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Canal Outlets and Cross

Drainage Works

Introduction
An outlet is a hydraulic structure conveying irrigation

water from a state owned distributary to privately


owned water course.

The outlets are large in number as compared to other

irrigation structures in an irrigation system and hence


their design and type has maximum bearing on the
equitable distribution of water.

Therefore proper design of outlet is of utmost


importance.

Canal Outlet

Tail cluster

Pakka nakka (Turnouts)

Essential Requirements of an outlet

An outlet should be strong and be without movable parts


to minimize tempering

Tempering by cultivators should be readily detectable

The outlet must carry its fair share of silt from parent
channel

It should be able to work with small working heads

It should be simple so that construction is easy

The total cost of installation and maintenance should be


minimum

Types of Outlets
Non-Modular Outlets
It is one in which the discharge is dependent upon the
difference of head in water course and parent channel.
Hence, a variation in either affects the discharge.

Semi-Modular (Flexible)
It is one in which the discharge depends upon the water
level in distributary only and is independent of water level
in water course.
This is achieved by producing hydraulic jump within the
flume length.

Modular (Rigid) Outlets


It is one in which the discharge is independent of the
water level in water course and parent channel.
It can be fixed for any discharge value. This is achieved
by creating a free vortex and destroying any extra head
more than allowed for in the designed discharge.

Types of Outlets
Semi-Modular

Modular

(Flexible)

(Rigid)

Non-Modular
Pipe or
Barrel Type,
with
drowned
flow at d/s
Scratchley
outlet
(a pipe type,
with a
cistern d/s)

Weir-Type

Orifice-Type
(OSM)

Harvey
Stoddard
outlet

Kennedy
Gauge
Outlet

Crumps
open
flume
outlet

Crumps
adjustable
proportion
al module

Jamrao
type open
flume

(Crumps APM)

Adjustable
orifice
semi
module

With moving parts


Without moving
parts

Gibbs module
Khanna module
Ghafoor rigid
flume module

Ope
n
flum
e

Orific
e

Ref: Mahbub SI, Gulhati ND (1964),


Irrigation outlets, Paper No 264, Pakistan
Engineering Congress, Lahore.

Pipe outlet

Ref:. http://www.scribd.com/doc/113998814/6/CANAL-OU

Harveys Outlet

Gibbs Module

CANAL OUTLETS
Non-Modular Outlets: Pipe Outlet
dQ/Q

dD/D

dH/H
dq/q

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions
Flexibility

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions

(3)15

CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions
2. Proportionality

(3)

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions
3. Setting

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions
4. Hyper Proportional Outlet

(4)

(4)

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions

(5)

(5)

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions

(6)

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CANAL OUTLETS
Important Definitions

(6)

(6)
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Characteristic of Outlets
Flexibility: It is defined as the ratio of rate of change of
discharge in outlet to the rate of change of discharge in
parent channel.
F = (dq/q)/(dQ/Q)
= (m/n)(D/H)
(H/D) is the setting of an outlet
n is exponent of discharge eq (Q=K1Dn) for canal & m is exponent of discharge
eq (q=K2Hm) for outlet. For Trap. channel with :1 side slope, n is 5/3, and for
open flume outlet m is 2/3. Therefore, F =0.9 D/H. If we set the crest of outlet
at 0.9D depth below water level, then F will be 1 & the outlet will be
proportional outlet.

Flexibility is the capacity of an outlet to vary its discharge


with the change in the discharge of the distributary.

If F=1
If F>1
If F<1

Proportional
Hyper-proportional
Sub-proportional

Characteristic of Outlets
Sensitivity: It is the ratio of rate of change of discharge of
an outlet to the rate of change in the level of distributary
water surface, i.e. normal depth of channel
S = (dq/q)/(dG/D)

Here, S is the sensitivity and G is the gauge reading of a

gauge which is so set that G = 0 corresponds to the


condition of no discharge through the outlet (i.e., Q0 = 0).

Sensitivity can also be defined as the ratio of the rate of


change of discharge of an outlet to the rate of change of
depth of flow in the distributary channel.

