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KOROSI

BAHAN TEKNIK 1

KOROSI
Korosi : Peristiwa
perusakan atau
degradasi material
logam akibat
bereaksi secara
kimia dengan
lingkungan

Fenomena Oksidasi

Tingkat keasaman

Standar Induksi Potensial

Peristiwa korosi dan


penangkalan

Laju Korosi

Oksidasi dan Reduksi

Standar EMF (Electromotive


Force)

Galvanis series

Macam-macam Korosi

Macam-macam Korosi

Macam-macam Korosi

Pencegahan Korosi

Degradasi Polimer

Degradasi Elastomer

Painting, waxing,zinc chromate


priming, thin layer of pure
alumunium alclad,anodizing and
coating with liquid protective
solution

Bagaimana cara menentukan tangki penyimpanan logam untuk penyimpanan


massal dari 50% kaustik soda (NaOH) dan apa fitur-fitur khusus harus
disertakan dalam sistem perpipaan ?

TANK LOCATION:
Careful consideration should be given to locating the bulk tank. Tank bottom elevation is
important.
Ideally, the best location is at the same elevation as the delivery vehicle and within 200
feet of the delivery location.
An area that is heated and has potable water and drains (for washdown) available is
best.
If caustic soda is to be maintained and stored at 50% a source of heat (electrical or
steam) must be also considered

TANK SIZING:
Storage Tanks should be sized for 1.5 times the maximum expected delivery size. This
extra capacity is required due to the swelling experinenced on delivery.
For tank truck deliveries of ~4000 USgallons, a 6000-7000 USgallon tank is acceptable.
For larger capacity, a 12,000 gallon tank is a good size.
For railcar deliveries,
A balance must be struck between delivery that is too frequent and the cost of
continuous heating of caustic.
For most users of 50% caustic, a four to 14 day periodic delivery schedule is attractive.

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION:
Bulk Storage tanks of 50% caustic can be made from mild steel (if iron "pick-up" is not a
concern to the process). Stainless steel and other alloys can also be used.
Tanks of mild steel with internal/external epoxy coatings have been used in cases where
iron pick-up is unacceptable.
Tanks made from mild steel must not exceed 125F to prevent caustic corrosion cracking.
Polypropylene can also be used for smaller day tanks. FRP is not recommended without
PE/PVC or PTFE linings.

TANK DESIGN:
-- General
Tanks should be specified, designed and constructed to API-650, API-620 or
ASME Section VIII.
Because tanks in caustic soda service will have a specific gravity greater
than 1.0, the UL-142 code is not acceptable.
For 50% caustic storage, a design specific gravity of 1.6 is recommended
Because caustic soda is difficult to pump when the temperature gets to
~60F, Storage tanks must be heated or kept in a warm room.
Electric pad heaters set at 80F are easy to control and maintain. A shell
mounted temperature gauge is useful.
A periodic cleaning schedule of 2 to 4 years is suggested.
Calcium/magnesium hydroxide and other compounds will collect as
sediment inside the tank.

hell/Roof and Bottom thickness:


A shell and roof thickness not less than 0.25 inches is suggested.
A bottom thickness of 0.375 inches is advised to provide margin against corrosion.
-- Aspect ratio and freeboard:
The configuration that typicaly yields the cheapest tank is a vertical tank with a flat bottom.
Tanks that have an "aspect ratio" (shell height to diameter) of between 0.9 and 1.2 are usually
cheaper.
A freeboard of three inches is acceptable
-- Anchorage and foundations:
Bulk tanks set on a pad are typically easier to maintain and keep clean.
The pad should be a minimum of six inches high and can incorporate a leak detection
configuration.
Anchor bolts are not always required on flat bottomed tanks.
They are only required where the tank is subject to sinificant wind or seismic loading ( See
reference #1)
Foundation design should consider the incorporation of a flush "clean-out nozzle" in the tank design
d

-- Nozzle design and Sizes:


