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No: 120301094




A double-pipe heat exchanger consists of two concentric pipes often performing a U-turn.
Due to low costs, it has a large range of applications especially in the chemical process
industry. Another advantage is that it can operate at very high pressures. For different
scopes, the double-pipe heat exchanger can be stacked in series.Engine

This tutorial shows how to efficiently

model a double-pipe heat exchanger
and focuses on preparing the geometry
in order to build a suitable mesh
manually. In addition, typical
postprocessing options are shown.
Figure 1: Geometry and concept of the double-pipe
heat exchanger.

Model Definition

The concept and basic geometry of the double-pipe heat exchanger is shown in Figure
1. The heat exchanger is made of high tensile steel (Steel AISI 4340). The radii of the
concentric pipes are 2.55 cm and 4.8 cm while the overall length is about 6 m. Due to
this high aspect ratio, the mesh has to be carefully handled.

Model Definition

Engine oil at 130 C flows through the outer pipe and is cooled by a transformer oil at 60
C, flowing in counter-current through the inner pipe to prevent the engine oil from

overheating. The material properties of both oils depend on the temperature, thus the
Non-Isothermal Flow predefined multiphysics coupling is used.


To decide whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, estimate the Reynolds number beforehand. The
Reynolds number for flows inside a pipe is defined as

Re = vDH/

where is the density of the fluid, v the typical velocity (taken as the inlet velocity), the

viscosity and DH the hydraulic diameter. For the inner pipe, DH is equal to the diameter of the pipe, and for
the outer pipe it is the difference between the pipes radii. Adhere to the typical values in Table 1 to
evaluate Re.

Figure 2 shows the temperature distribution along the center plane. The transformer oil
is heated up by 10 K to 70 C while the engine oil is cooled by 8 K to 122 C.

Figure 2: Temperature field in the central plane,

zoomed at inlet and outlet regions.

velocity field

Figure 3: Velocity magnitude inside the pipes,

zoomed at inlet and outlet regions.

Determine Heat Load

Obtain flowrate (W ), inlet, outlet temperatures and fouling factor for both
hot and cold stream. Calculate physical properties like density (), viscosity
(), specific heat (Cp) and thermal conductivity (k) at mean temperature.
Determine heat load by energy balances on two streams.

Determine Heat Load

Q = mH.CpH(THot In - THot Out) = mC.CpC(tCold Out - tCold

mH, mC: Mass flow rate of Hot and Cold Stream
CpH, CpC: Specific Heat of Hot and Cold Stream
THot In, THot Out: Inlet and outlet temperature of Hot Stream
tCold In, tCold Out: Inlet and outlet temperature of Cold Stream

Calculate Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

LMTD = (T1 - T2)/ln( T1 /


For Counter-current flow

T1 = THot In - tCold Out T2 = THot Out - tCold In

For Co-current flow

T1 = THot In - tCold In T2 = THot Out - tCold Out

Calculate Film Coefficient

Allocate hot and cold streams either in inner tube or annular space. General
criteria for fluid placement in inner tube is corrosive fluid, cooling water,
fouling fluid, hotter fluid and higher pressure stream. Calculate equivalent
diameter (De) and flow area (Af) for both streams.

Calculate Film Coefficient

Inner Tube
De = Di Af = Di/4

Annular Space
De = D1 - Do Af = (D1 - Do)/4

Di: Inside Pipe Inner Diameter
Do: Inside Pipe Outer Diameter
D1: Outside Pipe Inner Diameter

Calculate Film Coefficient

Calculate velocity (V), Reynolds No. (Re) and Prandtl No. (Pr)
number for each stream.
V = W / ( Af ) Re = De V / Pr = Cp / k

For first iteration a Length of double pipe

exchanger is assumed and heat transfer coefficient
is calculated. Viscosity correction factor ( /
w)0.14due to wall temperature is considered 1

Calculate Film Coefficient

For Laminar Flow (Re <= 2300), Seider Tate equation is used.