S = nF
n = 5/3 for wide trapezoidal channel with side slope :1

Characteristic of Outlets
Efficiency: It is equal to the ratio of the head recovered
(or the residual head after the losses in the outlet) to the
input head of the water flowing through the outlet.

Minimum Modular Head: it is the minimum head


required for the proper functioning of the outlet as per its
design.

Modular Limits: The extreme values of any parameter


at which a module or a semi module ceases to be capable
of acting as such.

Modular Range:

The range of conditions between the


modular limits within which a module or semi module works as
designed.

Characteristic of Outlets
Coefficient of Discharge:

In order to use the outlet as


a measuring device the coefficient of discharge should
remain constant in the full modular range.

Silt Drawing Capacity: It is vital that the outlets should


draw their fair share of silt. This avoids silting or scouring
and consequently remodeling of distributary.

In a distributary system the absorportion losses are


generally taken as 10-15% and therefore the silt conducting
power of outlets should be around 110-115% as compared
to 100% of distributary to enable them to draw their
proportional share.

Characteristic of Outlets
Adjustability: The adjustment of module may range from
complete reconstruction to the provision of some
mechanical arrangement by which readjustment can be
made at little cost. Readjustments are required in view of
the revision of areas under command and because of
change conditions in the distributary.

Immunity from Tempering:

There is tendency on the


parts of cultivators to draw more than their lawful share of
water by tampering with the outlets. Therefore the outlets
must be tamper proof.

Selection of Type of Outlet


A rigid module (Modular) or a Flexible module (Semimodular) with a constant coefficient of discharge is the
best selection if the discharge and the water levels are
constant in the distributary and necessary working head
is available.

But the problem of choice becomes quite complex when


both the discharge and levels are likely to change.

The following points may be noted;


For a temporary discharge variation a proportional
semi module is desirable to distribute both excess or
deficiency in the parent channel.
Seasonal variation in the slope require the use of
outlets of low flexibility, i.e., sub-proportional.

Selection of Type of Outlet


For channels running with full supply for a certain
period and remaining closed for certain other
periods, i.e. rotational running, it is desirable to have
hyper-proportional or high flexibility outlets in the
head reaches.
The silt drawing capacity of outlet must be 110-115%
assuming a 10-15% loss in parent channel.
In general rigid modules are desirable in the following
circumstances
Direct outlets on a branch canal subject to variation in
supply
In channels which sometimes carry extra discharge for
specific reasons like leaching.

Open Flume Outlets


This is a smooth weir with a throat constricted sufficiently
long to ensure that the controlling section remains with in
the parallel throat for all discharges up to the maximum

Since a hydraulic jump forms at the control section, the

water level of the watercourse does not affect the discharge


through this type of outlet. Hence this is a semi-modular
outlet.

This type of structure is built in masonry, but the controlling

section is generally provided with cast iron or steel bed and


check plates.

Open Flume Outlets

Open Flume Outlets


The discharge formula for the open flume outlet is given
as:

Q = C Bt H3/2

Where: Q is related to the coefficient of discharge, C, as

given in the table below; Bt is the width of the throat;


and H is the height of the full supply level of the supply
channel above the crest level of the outlet in ft.
Bt
C
0.2 ft 0.29 ft,
0.3 ft 0.39 ft
Over 0.4 ft

2.90
2.95
3.00

Crumps Open Flume Outlet Design


Data:
Outlet Discharge = q = 4 cfs
Full Supply Depth = D = 3.5 ft
Working Head = Hw = 1.0 ft
Discharge of Distributory = Q = 60 cfs
Design
1. Canal Section
According to Laceys theory, design of distributory
comes out to be
Side
Slope
1:0.5

D=5
B=38

Crumps Open Flume Outlet Design


Setting:
G= Setting of outlet

= 0.9 D

= 3.15 ft
Head above crest of outlet = 3.15 ft

Throat Width:
q= CdBtG3/2
q= 2.9BtG3/2
4=2.9Bt(3.15)3/2

Assuming Cd = 2.9

Bt= 0.2462 = 0.25 ft


Note: The value of Bt lies in between 0.2 to 0.29 ft.
(min. is 0.2ft)

