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Acids and

Bases

Acids
An acid is a material that can release
a H+ ions or protons.

Produce H+ (as H3O+) ions in water


Tastes sour and smells pungent
Corrode metals
React with bases to form salts and
water

Bases
A base is a material that can produce
OH- ions in water

Bases are proton acceptors


Taste bitter, chalky
Feel soapy, slippery
React with acids to form salts and
water

Arrhenius Acids and Bases


Acids produce H+ in aqueous
solutions
HCl

water

H+(aq) + Cl- (aq)

Bases produce OH- in aqueous


solutions
water

NaOH

Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)

Some Common Acids


HCl

hydrochloric acid

HNO3

nitric acid

H3PO4

phosphoric acid

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

Naming of acids
A.
HBr Hydrobromic acid
The name of a non-oxy acid begins
with the prefix hydro- and ends with
-ic acid.
B. H2CO3

Carbonic acid

The name of an oxy-acid ends with -ic


acid only.(no prefix as hydro-).

Some Common Bases


NaOH

sodium hydroxide

KOH

potassium hydroxide

Ba(OH)2
Al(OH)3
hydroxide

Barium hydroxide
aluminum

Bronsted-Lowry Concepts
Acids are hydrogen ion (H+) donors
Bases are hydrogen ion (H+) acceptors
HCl
H3 O +
Cl
-

+
+

H 2O
Cl-

H
+
O
H H

Cl

pH
Its a common property of liquids.
pH focuses on the concentration of hydrogen ions
(H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).
A scale is represented to determine pH of the
solution and it ranges from units 0 to 14.
From this scale, we determine whether a liquid is
acidic or basic.
Distilled water is 7 (right in the middle).
Acids are found between 0 and 7.
Bases are from 7 to 14.

Some Important
Definitions
Acid:Asolutionthat has an excess of H+ions.
It comes from the Latin word acidus, which
means "sharp" or "sour".
Base:A solution that has an excess of OH-ions.
Another word for base is alkali.
Aqueous:A solution that is mainly water. Think
about the word aquarium. AQUA means water.
Strong Acid:An acid that has a very low pH (04).
Strong Base:A base that has a very high pH
(10-14).

Contd
Weak Acid:An acid that only partially ionizes
in anaqueoussolution.
Weak acids usually have a pH close to 7 (3-6).
Weak Base:A base that only partially ionizes
in an aqueous solution.
Weak bases usually have a pH close to 7 (810).
Neutral:A solution that has a pH of 7. It is
neither acidic nor basic.

SALTS
What Is a Salt?
Salts are formed by reaction of acids and bases and are neutral
substances.
Ex: NaOH + HCl -----> NaCl + H 2O
Sodium chloride formation from a base and an acid.
Other common example in our day to day life includes calcium
chloride.
Salts are inorganic compounds composed ofions, or charged
particles. These ions include positively charged ions,
calledcations (Na+), and negatively charged ions, calledanions
(Cl-).
These compounds form throughionic bonds, which are bonds
that developed based on opposite charges attracting each other.
These ionic bonds are strong bonds and can also be dissociated
in water to form acids and bases.

THANKYOU

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