Nu = 1.86 (Re.Pr.De/L )1/3(/ w)0.14

For Transient & Turbulent Flow (Re > 2300), Petukhov and Kirillov equation modified by
Gnielinski can be used.
Nu = (f/8)(Re - 1000)Pr(1 + D e/L)2/3/[1 + 12.7(f/8)0.5(Pr2/3 - 1)]*(/w)0.14 f = (0.782*
ln(Re) - 1.51)-2

L : Length of Double Pipe Exchanger
w: Viscosity of fluid at wall temperature
Nu : Nusselts Number (h.De/ k)

Estimate Wall Temperature

Wall temperature is calculated as following.
TW = (hitAve + hoTAveDo/Di)/(hi + hoDo/Di)
hi: Film coefficient Inner pipe
ho: Film coefficient for Annular pipe
tAve: Mean temperature for Inner pipe fluid stream
TAve: Mean temperature for Annular fluid stream
Viscosity is calculated for both streams at wall temperature and heat transfer
coefficient is multiplied
by viscosity correction factor.

Overall Heat Transfer

Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is calculated as following.
1/U = Do/hi.Di + Do.ln(Do/Di)/2kt + 1/ho+ Ri.Do/Di + Ro
Ri: Fouling factor Inner pipe
Ro: Fouling factor for Annular pipe
kt: Thermal conductivity of tube material

Calculate Area and length of double pipe

exchanger as following.
Area = Q / (U * LMTD ) L = Area / * D o
Compare this length with the assumed length, if considerable difference is there
use this length
and repeat above steps, till there is no change in length calculated.

Number of hair pin required is estimated as



= L / ( 2 * Length


Calculate Pressure Drop

Pressure drop in straight section of pipe is calculated as following .
PS = = f.L.G/(7.5x1012.De.SG.(/ w)0.14)
P : Pressure Drop in PSI
SG : Specific Gravity of fluid
G : Mass Flux ( W / Af) in lb/h.ft

For Laminar flow in inner pipe,

friction factor can be computed as
f = 64/Re

For Laminar flow in annular pipe.

f = (64 / Re) * [ (1 - ) / ( 1 + + (1 - ) / ln
) ] = Do / D1

For turbulent flow in both pipe and

annular pipe
f = 0.3673 * Re


Pressure Drop due to Direction

For Laminar Flow
PR = 2.0x10-13. (2NHairpin - 1 ).G/SG

For Turbulent Flow

PR = 1.6x10-13. (2NHairpin - 1 ).G/SG

Total Pressure Drop


= P + P

Design Calculation
In this design,A double-Pipe heat exchanger is used to cool hot oil from 90 C to
40 C temperature with cold water available at +10 C. Mass flow rates and
specific heats for oil and water are 0.60 kg/s and 2.5 kJ / kgK for oil and
0.20 kg/s and 4.2 kJ / kgK for water. With said fluid flow rates, the overall heat
transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is known to be approximately
200 W/m2K

The exchanger is built of co-centric tube, inner having inside and outside
diameters of 26.6 mm and 33.4 mm, the outer tube diameters 52.5 mm and
60.3 mm. The exchanger is built of 1.8 meter long elements The exchanger can
be connected to either counter- or parallelflow and Calculating the number of
elements required for both flow arrangement options.

We must solve the area A, and understanding that the area is the larger of the two areas,
calculate then the required number of 3.6 metre elements.
First the heat transfer rate q must be found in order to calculate the cold stream
outlet temperature from equation (4.2), then DTlm from eq. (4.6), and finally A
from eq. (4.4):




q C hot Thot ,in Thot,out Ccold .Tcold ,out Tcold ,in .

