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ASMGCS

Advanced Surface Movement,


Guidance and Control System

by

AAI-HITT

HITT (Holland Institute of Traffic Technology)

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12/26/16

Introduction

1.
2.
3.

4.

ASMGCS is a system to support the safe and efficient movement


of aircraft and vehicles on aerodrome under all possible visibility
conditions and traffic densities, taking into account the aerodrome
layout.
ASMGCS system functionality consists of (ICAO Doc 9830)
Surveillance: which provides identification and accurate positional information on
aircraft, vehicles and obstacles within the required area.
Control: application of measures to prevent collisions, runway incursions and to
ensure safe expeditious and efficient movement.
Guidance: facilities, information and advice necessary to provide continuous,
unambiguous and reliable information to pilots of aircraft and drivers of vehicles to
keep their aircraft or vehicles on the surfaces and assigned routes intended for their
use.
Support: facilities for management of the system and evaluation of data retieved
from the system.

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AAI-HITT

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System Description

1.

2.

Figure in the next slide shows the environment in which ASMGCS


operates. The sphere in the centre is the system consisting of
computers, sensors and software. The entities shown around the
sphere represent what the system physically interacts with. The
arrow reflects the flow of information.
The ASMGCS system exchanges information with the following
entities:
ATC: The Air Traffic Controller is the operational end user of the
system. The ASMGCS supports the controller in the safe and
efficient handling of the traffic on the taxiways and runways under
all possible operational conditions.
Surface Movement Radar(SMR): The THERMA SMR provides
radar video information about targets on the surface.The video
information is presented to the user and used as input for the target
tracking and identification function of the system.

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System Description
3. Approach Radar System: The approach radar provides coverage of the airspace in the
vicinity of the airfield. Data derived from the approach radar is used by the system
to predict runway incursions and, together with flight plan data from the FDPS, to
provide automatic identification of arriving flights.
4. Multilateration System: The ERA multilateration system provides the ASMGCS with
track and identification information.
5. Flight Data Processing System: Flight data is necessary for automatic identification of
arriving and departing aircraft and for presentation in the identification lists.
6. Maintenance Engineer: The maintenance engineer monitors and controls the technical
status of the system.This includes configuration of the system and adaptation of the
system to changes in the environment.
7. Time Reference: External source of the reference time(UTC) used throughout the
ASMGCS using the standard network time(NTP) protocol.
8. External System : The ASMGCS is capable to output plot information in ASTERIX
CAT 010 format.

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MULTILATERATION

Multilateration (MLAT) is the process of locating


aircraft based on the time difference of arrival (TDOA)
of its transponder signal to three or more strategically
placed receiver stations. A proven technology developed
decades ago for the military, MLAT uses small,
unmanned ground stations placed strategically around an
airport or terminal to provide constant air traffic
surveillance.

The stations listen for transponder returns or reply


signals transmitted from local secondary surveillance
radar (SSR) or MLAT stations. Because aircraft are
located at different distances from each ground station,
replies are received at fractionally different times. The
stations send the data to a central data processor where
sophisticated triangulation and TDOA computations
provide the precise position of the aircraft.

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MULTILATERATION

By determining the time difference of arrival (TDOA) of an aircraft's transponder


signal to 3 or more receiver stations, an aircrafts exact location can be determined.
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MULTILATERATION

Air traffic controllers see MLAT targets on their screens much


the same as conventional targets. However, because MLAT
data is updated every second, MLAT targets move at a much
smoother and more accurate progression. By contrast,
conventional SSRs must constantly rotate so position
information is only updated once every 4-12 seconds, which
gives radar targets the appearance of jumping across the
screen. Of course, MLAT data can be slowed down to
seamlessly integrate with existing SSR information.
MLAT requires no additional avionics equipment. It monitors
Mode A, C and S transponders, as well as military IFF and
ADS-B transponders. MLATs small, unmanned sensor
stations are more accurate and less expensive than traditional
SSRs and can be added to meet a wide range of coverage
requirements and future surveillance needs.

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MSS by ERA

MSS- (Multilateration Sureillance system).

MSS by Era is based on the proven time difference of


arrival (TDOA) multilateration principle to provide an
accurate and reliable real-time location and
identification of all aircraft, vehicles and other objects
equipped with a Mode A/C/S transponder. The system
also decodes ADS-B signals according to all
applicable standards.
The figure to the right shows an MSS sensor.
A-SMGCS utilize MSS by Era not only to increase
safety but also to facilitate increased operations and
more efficient control of airport resources. MSS by
Era enables a clear, single view of all aircraft and
vehicles on the airport surface regardless of weather
conditions. This allows for greater safety, as the
possibility for ground incursions, especially those on
the active runway, is greatly reduced.

