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ENGG.

METALLURGY
Presented by: Abdul Wadood

METALLURGY
The branch of material science in
which we study about ..
1. Extraction of metal from their
ores
2. Make different types of alloys
3. And give different desired shape
to these alloys

IMPORTANCE OF METALLURGY
o It is used in every where for
every work mostly.
o There are many metals which have
many importance some e.g. are
Copper made saws and axes &
electronically wiring etc.
Bronze could be shaped into arrow
heads, sets of armor and sword
blades etc.
Iron made cutting tools, iron,
clamps, machineries etc
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http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t0w03metaluses.htm

CLASSIFICATION OF METALLURGY
METALLURGY

i
Extractive
Metallurgy

iv
ii

Chemical
Metallurgy

Mechanical
Metallurgy

iii

Process
Metallurgy
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1: EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY
o Process of
Mining
Crushing
Separation
Calcinations
Roasting
Pallets making
Smelting

METHODS OF EXTRACTION

Extractive
Metallurgy

1.

Pyrometallurgy

2.

Hydrometallurgy

3.

Electrometallurgy
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1: MINING
o Mining is the extraction
of valuable minerals or
other geological materials
from the earth,
1. Open pit mining
2. Shaft mining/
Underground mining

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining

1.OPEN PIT MINNING


o An excavation or cut made at
the surface of the ground for
the purpose of extracting ore
and which is open to the
surface
o They are used when deposits
of commercially
useful minerals or rock are
found near the surface.
http://www.mine-engineer.com/mining/open_pit.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-pit_mining

2:SHAFT MINING

o It is carried out when the metals,


rocks, minerals, or precious stones are
located at a distance far beneath the
ground.
o Miners first must dig tunnels deeply
near the place where the coal is
located, tunnels may be
Vertical,
Horizontal, Or
Sloping.
o Entries are constructed so that miners
can get themselves and their
equipment to the ore and carry it out.

http://www.greatmining.com/Underground-Mining.html
http://www.greatmining.com/articles/tag/underground-mining/

2:CRUSHING
o The process of
transferring a force
through a material made
of molecules that bond
together more strongly,
and resist deformation
more, than those in the
material being crushed
do. (crusher)

http://crusher.askdefine.com/

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CRUSHER
A crusher is
amachinedesigned
to reduce
largesolidmaterial
objectsinto a smaller
volume,
or smaller pieces.
i

Jaw crusher

ii

Drum type crusher

http://crusher.askdefine.com/

11

JAW TYPE CRUSHER

http://www.my-crusher.com/products/1/jaw-crusher.html

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HAMMER CRUSHER

http://www.shibang-china.com/info/Hammer_Crusher.html

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3. SEPARATION
o Art of treating crude ores and
mineral products in order to
separate the valuable minerals
from the waste rock, or gangue.
There are mainly three types of
separation process i.e..
Hand Separation
Magnetic Separation
Gravity Separation
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/383742/mineral-pr
ocessing/81315/Magnetic-separation
14

1.HAND SEPERATOR

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2.MEGNETIC SEPARATION
It is a process in which
magnetically susceptible
material is extracted from
a mixture using a magnetic
force.
This separation technique
can be useful in mining
iron as it is attracted to a
magnet. Belt Type Magnetic Separator
Drum Type Magnetic Separator

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_separation

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I. BELT TYPE MEGNETIC


SEPARATION

http://www.starmag.ch/index.php?id=200

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II. DRUM TYPE MEGNETIC


SEPARATION

http://www.starmag.ch/index.php?id=205

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3.GRAVITY SEPARATION
To physically concentrate
the valuable mineral and
discard the gangue.
It relies on the difference
in density of the mineral and
the gangue.
Jigging Process
Sink Process
Froth Floatation
Process
http://www.hazenusa.com/minerals-1.php

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4.CALCINATION
o It is the process of
separation of impure
gases by heat.
o Usually for carbides.

