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PVT Short Course for Cairo University

SPE Student Chapter

Ahmed Muaz
Khalda Petroleum Company

April 23, 2011

Contents
Why Study PVT?
Objectives of PVT Analysis
Types of Reservoir Fluids
Differentiation Between the Different Types of

Reservoir Fluids
Fluid Sampling
Laboratory Experiments
PVT Reports

Why Study PVT?


Gas
Sep.

Diff. Flow
Regime

Oil

Stoc
k
Tank

Transport

Objectives of PVT Analysis


Need to understand PVT analysis for:
Determination of reservoir fluid type
Knowledge of physical properties of reservoir fluids
Match an EOS to the measured data
Creation of PVT models
Ultimate recoveries of different components
Amounts and composition of liquids left behind
Determination of well stream composition

Objectives of PVT Analysis Cont.


Completion design
Separator/NGL plant specifications
Product values Vs. time
Prediction compositional gradient

The Five Reservoir Fluids


Black
Oil

Volatile
Oil

Retrograde
Gas

Wet
Gas

Dry
Gas

Reservoir Fluid Type Identification


Analyzing a representative sample in the lab
Production data
1. Initial GOR
2. API
3. Oil color
4. C7+

Black Oil
An initial GOR, 1750 SCF/STB or less
A 45 API initial stock tank oil gravity or less
A dark color of stock tank oil
C7+ > 20 mole %
Initial Bo of 2 res bbl/STB or less

Black Oil Phase Diagram


The initial reservoir
conditions (P&T) are
much lower than
the critical
conditions
The heavy
molecules
concentration is
high

Volatile Oil
An initial GOR, 1750 SCF/STB or greater
A 51.2 API initial stock tank oil gravity
A medium orange stock tank oil color
C7+ concentration between 19 and 22 mole %
Bo 2.0 res bbl/STB or greater

Volatile Oil Phase Diagram


The initial reservoir
conditions (P&T) are
close to the critical
conditions
Have fewer heavy
molecules than black
oil

Retrograde Gas Condensate


An initial GOR > 3200 SCF/STB
API > 45 initial stock tank oil gravity
A light stock tank oil color
C7+ concentration <12.5 mole %

Retrograde Gas Phase Diagram


The initial reservoir
conditions (P&T) are
higher than the critical
conditions
Have fewer heavy
molecules than volatile
oils
The overall composition
of the reservoir fluid
becomes heavier as the
lighter gas is produced
and the heavier
condensate remains
behind

Wet Gas
An initial GOR > 15,000 SCF/STB
API up to 70 initial stock tank oil gravity
Water white of tank oil color
C7+ concentration <4 mole %

Wet Gas Phase Diagram


Reservoir Temperature
above Cricondentherm
(pressure path not
enter phase envelope)

The separator
condition is two phases

Wet gas
Pressure

The reservoir fluid is


gas throughout the life
of the reservoir

Pressure path
in reservoir

Critical
point

% Liquid

Gravity of stock tank


liquid same as
retrograde gas
-constant during life of
field

Separator

Temperature

Dry Gas
An initial GOR > 1000,000 SCF/STB
Almost no liquid
C7+ concentration < 0.7 mole %

Dry Gas Phase Diagram


Pressure path
in reservoir

Dry gas

Pressure

Primarily methane and


some intermediates
The reservoir fluid is
gas throughout the life
of the reservoir
No liquids formed
either in reservoir or at
surface

% Liquid

Separator

Temperature

Reservoir Fluids Phase Diagram


Window
OIL
GAS

Heavy Oil

Black Oil

Volatile
Oil
Cricondenbar

Critical
Critical
Oil
Gas

Gas
Wet
Condens.
Gas

Critical Point

B
Pressure

Bubble
Point
Loci

Dew Point
Loci

Retrograde
Region
Cricondenterm

Two Phase Region

C
Temperature

C7+ & GOR for Reservoir Fluids

Reservoir Fluid Types


Classification

Composition of Reservoir Fluids

Differences Between Black and


Volatile Oil
Black Oil
The evolved gas is a dry gas.
The solution gases remain gas phase in the
reservoir, tubulars and separator.
As reservoir pressure decreases, the gas leaving
solution, becomes richer in intermediate
components.
API gradually decreases during the reservoir life.

