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WDM and Optical Networking

Introduction
2015

Outline
Fiber types
WDM system introduction
WDM Network Parameters
What is needed to design a WDM Network?
WDM Topologies

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Fiber Type
Single Mode Fiber (DWDM Network Fiber)

single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry


only a single ray of light (mode)
The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of
810 micrometers
Fit for long distance transmission
High requirement of laser source

Multi Mode Fiber

Has a bigger core diameters


(50 or 62.5m)
Low requirement of laser source
Typically used within data center

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Single Mode Fiber Types


Standard types:

ITU
ITU
ITU
ITU

G.652
G.653
G.654
G.655

(A, B, C, D) This is SMF(Standard Single Mode Fiber)


0 dispersion at 1550nm, but... Bad for WDM
lower loss, higher dispersion, for submarine..
1550/1625 for long haul DWDM, lower dispersion

G.652, G.655 and G.654 are all suitable for DWDM.

0.5

Fiber attenuation
(all others)

G.652
EDFA
band

0.4
Attenuation
(dB/km)

20

G.654
G.653

10
0

0.3
0.2
0.1
1100

-10

G.655

-20

1200

1300

1400
1500
Wavelength (nm)

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1600

1700

Dispersion (ps/nm.km)

0.6

What is WDM
Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM) multiplexes multiple
optical carrier signals on a single optical fiber by using different
wavelengths (colors) of laser light to carry different signals.

Bit rate and protocol independent

Glass prism

Glass prism
~ WDM multiplexer

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What is WDM
WDM means Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Parallel transmission of number of wavelengths over a fiber

Two flavors
Dense WDM (DWDM)
Narrow channel spacing - e.g. 0.8nm (100GHz grid)

C-Band

G.652 attenuation
6

Wave

11

12

13

L-Band

Coarse WDM (CWDM)

10

Wider channel spacing - 20nm (2.5THz grid)


A-band

B-band

A-band

OSC

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1470 1490 1510 1510 1550 1570 1590 1610

1630

14

15

16

CWDM/DWDM Comparison
CWDM

DWDM

Cheap optical components because of Higher bandwidth 96x 100G


lower wavelength stability
Could be amplified to reach single span more
than 200km
requirement
Support long-haul Network
Network more flexible, Ring, Mesh etc
Support Network automation. (GMPLS)

Maximum 8x 10G

Higher initial cost

Single Wavelength 10G only*


Cannot reach more than 80km
Only fix OADM

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The Reason for WDM Requirement

Increasing bandwidth Requirement

10M -> 100M -> 1GbE -> 10GbE 100G


155M -> 622M -> 2.5G -> 10G -> 40G
155M -> 622M
1G -> 2G -> 4G -> 8G / 10G
Infiniband: 5G -> 10G -> 40G .

More and more protocol need be transport together

Ethernet
TDM
ATM
SAN
Others

Data Network (ATM Ethernet


Storage Network (ESCON, FICON, FiberChannel)
Voice Network (TDM Voice
Others Infiniband in H-PC

Complicate Network

From typically point-to-point


To: Ring or Linear Add-drop
Till: Mesh Network

Need
Need aa new
new solution
solution for
for increasing
increasing fiber
fiber capacity.
capacity.
8

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WDM Application

Metro

Long Haul

Connect sites within Metro

Connect cities within big


range, even different country
of cross sea.

Site distance short typically


20~40km
2 different types

Infrastructure Metro
STM-16/64
10GbE etc

Enterprise WDM
GbE, 10GbE
Fiber channel etc.

Site distance longer, typically


80km~ 120km
Higher bandwidth, typical
service:

STM-64, STM-256
10GbE will be 100GbE soon.

