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Introduction to

Wavelets -part 2
By Barak Hurwitz

Wavelets seminar
with Dr Hagit Hal-or

List of topics
Reminder
1D signals

Wavelet Transform
CWT,DWT
Wavelet Decomposition
Wavelet Analysis

2D signals
Wavelet Pyramid
some Examples

Reminder from last


week

Why transform?
Why wavelets?
Wavelets like basis components.
Wavelets examples.
Wavelets advantages.
Continuous Wavelet Transform.

Reminder -Why
?transform

Reminder
Noise in Fourier
spectrum
Noise

1D SIGNAL

Coefficient * sinusoid of appropriate


frequency
The original signal

Wavelet Properties

Short time localized waves


0 integral value.
Possibility of time shifting.
Flexibility.

Wavelets families

Wavelet Transform

Coefficient * appropriately scaled and


shifted wavelet
The original signal

CWT
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5

Repeat steps 1-4 for all

Example
A simulated lunar landscape

CWT of the Lunar


landscape
1/46

scale
mother

tim
e

Scale and Frequency

Higher scale correspond to the


most stretched wavelet.

The more stretched the wavelet


the coarser the signal features
being measured by the wavelet
coefficient.

Low scale

High scale

Scale and Frequency


(Contd)
Low scale a : Compressed wavelet

:Fine details (rapidly changing) : High


frequency

High scale a : Stretched wavelet:

Coarse details (Slowly changing):


Low frequency

Shift Smoothly over the


analyzed function

The DWT
Calculating the wavelets coefficients at

every possible scale is too much work


It also generates a very large amount of
data

Solution: choose only a subset of scales and


positions, based on power of two (dyadic choice)

Approximations and
:Details

Approximations: High-scale, low-

frequency components of the signal


Details: low-scale, high-frequency
components
LPF
Input Signal
HPF

Decimation
The former process produces twice the data
To correct this, we Down sample (or:
Decimate) the filter output by two.

A complete one stage block :

Input
Signal

LPF

A*

HPF

D*

Multi-level
Decomposition

Iterating the decomposition process,

breaks the input signal into many lowerresolution components: Wavelet


decomposition tree:

ow pass filter

high pass filter

Wavelet reconstruction
Reconstruction (or synthesis) is the process
in which we assemble all components back

Up sampling
(or interpolation) is
done by zero
inserting between
every two
coefficients

Example*:

* Wavelet used: db2

What was wrong with


?Fourier

We loose the time


information

Short Time Fourier


Analysis

STFT - Based on the FT and using windowing :

STFT
between time-based and frequency-based.
limited precision.
Precision <= size of the window.
Time window - same for all frequencies.

?Whats wrong with Gabor

Wavelet Analysis
Windowing technique with variable size
window:
Long time intervals - Low frequency
Shorter intervals - High frequency

The main advantage:


Local Analysis
To analyze a localized area of a
larger signal.
For example:

Local Analysis (Contd) low


frequency
Fourier analysis Vs.
Wavelet analysis:

scale
Discontinuity effect
time

NOTHING!

High
frequency

exact location
in time of the discontinuity.

2D SIGNAL
b shift

Wavelet function

coefficient
a scale
coefficient

2D

function

a , b x

1
a

x b
a

1D function

a , bx , by x , y

1
a

x bx
a

y by
a

Time and Space


definition
1D
Time for one dimension waves

we start point shifting from source


to end in time scale .

2D

Space for image point shifting is


two dimensional .

Image Pyramids

Wavelet Decomposition

Wavelet DecompositionAnother Example

LENNA

LH
HL

HH

high pass

high pass

high pass

Coding Example
Original @ 8bpp

DWT
@0.5bpp

DCT
@0.5 bpp

Zoom on Details
DWT

DCT

Another Example
0.15bpp
DCT

DWT

0.18bpp

0.2bpp

Where do we use
Wavelets?
Everywhere around us are signals
that can be analyzed
For example:
seismic tremors
Wavelet
human
speech analysis is a
newvibrations
and promising set
engine
medical
imagesfor analyzing
of tools
financial data
these
signals
Music