Tlm T1 T2 ,
ln T21


Heat capacity rates of the fluids:

C h = m h cp,h = 0.60 kg/s 2500 J / kgK = 1500 W / K

C c = m c cp,c = 0.30 kg/s 4200 J / kgK = 1260 W / K
Heat transfer rate, from eq. (4.2):
q = C h(Th,i Th,o) = C c(Tc,o Tc,i) = 1500 W/K (90C
40C) = 75000 W

Cold fluid outlet temperature, solving Tc,o from eq. (4.2):

q = C c (Tc,o Tc,i) Tc,o = Tc,i + q / C c
Tc,o = Tc,i + q / C c = 10 C + (75000W / 1260W/K) =
69.5 C
First counterflow arrangement: Solving Tlm by substituting
from eq. (4.7) to eq. (4.6):
T1 = (Th,i Tc,o) = 90 C 69.5 C = 20.5 C
T2 = (Th,o Tc,i) = 40 C 10 C = 30 C


T1 T2 20.5



Then area from eq. (4.4):



200 2 24.95C

The heat transfer area is the larger surface area separating the fluids; that is, the
outer wall area of the inner tube,
A = do L,
where L is the total length of tube in the heat exchanger that we must solve,
L = A / do = 15.03 m2 / ( 0.0334m) = 143.2 m,
and required number of elements n therefore

n 143.2m/1.8m 79.6 80 .

Next the same procedure should be carried out for the parallelflow
arrangement. Eq.(4.8) gives temperature differences at inlet and outlet

T1 = (Th,i Tc,i) = 90 C 10 C = 80 C
T2 = (Th,o Tc,o) = 40 C 69.5 C = -29.5 C

The fact that the outlet temperature difference is negative shows what could
have been concluded already from the outlet temperatures: in order to cool
the oil to 40C

Water needs to be heated a higher temperature than that. This makes it impossible to
achieve the required oil outlet temperature with arrangement.
A very large number of cooling elements were needed; it is likely that another type of
heat exchanger construction such as a small shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a
smaller tube size would have provided a cheaper and more compact option.


To investigate the characteristics of double-pipe heat exchanger for counter

and co-current flow, by varying hot water flow rate and keeping cold water
flow rate constant.


temperatures of the inner tube hot water and outer tube cold water at various positions were

heat transfer for counter-current system was found to be more efficient

inner wall heat transfer coefficient was larger than outer wall heat transfer coefficient

nusselt number determined from inner film heat transfer coefficient and reynolds number
from hot water flow rate. a relationship is formed between these 2 and compared to
dittus-boelter correlation

Theoretical Background
Heat Exchangers

main purpose is to regulate temperature in industrial processes

types include shell and tube, double-pipe, plate heat exchangers

double-pipe heat exchanger consists of 2 concentric tubes

energy exchange occurs by conduction and convection

Plate Heat

Shell and Tube Heat


Theoretical Background
Dimensionless Constants
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces

ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces

ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer

ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer

Theoretical Background

Dittus-Boelter correlation:

where:n = 0.4 if fluid is heated, n = 0.3 if fluid is cooledall fluid properties measured at
arithmetic mean bulk temperaturereynolds > 100000.7 < prandtl < 100l/d > 60

Theoretical Background

ieder-Tate correlation:

Where:All fluid properties except viscosity at wall temperature are evaluated at bulk
temperatureReynolds > 100000.7 < Prandtl < 17000L/D > 60

Apparatus and Equipment

There are 2 main equipment used in the experiment:Double-pipe heat exchanger

(H952)Water tap

Apparatus and Equipment

Cross section of double-pipe heat

The 10 temperatures to be monitored

throughout the runs

Experimental Procedures


For counter-current flow:

For co-current flow:


The hot water bulk temperature, (t3 + t6)/2, must be within 2 degree Centigrade of each
other for the different runsFor the 5th run, to ensure that the hot water bulk temperature
is within 2 degree centigrade of the other 4 runs, the temperature was set to be much
higher than the other runsThe temperature readings would then be used in the subsequent
calculations and their results discussed.


Check the energy balance for the heat exchanger. Are the assumptions required for the
validity of Q = UA(log mean T) satisfied?


