ble

Symbols use the


visual variable
value (colour) to
order the data.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

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Use of Visual
Variable (Cont.)

Left: total population is symbolised by size, while percentage of


black inhabitants is symbolised by the value (colour). Right:
Percentage of black inhabitants is symbolised by the size, while
total population is symbolised by the value (colour).
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 100


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Qualitative
Line
Symbolisatio
n

Examples of lines of
differing character (the
visual variable shape)
which are useful for the
symbolisation of
nominal linear data.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

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Ordinal Portrayal

The use of line


width (visual
variable size)
enhanced by the
use of line
character (visual
variable shape)
to denote the
ordinal portrayal
of civil
administrative
boundaries.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

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Quantitative Line
Symbolisation
 Arrow Symbol map
 Short arrow represents direction, thickness or tone
represents the quantity.
 Flow Line map
 Quantitative information is given by lines of varying
sizes/widths. The width is proportional to the value.
 3 types of flow lines: smooth curved ‘origin-
destination’ lines, straight ‘origin-destination’ lines,
irregular lines more or less following the routes.
 Flow lines with indication of direction of movement

Thematic Mapping 104


Arrow symbol

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Arrow symbol map
Using Arrows to
identify the strength
(width), orientation
and temperature
values (blue=cold,
red=warm) of ocean
currents around New
Zealand

Thematic Mapping 106


Flow Lines- legend

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Flow Lines

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Flow Lines

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Flow Lines-with
specific direction

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Flow Lines
Maps

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Migrati
on
betwe
en
differe
nt
region
s

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Quantitative
Line
Symbolisati
on
Range-graded
line symbols. On
this map of
immigrants from
Europe in 1900,
lines of
standardised
width are used to
represent a
specified range
of numbers of
immigrants.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 113


Charles Joseph Minard: Mapping
Napoleon's March, 1861.

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Edward Tufte, in his praise of Minard's map,
identified 6 separate variables that were captured
within it. First, the line width continuously marked
the size of the army. Second and third, the line itself
showed the latitude and longitude of the army as it
moved. Fourth, the lines themselves showed the
direction that the army was traveling, both in
advance and retreat. Fifth, the location of the army
with respect to certain dates was marked. Finally, the
temperature along the path of retreat was displayed.
Few, if any, maps before or since have been able to
coherently and so compellingly weave so many
variables into a captivating whole. (See Edward
Tufte's 1983 work,
The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.)
Thematic Mapping 115
Qualitative Area
Symbolisation

Some standardised
symbols for
indicating lithologic
data as suggested by
the International
Geographical Union
Commission on
Applied
Geomorphology.
From Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 116


Qualitativ
e Area
Symbolisa
tion (Cont.)

Portrayal of North
American air masses
and their source
regions. Although
data have quantitative
characteristics, the
intent of this
illustration is simply
to portray location of
air masses. This can
be accomplished by
using nominal area
symbolisation.
Cited in Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 117


Quantitative Area
Symbolisation
 Choropleth mapping
 Objective: to show the quantities within
administrative unit areas
 Dasymetric mapping
 Objective: to show uniform quantities
regardless of unit area boundaries
 Isarithmic mapping
 Objective: to show the gradients , their size
and distribution
 Cartogram

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See notes thematic
mapping
quantitative.pdf for
map types

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Choropleth dasymetric
isometric

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Quantitative Area
Symbolisation
 Terms referring to Line symbols
 Terms referring to Area symbols

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Terms referring to line symbols
Isolines/ Isarithm/
Isogram
Isometric lines
 Metron = measurement
 Lines that portray absolute values.
The values they represent can exist at
any point of the line.
 Eg. Lines of equal elevation
(isohypse/contour) temperature
(isotherm), rainfall (isohyet), pressure
(isobar)

Thematic Mapping 122


Isolines/ Isarithm/
Isogram
Isopleths
 Plethos = magnitude
 Lines the represent relative values. They
represent concepts that are function of
element and space.
 Eg. Density. The values on which the lines
are based cannot actually exist at points.