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5.ROASTING
o The process of separate
impurities through
melting them below the
temperature of required
metal.
o Usually for sulphides
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6.PELLETS MAKING
A pellet plant contains a
IDEAL
series of balling drums
SIZE
where the iron ore
concentrate is formed into
soft pellets.
The size is about 1/4" and
1/2".
Pellets are screened to
meet the size specification,
with undersized or
oversized pellets crushed
and returned to the balling
drums.
http://www.steel.org/~/media/Files/AISI/Making%20Steel/Article%20Files/ir
onore.ashx

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Metal extraction process in


which an ore (usually mixed
with purifying and/or heat
generating substances such as
limestone and coke) is heated
at high temperature in an
enclosed furnace.
After a reducing reaction ,
lighter ore-components
(impurities called slag or tailing)
rise to the top and float on the
molten metal.
Wrought iron process

7.SMELTING

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/smelting.html

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2: CHEMICAL METALLURGY
o In this type we make alloys and
deals with its
Composition
Bonding/Reactions
Heat Treatment
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3: PROCESS METALLURGY
o In this we make our desired
object through
o Casting,
o Forging,
o Machining etc
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4: MECHANICAL METALLURGY
o Material testing
I.

Strength testing

II. Destructive testing


III. Non-destructive testing

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5: PHYSICAL METALLURGY
o It is the combination of
i. Process metallurgy
ii.

Mechanical treatments,

iii. Chemical properties changes


iv. Physical properties changes
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ORES
o The minerals which
are metal bearing,
impurities and we
extract pure metal
from it.

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QUALITIES OF ORES

o 1. Good ore
%age of extracted metal is
greater

o 2. Bad ores
%age of Phosphorous is greater
o 3. Ideal ores
Extracted metal is up to 70 75%
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CLASSIFICATION OF ORES
Ores are classified into two
Ferrous ores

Non ferrous ores

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TYPES OF FERROUS ORES


1. Oxide ores
( iron + oxygen )
2. Sulphide ores
( iron + sulpher )
3. Carbonated ores
( iron + carbon )
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1. OXIDE ORES

oo Magnetite (Black Oxide)


(Fe3O4), 74% Iron
o Hematite (Red Oxide)
(Fe2O3), 70% Iron
o Limonite (Brown Oxide)
(Fe2O3.3H2O), 50 % Iron
o Taconite
(Magnetite + Hematite), 15-30 % Iron
o Chromite
(FeCr2O4), 15% Iron

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2. SULPHIDE ORES
o Iron pyrite (FeS2)
o 40 45 % Fe
o Self fluxing ore
o It is a brittle material
so it cannot used
because it breaks easily
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3. CARBONATED ORES
o Iron siderite (FeCo3)
o 48% Fe, 38% Carbon,
14% Oxygen
o Self fluxing ore
o Better flux then iron pyrite

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IRON ORES IN PAKISTAN


S.
No

IRON ORES

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

350 million tonne


200 million tonne
110 million tonne
100 million tonne
66 million tonne
45 million tonne
30 million tonne
23 million tonne
12 million tonne
6.5 million tonne
5 million tonne

PERCENTAGE OF
IRON
30.35 percent Fe
30-35 percent Fe
60 percent Fe
25-35 percent Fe
30-34 percent Fe
30-34 percent Fe
30-34 percent Fe
10-55 percent Fe
50-60 percent Fe
60-65 percent Fe
20-60 percent Fe

LOCATION
Kalabagh
Dilband, Kallat District
Kirana, Sargodha District
Nazampur, NWFP
Pezu, NWFP
Pachinkho, Chaghi District
Langrial, Hazara Division
Chilghazi, Chaghi District
Amir Chah, Chaghi District
Dammer Nisar, Chitral District
Chigendik, Chaghi District.

http://www.pakissan.com/english/news/newsDetail.php?newsid=16912
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K
ARACHI
K ARACHI
SSTEEL
TEEL
M
MILL
ILL
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MATERIALS

PER YEAR CHARGE

Coke

12 lac tonne

Iron ore

20 lac tonne

Manganese ore

60 lac tonne

limestone

4 lac 50 thousand tonne

Quartzite

50 thousand tonne

Dolomite

2 lac 30 thousand tonne

Fire clay

55 thousand tonne

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