Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

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Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

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NAME/SURNAME: SAIFUDDIN

SAIFUDDIN ARIAPOUR

ARIAPOUR

SCHOOL

SCHOOL No:

No: 120301094

120301094

EXCHANGER

Introduction

A double-pipe heat exchanger consists of two concentric pipes often performing a U-turn.

Due to low costs, it has a large range of applications especially in the chemical process

industry. Another advantage is that it can operate at very high pressures. For different

scopes, the double-pipe heat exchanger can be stacked in series.Engine

model a double-pipe heat exchanger

and focuses on preparing the geometry

in order to build a suitable mesh

manually. In addition, typical

postprocessing options are shown.

Figure 1: Geometry and concept of the double-pipe

heat exchanger.

Model Definition

The concept and basic geometry of the double-pipe heat exchanger is shown in Figure

1. The heat exchanger is made of high tensile steel (Steel AISI 4340). The radii of the

concentric pipes are 2.55 cm and 4.8 cm while the overall length is about 6 m. Due to

this high aspect ratio, the mesh has to be carefully handled.

Model Definition

Engine oil at 130 C flows through the outer pipe and is cooled by a transformer oil at 60

C, flowing in counter-current through the inner pipe to prevent the engine oil from

overheating. The material properties of both oils depend on the temperature, thus the

Non-Isothermal Flow predefined multiphysics coupling is used.

F LOW R E G I M E

To decide whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, estimate the Reynolds number beforehand. The

Reynolds number for flows inside a pipe is defined as

Re = vDH/

where is the density of the fluid, v the typical velocity (taken as the inlet velocity), the

viscosity and DH the hydraulic diameter. For the inner pipe, DH is equal to the diameter of the pipe, and for

the outer pipe it is the difference between the pipes radii. Adhere to the typical values in Table 1 to

evaluate Re.

Figure 2 shows the temperature distribution along the center plane. The transformer oil

is heated up by 10 K to 70 C while the engine oil is cooled by 8 K to 122 C.

zoomed at inlet and outlet regions.

velocity field

zoomed at inlet and outlet regions.

Obtain flowrate (W ), inlet, outlet temperatures and fouling factor for both

hot and cold stream. Calculate physical properties like density (), viscosity

(), specific heat (Cp) and thermal conductivity (k) at mean temperature.

Determine heat load by energy balances on two streams.

Q = mH.CpH(THot In - THot Out) = mC.CpC(tCold Out - tCold

)

In

where,

mH, mC: Mass flow rate of Hot and Cold Stream

CpH, CpC: Specific Heat of Hot and Cold Stream

THot In, THot Out: Inlet and outlet temperature of Hot Stream

tCold In, tCold Out: Inlet and outlet temperature of Cold Stream

T2)

T1 = THot In - tCold Out T2 = THot Out - tCold In

T1 = THot In - tCold In T2 = THot Out - tCold Out

Allocate hot and cold streams either in inner tube or annular space. General

criteria for fluid placement in inner tube is corrosive fluid, cooling water,

fouling fluid, hotter fluid and higher pressure stream. Calculate equivalent

diameter (De) and flow area (Af) for both streams.

Inner Tube

De = Di Af = Di/4

Annular Space

De = D1 - Do Af = (D1 - Do)/4

where,

Di: Inside Pipe Inner Diameter

Do: Inside Pipe Outer Diameter

D1: Outside Pipe Inner Diameter

Calculate velocity (V), Reynolds No. (Re) and Prandtl No. (Pr)

number for each stream.

V = W / ( Af ) Re = De V / Pr = Cp / k

exchanger is assumed and heat transfer coefficient

is calculated. Viscosity correction factor ( /

w)0.14due to wall temperature is considered 1

For Laminar Flow (Re <= 2300), Seider Tate equation is used.

For Transient & Turbulent Flow (Re > 2300), Petukhov and Kirillov equation modified by

Gnielinski can be used.

Nu = (f/8)(Re - 1000)Pr(1 + D e/L)2/3/[1 + 12.7(f/8)0.5(Pr2/3 - 1)]*(/w)0.14 f = (0.782*

ln(Re) - 1.51)-2

where,

L : Length of Double Pipe Exchanger

w: Viscosity of fluid at wall temperature

Nu : Nusselts Number (h.De/ k)

Wall temperature is calculated as following.

TW = (hitAve + hoTAveDo/Di)/(hi + hoDo/Di)

where,

hi: Film coefficient Inner pipe

ho: Film coefficient for Annular pipe

tAve: Mean temperature for Inner pipe fluid stream

TAve: Mean temperature for Annular fluid stream

Viscosity is calculated for both streams at wall temperature and heat transfer

coefficient is multiplied

by viscosity correction factor.

Coefficient

Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is calculated as following.