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Isometric lines

Isopleths

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Isoline mapping
 Step 1: exact location of control points
 Step 2: determination of class interval
 Step 3: interpolation of Isolines
 Step 4: shading or coloring of the
zones

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Control points-
 assume to represent area.

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Isoline mapping

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Terms referring to Area symbols

Chorogram
 Choros = area, space
 2 groups i. Choropleth – Area symbol
applied to an administrative unit.
ii. Chorisogram- a system of shading
or colour applied between two
successive isolines.

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Choropleth
 Quantitatve information is shown
within administrative units. (districts,
states)
 Quantity mapped is normally of
relative values such as ratios or
percentages

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Choropleth

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Choropleth maps
 counterpart of histogram
 aggregate data, usually ratio or percentage
 data map for discrete spatial units
 choro from choros (place) and pleth (value)
 practical Issues
 choice of intervals - number and their breaks
 equal interval, equal share (quantiles), standard deviational,

 choice of colors
 important for perception of patterns
 misleading role of area of spatial units
 larger areas “seem” more important

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 very widely used. the ‘default’ mapping,
especially for social data (e.g. census)
 most mapping tools produce choropleth maps
 easy produced in GIS, stats software
 not necessarily the best solution
 problems. can easily promote false notions of
homogeneity inside the zones and sharp cut-off
at the borders. real phenomena (e.g. Internet
access) do not fit neat set of units
 should be used for ratio data and not absolute
counts as most spatial units are variable in size
Thematic Mapping 132
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Choropleth
mapping
 Step 1: Plotting of boundaries
 Step 2: Calculation of ratios or
percentages from statistics
 Step 3: Choosing proper class interval
 Step 4:Plot quantities using graded
series of shadings

Thematic Mapping 134


Limitations of
choropleth
 Assumption that distribution of the
phenomena over unit area is uniform
 Inaccuracy caused by difference in
sizes of units
 The choice of class interval affects the
visual impression of the map

Thematic Mapping 135


Quantitative Area
Symbolisation
Choropleth
-example

Thematic Mapping 136


Quantitative Area
Symbolisation
Choropleth
-example

Thematic Mapping 137


Quantitative Area
Symbolisation

Map illustrating
the range-graded
classification of
Florida counties.
The use of the
visual variable
value (colour)
creates a
stepped surface.
Cited in Robinson, et al., 1995

Thematic Mapping 138


Dasymetric
mapping
 Technique as an improvement of the
choropleth mapping technique for
phenomena that have an uneven
distribution
 Using other geographical factors to
determine the cause of uneven
distribution

Thematic Mapping 139


Cont..
 Use the same type of data as choropleth,
but involve some analysis beyond the
administrative districts
 Do not assume homogeneity within districts
 May look the same as isarithmic technique
but ..
 Values can go from high to low without
going through intermediate values as in
isarithmic technique

Thematic Mapping 140


J.K.Wright method
of calculating
densities
Dn = (D/1-Am) – ((Dm * Am)/1-Am)
Where
Dn = Density in area n
Dm = estimated density in area m
D = density over the whole area (m+n)
(from choropleth map data)
Am = the fraction of m of the total area

Thematic Mapping 141


Dasymetric
mapping
 Suppose n is land and m is area with water.
 Area has 80% land, 20% water
 If D (from choropleth) = 40 people/km sq.
 Assume water has no inhabitant, Dm = 0
 Hence population should only be on n only
 Am = 0.2, Dn = to be calculated
 So Dn = (40/1-0.2) – ((0*0.2/1-0.2))
= 40/0.8
= 50
n =0.8
Land
m =0.2
Water

Thematic Mapping 142


Dasyme
tric
mapping

Thematic Mapping 143


 http://geography.wr.usgs.gov/science/
dasymetric/

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Cartogram –
What is it?
 A diagram highly abstracted on which locations or
outlines are distorted
 A small diagram on the face of a map showing
1)       quantitative information.
 An abstracted and simplified map the base of which is
not true to scale.
 Unique representations of geographical space
 Are map transformations that distort area or
distance in the interest of some objective
 Have strong visual impact, attract reader attention
 Often concerned with magnitude and want to make
stronger impression than conventional choropleth or
isarithmic mapping

Thematic Mapping 145


 A cartogram is a type of graphic that depicts
attributes of geographic objects as the object's
area.
 Because a cartogram does not depict
geographic space, but rather changes the
size of objects depending on a certain
attribute, a cartogram is not a true map.
 Cartograms vary on their degree in which
geographic space is changed; some appear
very similar to a map, however some look
nothing like a map at all.
 There are three main types of cartograms,
each have a very different way of showing
attributes of geographic objects-
 Non-contiguous
 Contiguous
 Dorling cartograms.