Crumps Open Flume Outlet Design


Length of Crest:
Length of Crest = 2.5 G
= 2.5x3.15= 7.875=7.9 ft

Radius of Transition:
R = 2 G=6.30 ft

Setting Back:

This distance by which the wall parallel


to the distributary axis is to be set back bears the same
ratio to the width of distributary as the discharge of the
outlet to that of the distributary.
Setback/width of distributary = q/Q
Setting Back = 2.53 ft

Crumps Open Flume Outlet Design


Transition in bed:
The transition in bed is given by curve of radius= 2 G
= 2x3.15=6.3 ft

D/S Transition:
The slope of d/s glacis (1:10 to 1:15) is not defined as it
depend upon the bed level of the water course.

Minimum Modular Head:


MMH = 0.2G =0.2x3.15
= 0.63 ft < working head=1.0 ft (OK)

Crumps Open Flume Outlet Design


Flexibility:

(m=3/2, n=5/3)

F=(m/n) (D/G)
=(3/2/5/3)(1/0.9)

=1
Sensitivity:
S = nF
= 5/3 F = 5/3

Efficiency:
=100xHead recovered/Head put in
=100x(Head put in-Working head)/Head put in
=100 x (3.15-1)/3.15= 68.25%

Adjustable Proportional Module


(APM)
In this type of outlet, a cast iron base, a cast iron

roof
block and check plates on either side are used to adjust
the flow and is set in a masonry structure
This outlet works as a semi-module since it does not
depend upon the level of water in the watercourse.
The roof block is fixed to the check plates by bolts which
can be removed and depth of the outlet adjusted after
the masonry is dismantled.
This type of outlet cannot be easily tampered with and at
the same time be conveniently adjusted at a small cost.
The APM is the best type of outlet if the required working
head (MMH) is available and is the most economical in
adjustment either by raising or lowering the roof block or
crest. However, it is generally costlier than the other
types of outlets and also requires more working head.

Schematic Diagram of Outlet


Outlet discharge = q
= Cd Y Bt (Hs)1/2

Roof Block

FSL

Full supply depth in parent


channel = D
Working head = Hw
Discharge of canal = Q
Width of throat = Bt
Depth of water above crest
u/s = G
Flexibility = F
Min. Modular Head = Hm
Distance from tip of roof
block to FSL = Hs
Hs+Y = G, Hs=Y,
G = 0.6 D for proportional

Hs
V

Hm,
Hw

J
Y

Tail Cluster

When the discharge of a secondary, tertiary or quaternary canal

diminishes below 150 l/s (about 5 cusecs), it is desirable to


construct structures to end the canal and distribute the water
through two or more outlets, which is called a tail cluster. Each
of these outlets is generally constructed as an open flume outlet

CANAL OUTLETS
Step-II
Fixation of Maximum Length of Water Course

The maximum length of water course in general should not be


more than 3 Km. The longer length of water course will lead to
excessive seepage and ultimately the poor Irrigation.

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CANAL OUTLETS
Step-III
Determination of Water Level at the Outlet Head
i.

Identify Critical Field Level to be Commanded

ii. Fix Suitable Slope of the Water course depending upon the
soil.
iii. Determine Water Level at the Head of the Water Course based
upon the assumed slope.
iv. Assume appropriate minimum Working Head (normally 0.1 m)
v.

Determine the minimum Water Level at the Distributary Head as


under;

Distributary water level = Water Level at the Head of


Watercourse + Minimum working
head
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vi. This is called Command Statement as shown below;

CANAL OUTLETS
Step-III
Determination of Water Level at the Outlet Head

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CANAL OUTLETS
Step-IV

Determine the Discharge of the Outlet based upon the Area to be


Irrigated as well as the water allowance of the Distributary.
Knowing the Discharge design the appropriate the suitable type of
outlet.