1/U = Do/hi.Di + Do.ln(Do/Di)/2kt + 1/ho+ Ri.Do/Di + Ro

where,

Ri: Fouling factor Inner pipe

Ro: Fouling factor for Annular pipe

kt: Thermal conductivity of tube material

exchanger as following.

.

Area = Q / (U * LMTD ) L = Area / * D o

Compare this length with the assumed length, if considerable difference is there

use this length

and repeat above steps, till there is no change in length calculated.

following.

N

Hairpin

= L / ( 2 * Length

Hairpin

Pressure drop in straight section of pipe is calculated as following .

PS = = f.L.G/(7.5x1012.De.SG.(/ w)0.14)

where,

P : Pressure Drop in PSI

SG : Specific Gravity of fluid

G : Mass Flux ( W / Af) in lb/h.ft

friction factor can be computed as

following

f = 64/Re

f = (64 / Re) * [ (1 - ) / ( 1 + + (1 - ) / ln

) ] = Do / D1

annular pipe

f = 0.3673 * Re

-0.2314

Changes

For Laminar Flow

PR = 2.0x10-13. (2NHairpin - 1 ).G/SG

PR = 1.6x10-13. (2NHairpin - 1 ).G/SG

Total

= P + P

S

Design Calculation

In this design,A double-Pipe heat exchanger is used to cool hot oil from 90 C to

40 C temperature with cold water available at +10 C. Mass flow rates and

specific heats for oil and water are 0.60 kg/s and 2.5 kJ / kgK for oil and

0.20 kg/s and 4.2 kJ / kgK for water. With said fluid flow rates, the overall heat

transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is known to be approximately

200 W/m2K

The exchanger is built of co-centric tube, inner having inside and outside

diameters of 26.6 mm and 33.4 mm, the outer tube diameters 52.5 mm and

60.3 mm. The exchanger is built of 1.8 meter long elements The exchanger can

be connected to either counter- or parallelflow and Calculating the number of

elements required for both flow arrangement options.

We must solve the area A, and understanding that the area is the larger of the two areas,

calculate then the required number of 3.6 metre elements.

First the heat transfer rate q must be found in order to calculate the cold stream

outlet temperature from equation (4.2), then DTlm from eq. (4.6), and finally A

from eq. (4.4):

(4.2)

(4.6)

(4.4)

Tlm T1 T2 ,

T

ln T21

A

q

UTlm

C c = m c cp,c = 0.30 kg/s 4200 J / kgK = 1260 W / K

Heat transfer rate, from eq. (4.2):

q = C h(Th,i Th,o) = C c(Tc,o Tc,i) = 1500 W/K (90C

40C) = 75000 W

q = C c (Tc,o Tc,i) Tc,o = Tc,i + q / C c

Tc,o = Tc,i + q / C c = 10 C + (75000W / 1260W/K) =

69.5 C

First counterflow arrangement: Solving Tlm by substituting

from eq. (4.7) to eq. (4.6):

T1 = (Th,i Tc,o) = 90 C 69.5 C = 20.5 C

T2 = (Th,o Tc,i) = 40 C 10 C = 30 C

Tlm

T1 T2 20.5

30C

T

20.5

1

ln

ln

30

T2

24.95C

A

UTlm

75000W

15.03m2

W

200 2 24.95C

m

K

The heat transfer area is the larger surface area separating the fluids; that is, the

outer wall area of the inner tube,

A = do L,

where L is the total length of tube in the heat exchanger that we must solve,

L = A / do = 15.03 m2 / ( 0.0334m) = 143.2 m,

and required number of elements n therefore

n 143.2m/1.8m 79.6 80 .

Next the same procedure should be carried out for the parallelflow

arrangement. Eq.(4.8) gives temperature differences at inlet and outlet

T1 = (Th,i Tc,i) = 90 C 10 C = 80 C

T2 = (Th,o Tc,o) = 40 C 69.5 C = -29.5 C

The fact that the outlet temperature difference is negative shows what could

have been concluded already from the outlet temperatures: in order to cool

the oil to 40C

Water needs to be heated a higher temperature than that. This makes it impossible to

achieve the required oil outlet temperature with arrangement.

COMMENTS:

A very large number of cooling elements were needed; it is likely that another type of

heat exchanger construction such as a small shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a

smaller tube size would have provided a cheaper and more compact option.

Objectives

Objectives

and co-current flow, by varying hot water flow rate and keeping cold water

flow rate constant.