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MULTILATERATION - SQUID

At busy airports worldwide, ground vehicle incursion into critical


safety areas is rising. Squid by Era minimizes the risk by using a
fully standards compliant, vehicle-mounted ADS-B transponder that
continually broadcasts a vehicles location. The transponder can be
permanently or magnetically mounted to all airside vehicles,
including tugs, fire and rescue vehicles. Each vehicle is clearly and
uniquely identified, providing an essential addition to any Advanced
Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS).

In this project 50 SQUIDs will be supplied to each of the three


Airports of Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. Then it will be upto the
Airport Management how to use them and for which vehicles.

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MULTILATERATION - SQUID
A Squid Unit provides air traffic controllers with uninterrupted location
information of this KLM Ground Vehicle at Schiphool Airport, Amsterdam

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The following selected locations were specified for MSS Sensors after site survey of
Kolkata Airport performed by ERA in June 2008.

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List of selected positions for MSS Sensors


S00_TWR
RX GS0_TWR
Control Tower
S01_SMR01 RXTX
GS3_GP01
SMR1
S02_SMR02 RXTX
GS8_MAST
SMR2
S03_CARGO RX GS1_FIRE ST
Cargo building
S04_WT8
RX GS7_WATCH TWR
Watch tower 8
S05_WT6
RX GS6_LLZ01
Watch tower 6
S06_GP19
RX GS5_GP19
GP antenna mast
S07_LLZ19 RX GS2_LLZ19 LLZ19
Localizer hut
S08_HANGAR_S RX GS1_HANGAR
IAC hangar
S09_HANGAR_N RX
blue hangar
S10_LIGHT_MAST
RX
Light mast on stand 50
S11_WATCH_HUT RXRMTR
GS4_MAST
Watch hut

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Surface Movement Radar(SMR)

Surface Movement Radar (SMR) is the most widely used


surveillance system for airport surveillance at present. SMR
refers to primary radar that provide surveillance cover for the
manoeuvring area.
SMR provide surveillance of all aircraft and vehicles in this
area with a high update rate. SMR antennas are often mounted
on the tower, which has good visibility of the manoeuvring
area.
The ground surface environment is quite different from high
altitude because of the increased clutter and other physical
problems. The quality of surveillance information on the
ground is often quite poor and limited by these physical
problems.
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Principle of Primary RADAR

RADAR(RAdio Detection And Ranging)


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Surface Movement Radar(SMR)


Radar measurement of range, or distance, is made possible because of the
properties of radiated electromagnetic energy.

Reflection of electromagnetic waves


The electromagnetic waves are reflected if they meet an electrically leading
surface. If these reflected waves are received again at the place of their
origin, then that means an obstacle is in the propagation direction.

Electromagnetic energy travels through air at a constant speed, at


approximately the speed of light, i.e.,300,000 kilometers per second.
This constant speed allows the determination of the distance between the
reflecting objects (airplanes, ships or cars) and the radar site by measuring
the running time of the transmitted pulses.

This energy normally travels through space in a straight line, and will vary
only slightly because of atmospheric and weather conditions. By using of
special radar antennas this energy can be focused into a desired direction.
Thus the direction (in azimuth and elevation) of the reflecting objects can be
measured.

These principles can be implemented in a radar system,


and allow the determination of the distance and the
direction of the reflecting object.
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Surface Movement Radar(SMR)


TERMA SMR

The Radar Sensor system is characterized by high resolution, a wide


receiver dynamic range, noise reduction facilities, built-in test equipment,
and, of course, the ability to perform remote servicing. The objective of the
system is to provide a clean picture of on-ground movements regardless of
weather conditions for Airport Surface Movement applications.

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The Working Positions


The A-SMGCS supports different roles, providing the correct access to
functionality and tools for each working position. Roles can be controlled
by maintenance engineers.
The following roles are available in Kolkata:
1) CONTROLLER
2) MAINTENANCE
3) REPLAY

Basic use of the Traffic Display (tradis)


4) PANNING by mouse, by background menu & by arrow keys.
5) ZOOMING - by mouse movement, by scroll wheel of mouse, by
background menu & by page up or page down.
6) ORIENTATION- by background menu.
7) PRESETS - combination of range,centre and orientation
settings.
8) UNDO/REDO -The last 20 display-actions (panning, zooming)
can be undone/redone for each traffic window. This is done by
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choosing Background Menu > Undo or Redo.