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-1

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-2

H=h+y

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-2

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-3

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-4

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CANAL OUTLETS
Example-5
4

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CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Introduction

Irrigation canals while carrying water from Headworks to crop


field, have to cross few natural drainage streams, nallahs, etc. To
cross those Drainages safely by the canals, some suitable
structures are required to be constructed. Works required to cross
the Drainage are called Cross Drainage Works (CDWs).

At the meeting point of Canals and Drainages, bed levels (or


ground levels) may not be same. Depending on the their bed
levels, different structures are constructed and accordingly they
are designated by different names.

A suitable Design, keeping in view the surface and sub surface


flow consideration is the key to the efficient and sustainable
working of these Cross Drainage Works.
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CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Types of Cross Drainage Works

The Drainage water intercepting the canal can be disposed of by


different methods based on the bed level of Drainage. Sometimes
canal flows above the drainage and sometimes below.

When the bed levels of the Canal and Drainage are same, they are
allowed to mix and controlled water is supplied to the Irrigation.

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CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Aqueduct

If the bed level of irrigation canal is higher than the High Flood
Level (HFL) of the Drain, then canal is taken above the Drain.
This type of CDWs are called Aqueduct.

As shown in the enclosed figure canal is taken over the


Drainage. The canal is a reinforced cement concrete structure
supported on piers.

An inspection road is provided on the side of the canal as


shown. The two piers and pillars for the road may be brick
masonry or reinforced cement concrete. As HFL is below the
canal bed, hence, Drainage water flows freely below the canal.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Aqueduct

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Siphon Aqueduct

If HFL of Drain is above the bed level of the canal as shown in


the enclosed figure. Then Drainage water is to be disposed by
siphonic action, such aqueduct is called siphon aqueduct.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Super Passage

When the bed level of the Drainage is much above the canal
bed level (or FSL), then Drain is taken above the canal, such a
Cross Drainage Work is called Super Passage. Enclosed figure
shows the plan and sectional views of the super passage. This
is the just opposite to the Aqueduct.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Siphon Super Passage

Similar to siphon aqueduct, when full supply level in the


channel is higher then the bed level of the Drain, then water
level of the canal is to be siphoned. Such structure is called
Siphon Super Passage. The flow in the canal will be under
pressure due to siphonic action.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Level Crossing

When the bed level of canals and the Drain are approximately
the same level and quality of water in canal and Drain is not
much different, such a cross Drainage works is called level
Crossing, where water of canal and stream is allowed to
maximum.

With the help of Regulators both in Canal and Drain, water is


disposed through canal and Drain in required quantity.

The components of the Level crossing are;


i) Crest Wall
ii) Drainage Regulator
iii) Canal Regulator.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Level Crossing

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Operation

In dry season, drainage flow becomes very low. Crest wall


provided in Upstream of the Drain is kept closed and canal
water is allowed to flow as usual.

In rainy season, Drainage water is allowed to mix and with help


of Regulators constructed on Downstream sides of Canal and
Drain. Water flow in both is regulated by the gates provided
between the piers.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Inlet and Outlet

When irrigation canal meets a small stream or drain at same


level, drain is allowed to enter the canal as an inlet. At some
distance from this inlet point, a part of water is allowed to
drain as outlet which eventually meets the original stream as
shown in enclosed figure.

Stone pitching is required at the inlet and outlet. The bed and
banks between inlet and outlet are also protected by stone
pitching.

This type of CDW is called Inlet and Outlet.

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Inlet and Outlet

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


Design Features of Cross Drainage Works (CDWs)
A) Hydraulic Design
i.

Determination of Maximum Flood Discharge (Q) and the High


Flood Level (HFL).

ii. Fixation of waterway of the Drain.


iii. Construction of Canal waterway.
iv. Head loss through Syphon Barrels.
v. Determination of uplift pressure on the roof of Trough.
vi. Determination of uplift pressure on the floor.
vii. Design of connections.
B) Structural Design
i.

Designing of Cross-section of the Syphon Barrels and the


aqueduct trough.

ii. Design of piers and Abutments.


iii. Design of Foundations.

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Thank you

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