List of assumptions:Steady-stateAdiabatic systemNo appreciable heat generation or

accumulation in heat exchanger wall or in fluidConstant overall heat transfer
coefficientConstant fluid properties for the bulk flowNo phase changes in the fluidNo shaft
workIncompressible fluid


Steady-stateTime was allowed for the flow rate and fluid temperature to stabilize before
readings were taken. In terms of flow, flow of fluid in the pipes is assumed to be fully
developed. Very minor fluctuations in the flow rates further allows us to approximate a
steady state condition


Adiabatic systemUnder adiabatic system, there is no heat loss. Qloss = 0Qhot = QcoldHeat
loss by hot water = Heat gain by cold water




No heat generation and accumulationNo heat generation is expected in the heat

exchanger as the 2 streams only contained water and they were streamed at different
temperatures. Thus no heat generation assumption holds.Friction could be generated as
water flows through the pipe, however, the amount of heat contributed through this is
small relative to the amount of heat transferred in the main exchanger process and can be
neglected. (Still relatively valid)


Constant overall heat transfer coefficientUo is a function of temperature and since

temperature varies along the length of a heat exchanger, the value of Uo would fluctuate
non-linearly throughout the exchanger and thus some degree of deviation is expected
when comparing the experimental value and the theoretical value, which is under the
steady state assumption. However, Uo calculated on the basis of log- mean temperature
difference and hence the Uo can be approximately related to a constant function for a
section of the heat exchanger


Constant fluid propertiesFor simplicity in calculations of hi, ho and subsequently, Uo , the

fluid properties such specific heat capacity (Cp), viscosity () and density () are assumed
to be constant. In reality, they are functions of temperature. Since temperature varies
along the length of the pipe, the fluid properties will change accordingly too. However,
since the temperature dependence of water properties is weak and the inlet and outlet
temperatures for the respective streams are close, this assumption is justified


No phase changes to the fluidThe experiments lie in the region for which the fluid remains
a liquid.i.e 0-100 degrees Centigrade

No shaft workIncompressible fluid


Energy balanceThe fundamental energy balance equation can be expressed as

follows:Accumulation = Energy INPUT Energy OUTPUT + Energy generationAssuming
steady-state operation with no energy generation, the energy balance for the heat
exchanger can be simplified to give:Energy INPUT = Energy OUTPUTWhich translates to the
heat lost by hot fluid stream is equal to heat gained by cold fluid stream, i.e., Qc = Qh in
the absence of heat lost or gained from surrounding.

Temperature profiles for both hot and cold water streams for counter and co-current

The temperature points to be measured:


For counter-current arrangement:

For counter-current arrangement:


For co-current arrangement:


Plot the film heat transfer coefficient hi and ho and the overall heat transfer coefficient
versus hot water flow for both configurations.



Dittus-Boelter correlation:Where:n = 0.4 if fluid is heated, n = 0.3 if fluid is cooledAll fluid

properties measured at arithmetic mean bulk temperatureReynolds > 100000.7 < Prandtl <
100L/D > 60


Selecting the Dittus-Boelter correlation,

All 5 runs satisfy the requirements to use Dittus-Boelter correlation as Reynolds > 10000,
0.7 < Prandtl < 100 and L/D > 60

All 5 runs satisfy the requirements to use Dittus-Boelter correlation as Reynolds > 10000,
0.7 < Prandtl < 100 and L/D > 60


Compare to Dittus-Boelter correlation by converting it to the form:

Include Prandtl into the constant a.Calculating Prandtl to be an average of 2.9968 in both
counter and co-current arrangements,


Significance of results:Accuracy of Dittus-Boelter correlation expected to be within 15%,

and this was found to be true for b, but not

aReasons could be attributed

towere expected, but heat loss to surroundings ranges from 2% to 50% due to poor
insulation and results in high inaccuracies in calculations

Compounded by other experimental errors


Discuss briefly the differences between shell-and-tube heat exchanger and plate heat

Experimental Precautions

Sufficient water in the hot water tank

Flow rate meters were read at eye level to eliminate parallax error

System was given time to reach steady state after each change in flow rate and
temperature set point before data was recorded

Time was given to allow the temperature readings to stabilize after turning the
temperature selector switch before data was recorded

Mean hot water temperature (t3+t6)/2 was maintained within 2C for each hot water
flow rate

Thank you!