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WDM Network sample diagram


Terminal Node
1

Terminal node

In-line amplifier
(Optional)

1
PA

BA
s

LA

OSC

s
OSC

Xpondern

OSC

Management
System

10

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Booster Amplifier
In-line Amplifier

PA

LA

BA
s

BA

Xponder1

Filter

Xpondern

Filter

LA

PA

Xponder1

Pre- Amplifier

System Architecture
WDM Terminal Node
Shelf
communication
Shelf
Controller

NE
Controller

Routing or
OSC card
OSC

SFP
SFP

SFP

SFP

SFP

Switch

SFP
Channel
Card

WDM Filter

Trunk
Switch

Main system components:

Amplifier

OSC Filter

Shelf
Shelf Controller
Network Element Controller
OSC/Routing Card
Channel Cards
Transceiver
C/DWDM-Filter Stages / ROADM
Optical Switches

11

Optical Amplifiers
OSC Filters

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WDM Network Parameters


...

Fiber loss /
attenuation

...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Dispersion

OSNR

Others
PMD, Non-linear
affection etc.

12

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16

WDM Network Parameters


...

Fiber loss /
attenuation

...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Dispersion

OSNR

Others
PMD, Non-linear
affection etc.

13

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16

Attenuation
The source of fiber loss:
1.> Fiber quality
2.> Connector/Jumpers

Attenuation (dB/km)

1st Window

DWDM Region

3.> Slicing.

2.5
OH absorption

2.0
1.5

2nd Window

1.0

3rd Window

0.5
0
800

900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Wavelength (nm)

14

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1 nm

Dispersion
Chromatic dispersion is a measure of fiber delay for different
wavelengths. Different wavelengths travel at different velocities
through fiber. The difference in velocity is called delay or
chromatic dispersion of the signal.
Standard SMF fiber has an average of 17 ps/nm/km of dispersion.
It could be compensated via passive fiber and DCMs

Conventional 10Gb/s optical link with DCMs, double-stage amplifiers

Rx

Tx
DCF

15

DCF

DCF

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DCF

Polarization Mode Dispersion

Light has polarization. Comparable to polarized sunglasses, some light is


vertical and some is horizontal, as shown in Figure below, Different
polarizations travel at different velocities, because fiber is not perfectly
round. Different velocities cause dispersion.

16

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OSNR Limitation
OSNR = Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The compares the level of
a desired signal to the level of background noise. The receiver
cannot distinguish the 0 or 1 due to high noise level and it
only could be compensate via O-E-O conversation Regeneration
Every EDFA will bring the ASE noise (need to calculate carefully)
Non-linear affect will bring other noise

17

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Noise Accumulation
Power

TX

Low-noise signal

OSNR

Power

Wavelength

OSNR

Amplifier chain
adds noise

Power

Wavelength
OSNR

Wavelength

18

RX

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OSNR at the Rx
determines the
signal quality

What is needed to design a WDM


Network?
Network Topology
Traffic Matrix,

WDM is a layer 1 network, need to know exactly service start and end
point
Protection requirement

Protect against fiber cut?


Protect against fiber cut, amplifier failure and Network laser failure?
Protect against fiber cut and all active module failure?

Fiber Loss

The fiber loss value of each fiber span


Margin requirement.

Fiber Type and distance

Dispersion is related with fiber type and distance

Maximum channels in service upgradable.

19

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WDM Topologies
for both CWDM or DWDM

Point-to-Point, protected

Point-to-Point

...

...

...

...

...
...

...

...

...

DWDM Ring

...

...
Meshed Optical Cross Connects
20

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Point-to-point

WDM Equipment connect 2 sites

Use 1 or 2 pair fibers

Multiplex different protocol/speed into fiber pairs

Very typical Enterprise network

Main Data Cetner

DR Center

ESCON

20 km ~

Server

WDM

ESCON

WDM

Server

FC

FC

GbE

Storage

Storage

LAN
21

GbE

LAN
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Ring Network
Ring for multi Data Center connectivity

Data Center 1
HA
Servers A

10GE

10GE

Data
Center B

10GE

Servers

Servers

10GE

FC
FC
GbE

GbE

Storage

LAN
Data Center
D
Data Cetner
C
Data
Center E
22

HA
Servers B

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Storage

Thank you

info@advaoptical.com

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