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ADDITIONAL TRAFFIC WINDOWS


1) Approach Window
2) Predefined Sub Traffic window
3) Free Sub Traffic window

TRAFFIC WINDOW- The information in a traffic window is shown in


a number of layers, where higher level layers cover lower level layers. The
following list ranks the layers from low to high:
4) Background
5) Maps (in the order of the selection list)
6) Radar video
7) Annotations
8) Tracks
9) Dialogue windows and lists

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THE CONTENTS OF THE TRAFFIC DISPLAY


MAPS Airport maps,
SMR maps,
Technical maps,
Emergency maps &
Local free map
RADAR VIDEO -

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THE CONTENTS OF THE TRAFFIC DISPLAY


ANNOTATIONS

TRACKS - The track is shown on the Traffic Display as a track symbol with a
track label. A track can have history dots to indicate previous track
positions. Tracks can be one of :1) arrival track (based on ADES- destination aerodrome)
2) departure track (based on ADEP- departure aerodrome)
3) tow track
4) vehicle track
5) other track (unidentified, e.g. SMR-only)
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Track display

Track colour :-

arrival track : yellow


departure track : blue
tow track: green
vehicle track : green
other track (unidentified) : gray

Track label types -

a) Normal label

b) Focus label
c) Quick look label
d) Fixed look label
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PLAN LISTS
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Arrival List - 30 minutes before their ETA.


Departure List - 30 minutes before their EOBT.
Coast List - identifications of tracks, lost within the identification area.
Vehicle List
Tow List
Alert List -The alerts list appears upon the first alert and is removed
automatically when there are no more active alerts and when all
acknowledgeable alerts have been acknowledged.

ALERTING - The A_SMGCS contains a number of automatic alerting


functions to warn the user for (potentially) dangerous situations. An alert
can be an event (e.g. an area penetration) or a state (e.g. two aircraft are in
conflict situation on the Rwy-in -use).
Alerts are presented:
by a colour indication of the callsign in the label
by an alert indicator in the track label
by a colour indication of the callsign in the Plan lists and TTT lists
by appearing in the Alerts list
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by
an
audible
alert
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Track label with pre-alert and alert :-

Types of
alerts :-

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RUNWAY MODE SELECTION


The controller can change the mode in which a runway is used by selecting the runway in
the Runway Configuration window and choosing the mode.
This function does not allow selecting conflicting runway usage.

VISIBILITY SELECTION
The A_SMGCS visibility status can be NORMAL or CAT II. The controller can manually
change the visibility status by choosing FUNCTIONS > VISIBILITY from the roll down
bar and select the new visibility. The change of visibility is system-wide and affects the
reaction times for RIM and TCM.

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TRANSPONDER OPERATING PROCEDURE (FOR


AIRCRAFT)

DEPARTURE
a) At the Parking stand

Select STBY

b) On Requesting Push Back / Taxi (whichever is earlier) Select XPDR


c) When Lining Up

Select TA/RA

ARRIVAL
a) When Still on the Runway Keep TA/RA selected
b) After Vacating the Runway Select XPDR
c) Fully Parked on Stand
AAI-HITT

Select STBY
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IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES
Before providing guidance to an aircraft/vehicle based on A_SMGCS derived information,
positive identity of the object should be established by use of at least one of the methods
specified below:
a) Correlating the position of a visually observed aircraft/vehicle to that
displayed on A_SMGCS.
b) Correlating an A_SMGCS position complying with an ATC instruction for
a specific manoeuvre.
c) Correlating a displayed A_SMGCS position of an aircraft or vehicle as
reported by radio.
d) Correlating a displayed A_SMGCS position to an aircraft or vehicle:
i) Entering a runway or taxiway intersection
ii) Abeam a building or airfield feature which either shows as a
permanent echo on the display or is marked on the video or grid map
iii) On a taxiway or runway, provided that there are no other
unidentified vehicles or aircraft on that runway or taxiway segment.
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LOST IDENTIFICATION
If identification is lost, the pilot shall be informed accordingly and, when
applicable, appropriate instructions issued.
If identification is lost, the controller should take immediate action to:
1) Re-identify the aircraft; or
2) Discontinue the use of A-SMGCS surveillance data.

CONTINGENCY AND FAILURE MODE


A_SMGCS data shall not be used for provision of Aerodrome Control Service in
Degraded and/or Failure Mode .
Under any one of the following conditions A_SMGCS shall be considered as in
Degraded/Failure Mode :1) RDPS is shown in the ROLL DOWN BAR.
2) FDPS is shown in the ROLL DOWN BAR.
3) MLAT is shown in the ROLL DOWN BAR.
4) TRK SMR1 & TRK SMR2 are shown in the ROLL DOWN BAR.
5) SMR1 & SMR2 are shown in the ROLL DOWN BAR
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THANK YOU
and enjoy working with

AAI-HITT

A_SMGCS

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12/26/16

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