Phase Diagram of Black Oil and Associated Gas

Production Processes for a Black


Oil

Differences Between Black and


Volatile Oil
Volatile Oil
The evolved gas is a retrograde gas.
The evolved retrograde gases release a large
amount of. condensate at surface conditions.
Often over one half of the stock tank liquid produced
during the reservoirs life.
API steadily increases with time.

Phase Diagram of Volatile Oil and


Associated Gas

Production Processes for a Volatile Oil

Analysis and Prediction Tool


Black Oil Mbal
Assume free gas in the reservoir remains gas in the
separator
Treat a multi component black oil mixture as a twocomponent mixture: gas and oil

Volatile Oil Mbal


Treat mixture as a multi-component mixture
Total composition of the production stream is known

Effect of Using Black Oil Mbal for Volatile Oil

Differentiation between Volatile and


Retrograde
A GOR of 3200
SCF/STB is a good
cut-off
A value of 12.5
mole % of C7+ is a
useful dividing line

Differences between Volatile Oil


and Retrograde Gas
Retrograde Gas
GOR increases with time as condensate dropout
API increases with time
Compositional Mbal should be used in reservoir
calculations
Conventional gas Mbal can be used above dew point
Also, it can be used below dew point if two phase Zfactors are used

Differences between Retrograde


and Wet Gas
An initial GOR of
15,000 SCF/STB
can be a cutoff
A value of 4 mole%
or less can be
useful dividing line

Field and Laboratory Identification


of
Reservoir Fluids

Reservoir Fluid Sampling


Open Hole Sampling:
RFT, small sample volume and often contaminated
MDT, allows controlled drawdown and multiple
sample chambers
Optical MDT, allows to identify the type of fluid
being sampled

Cased Hole Sampling:


Surface Sampling
Subsurface Sampling

Surface & Subsurface Sampling

Well Conditioning during Sampling


Small perforation is preferable
Limiting drawdown
Large tubing diameter in case of high rates
Better well cleaning
Stable production
No liquid slugging
Small amount of produced fluid prior to sampling

Laboratory Tests
Primary tests
Routine laboratory tests
Special laboratory PVT tests

Primary Tests
API
Gas specific gravity
Separator gas composition
GOR

Routine Laboratory Tests


Constant-Composition Expansion - CCE
Differential Liberation
Constant-Volume Depletion CVD
Separator Test

Constant Composition Expansion CCE Test


The test is conducted for the purposes of
determining:
Saturation pressure (bubble-point or dew-point
pressure)
Isothermal compressibility coefficients of the singlephase fluid in excess of saturation pressure
Compressibility factors of the gas phase
Total hydrocarbon volume as a function of pressure

CCE Test Procedures


pb

Vt

Liquid

Vt

Liquid
Liquid

Vt

Liquid
Liquid
Liquid

Gas
Vt
Liquid

Hg

Hg

Hg

Vt

Gas

Liquid
Hg
Hg

First
Step

Second
Step

Third
Step

Fourth
Step

CCE Test Data

Differential Liberation Test


The experimental data obtained from the test
include:
Amount of gas in solution as a function of pressure
The shrinkage in the oil volume as a function of
pressure
Properties of the evolved gas including the
composition of the liberated gas, the gas
compressibility factor, and the gas specific gravity
Density of the remaining oil as a function of
pressure

Differential Liberation Expansion Test


Procedures
Gas

pb

Vo

Liquid

Gas

Vo

Liquid

Liquid

Gas

Gas

Liquid

Liquid
Hg

Hg

Hg

Vo

Hg

Hg

First step

Differential Liberation Test Data

Separator Test Procedures


pb

Rsb =
Gas

scf
STB

Gas

scf
Liquid

scf

Hg
Hg

Separator

resbbl
Stock
tank

Liquid
STB
Liquid

Bob =

resbbl
STB

Separator Test Data

CVD Test Procedures

Constant Volume Depletion CVD


Test

PVT Reports

Thank You