The inlet piping and nozzle should incorporate a "dip-tube" (a dip-tube is a braced,
internal pipe that prevents foaming and local erosion of the tank shell)
A dip tube that runs to within 12 inches of the tank bottom. The dip tube should
discharge onto a square plate welded to the tank floor)
A "clean-out" nozzle ( not less than 4 inches NPS), flush to the bottom of the tank will
facilitate maintenance and inspection.
This nozzle can be either blinded or fitted with a valve and hose connection.
A spare nozzle outlet and spare vent on the roof is a good investment
-- Venting:
Bulk caustic storage tanks should have a generously sized vent.
Indoor tanks should be piped so that they are vented outdoors. Use a stainless steel
mesh "bird screen" on the vent to prevent blockage.
Because caustic soda is non-flammable, no emergency vent system is require

Overflow:
Bulk caustic storage tanks should have a weir type overflow that is seperate from
the vent.
If possible, the overflow should flow to a sump location that is obvious to the person
filling the tank.
-- Outlet (Pump Suction):
The tank outlet should be no smaller than 3" NPS
For vertical tanks, the centerline of the pump suction nozzle should be located no
closer than 12 inches from the tank bottom.
This is to ensure that "iron rich" caustic and any debris stays in the tank
For horizontal tanks, the pump suction nozzle should protrude 3 inches into the tank
-- Level Indication:
Gauge glasses are not recommended due to clogging and difficulty keeping warm.
Ultrasonic level detection has been widely used
Some companies install a small gauge hatch on the tank roof for manual gauging

Alarms:
A high level alarm (float switch) mounted on the tank shell at the 95% level
is suggested.
Some companies tie the level alarm to automated closure of a control valve
on the inlet
-- Manways:
As a minimum, a roof mounted 24 inch manway is suggested. Tanks larger
than 10,000 gallons should consider both a roof and shell manway.
Consider a tank mounted ladder to the tank roof for manway/tank roof
access
-- Insulation:
Two inches of polyurethane or cellular glass is acceptable for keeping the
tank below 125F

PIPING SYSTEMS:
Piping systems should be seamless carbon steel, but stainless steel and other materials
are acceptable, but more expensive.
The entire piping system should be sloped to be free draining.
Consider adding valved air-purge connections to promote easy cleaning
-- Flanges and pipe joints:
Butt welded and socket welded joints are recommended. Flanges and uniouns should be
kept to a minimum.
Flange guards (splash shield inserts) should be used.

-- Valves and trim:


flanged, quarter turn, Plug or ball valves are recommended with PTFE trim.
Ductile iron, cast iron and stainless steel have been used successfully.
Dow Chemical recommends Alloy 20

PUMPS:
Centrifugal pumps with packing or mechanical seals are often used.
Pumps with packing will become a maintenance item as the packing will allow buildup
of NaOH at the shaft.
Mag-drive pumps have also been used.
Rotary pumps are an acceptable alternative.
Pump motor sizing must consider the higher specific gravity of the liquid.

______________________________________________________________________________________
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- OTHER CONSIDERATIONS:
1)Document the tank thickness upon installation for use later
2)Ensure that all personnel protective equipment is used during offloading and
maintenance.
3)Safety showers,eyewash stations and potable water supply are recommended at
the offload location and at transfer/metering pumps.

Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda)


is a strong base.
It is used in metal degreasing
and cleaning processes in a wide
range of industry applications.
Stainless steels types 304 and
316 can be considered resistant
below 80 degC, up to the limit of
solubility.

Caustic stress corrosion cracking' occurs at higher temperatures than


chloride stress corrosion cracking (which can occur at temperatures as low
as 60 degC).
The area of risk in sodium hydroxide is shown on the iso-corrosion diagram
by the area bounded by a green line.
Risk of pitting attack by chlorides
Chlorides should not pose as great a pitting and crevice corrosion attack
threat in sodium hydroxide as they do in acid solutions.
The high pH values of the 'basic' sodium hydroxide helps arrest the normal
mechanisms of attack.
Care may be necessary when selecting 304 types for sodium hydroxide
cleaning systems or tanks, where 'carry-over' of chlorides could occur from
prior treatment stages.
It may be better to consider 316 or the 316L types if this could occur.
The 316L type may be a marginally better choice where the steel may have
been sensitised in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welds and post weld
softening / stress relief is not practical.