Thematic Mapping 146


Cartogram ..cont
 Mapping requirements include the
preservation of shape, orientation contiguity,
and data that have suitable variation.
 Successful communication depends on how
well the map reader recognizes the shapes
of the internal enumeration units, the
accuracy of estimating these areas, and
effective legend design.
 Cartogram construction may be by manual
or computer means.

Thematic Mapping 147


Cartogram –
example
 Alter area sizes of countries to reflect
their pop. Sizes.

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Cartogram-
NON-CONTIGUOUS
CARTOGRAMS
 A non-contiguous cartogram is the simplest
and easiest type of cartogram to make.
 In a non-contiguous cartogram, the
geographic objects do not have to maintain
connectivity with their adjacent objects. This
connectivity is called topology.
 By freeing the objects from their adjacent
objects, they can grow or shrink in size and
still maintain their shape.

Thematic Mapping 149


an example of two non-
contiguous cartograms of
population in California's
counties

Thematic Mapping 150


 The difference between these two types of non-contiguous
cartograms- The cartogram on the left has maintained the
object's centroid (a centroid is the weighted center point of an
area object.) Because the object's center is staying in the
same place, some of the objects will begin to overlap when
the objects grow or shrink depending on the attribute (in this
case population.)
 In the cartogram on the right, the objects not only shrink or
grow, but they also will move one way or another to avoid
overlapping with another object. Although this does cause
some distortion in distance, most prefer this type of non-
contiguous cartogram. By not allowing objects to overlap, the
depicted sizes of the objects are better seen, and can more
easily be interpreted as some attribute value

Thematic Mapping 151


Cartogram-
CONTIGUOUS CARTOGRAMS
 In a non-contiguous cartogram the connectivity
between objects, or topology was sacrificed in
order to preserve shape.
 In a contiguous cartogram, the reverse is true-
topology is maintained (the objects remain
connected with each other) but this causes great
distortion in shape.
 The cartographer must make the objects the
appropriate size to represent the attribute value,
but he or she must also maintain the shape of
objects as best as possible, so that the cartogram
can be easily interpreted..
Thematic Mapping 152
an example of a contiguous
cartogram of population in
California's counties.
Compare this to the
previous non-contiguous
cartogram

Thematic Mapping 153


DORLING
CARTOGARMS
 This type of cartogram was named after its
inventor, Danny Dorling of the University of
Leeds.
 A Dorling cartogram maintains neither shape,
topology nor object centroids, though it has
proven to be a very effective cartogram
method.
 To create a Dorling cartogram, instead of
enlarging or shrinking the objects
themselves, the cartographer will replace the
objects with a uniform shape, usually a circle,
of the appropriate size.

Thematic Mapping 154


DORLING
CARTOGARMS

Thematic Mapping 155


See also notes in
visualization.ppt

Thematic Mapping 156


Appropri
ate Uses Feature Level of Measurement

of the
Dimension
Nominal Ordinal/Interval/Ratio
Qualitative Quantitative

Visual Point Hue (colour) Size

Variable shape
Orientation
Value (colour)
Chroma (colour)

s Line Hue (colour)


Shape
Size
Value (colour)
Orientation Chroma (colour)
Area Hue (colour) Value (colour)
Appropriate uses of the Shape Chroma (colour)
visual variables for Pattern Size
symbolisation. The
visual variable in italics Orientation
are of secondary Volume Hue (colour) Value (colour)
importance. Shape Chroma (colour)
From Robinson, et al., 1995
Pattern Size
Orientation

Thematic Mapping 157

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