Summary

temperatures of the inner tube hot water and outer tube cold water at various positions were

measured

inner wall heat transfer coefficient was larger than outer wall heat transfer coefficient

nusselt number determined from inner film heat transfer coefficient and reynolds number

from hot water flow rate. a relationship is formed between these 2 and compared to

dittus-boelter correlation

Theoretical Background

Heat Exchangers

Plate Heat

Exchanger

Exchanger

Theoretical Background

Dimensionless Constants

ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces

Theoretical Background

Correlations

Dittus-Boelter correlation:

where:n = 0.4 if fluid is heated, n = 0.3 if fluid is cooledall fluid properties measured at

arithmetic mean bulk temperaturereynolds > 100000.7 < prandtl < 100l/d > 60

Theoretical Background

Correlations

ieder-Tate correlation:

Where:All fluid properties except viscosity at wall temperature are evaluated at bulk

temperatureReynolds > 100000.7 < Prandtl < 17000L/D > 60

(H952)Water tap

Cross section of double-pipe heat

exchanger

throughout the runs

Experimental Procedures

1

Results

Results

The hot water bulk temperature, (t3 + t6)/2, must be within 2 degree Centigrade of each

other for the different runsFor the 5th run, to ensure that the hot water bulk temperature

is within 2 degree centigrade of the other 4 runs, the temperature was set to be much

higher than the other runsThe temperature readings would then be used in the subsequent

calculations and their results discussed.

Discussion

Check the energy balance for the heat exchanger. Are the assumptions required for the

validity of Q = UA(log mean T) satisfied?

Discussion

accumulation in heat exchanger wall or in fluidConstant overall heat transfer

coefficientConstant fluid properties for the bulk flowNo phase changes in the fluidNo shaft

workIncompressible fluid

Discussion

Steady-stateTime was allowed for the flow rate and fluid temperature to stabilize before

readings were taken. In terms of flow, flow of fluid in the pipes is assumed to be fully

developed. Very minor fluctuations in the flow rates further allows us to approximate a

steady state condition

Discussion

Adiabatic systemUnder adiabatic system, there is no heat loss. Qloss = 0Qhot = QcoldHeat

loss by hot water = Heat gain by cold water

Counter-current:

Co-current:

Discussion

exchanger as the 2 streams only contained water and they were streamed at different

temperatures. Thus no heat generation assumption holds.Friction could be generated as

water flows through the pipe, however, the amount of heat contributed through this is

small relative to the amount of heat transferred in the main exchanger process and can be

neglected. (Still relatively valid)

Discussion

temperature varies along the length of a heat exchanger, the value of Uo would fluctuate

non-linearly throughout the exchanger and thus some degree of deviation is expected

when comparing the experimental value and the theoretical value, which is under the

steady state assumption. However, Uo calculated on the basis of log- mean temperature

difference and hence the Uo can be approximately related to a constant function for a

section of the heat exchanger

Discussion

fluid properties such specific heat capacity (Cp), viscosity () and density () are assumed

to be constant. In reality, they are functions of temperature. Since temperature varies

along the length of the pipe, the fluid properties will change accordingly too. However,

since the temperature dependence of water properties is weak and the inlet and outlet

temperatures for the respective streams are close, this assumption is justified

Discussion

No phase changes to the fluidThe experiments lie in the region for which the fluid remains

a liquid.i.e 0-100 degrees Centigrade

Discussion

follows:Accumulation = Energy INPUT Energy OUTPUT + Energy generationAssuming

steady-state operation with no energy generation, the energy balance for the heat

exchanger can be simplified to give:Energy INPUT = Energy OUTPUTWhich translates to the

heat lost by hot fluid stream is equal to heat gained by cold fluid stream, i.e., Qc = Qh in

the absence of heat lost or gained from surrounding.

Discussion

Temperature profiles for both hot and cold water streams for counter and co-current

arrangement?

Discussion

The temperature points to be measured:

Discussion

Discussion

Discussion

Plot the film heat transfer coefficient hi and ho and the overall heat transfer coefficient

versus hot water flow for both configurations.

Discussion

Discussion

properties measured at arithmetic mean bulk temperatureReynolds > 100000.7 < Prandtl <

100L/D > 60

Discussion

All 5 runs satisfy the requirements to use Dittus-Boelter correlation as Reynolds > 10000,

0.7 < Prandtl < 100 and L/D > 60

All 5 runs satisfy the requirements to use Dittus-Boelter correlation as Reynolds > 10000,

0.7 < Prandtl < 100 and L/D > 60

Discussion

Include Prandtl into the constant a.Calculating Prandtl to be an average of 2.9968 in both

counter and co-current arrangements,

Discussion

and this was found to be true for b, but not

towere expected, but heat loss to surroundings ranges from 2% to 50% due to poor

insulation and results in high inaccuracies in calculations

Discussion

Discuss briefly the differences between shell-and-tube heat exchanger and plate heat

exchanger.

Experimental Precautions

Flow rate meters were read at eye level to eliminate parallax error

System was given time to reach steady state after each change in flow rate and

temperature set point before data was recorded

Time was given to allow the temperature readings to stabilize after turning the

temperature selector switch before data was recorded

Mean hot water temperature (t3+t6)/2 was maintained within 2C for each hot water

flow rate

Thank you!

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