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Design of solar panels

system with hydrogen


accumulators and fuel cell

Waled Mohamed
Masters student in Electrical
Engineering at Sapienza University of
Rome.
First place winner of Myron Zucker
Undergraduate Design Contest
Advisor: Dr. Chiara Boccaletti
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Summary

Why Hydrogen ?
The Plant
How it works
Case study
Results
Conclusions

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Why Hydrogen ?

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Why Hydrogen ?
It is an alternative energy vector which
can be used in both stationary and
mobile/portable power applications,
decreasing the dependence on oil.
Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to
generate power using an electrochemical
reaction rather than combustion, having
only water and heat as byproducts, in this
way reducing carbon emissions, and
enabling clean, reliable power generation.
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Why Hydrogen ?
Easy production
It is present in many organic compounds, notably the
hydrocarbons that make up many of our fuels, such
as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane.
It can be separated from hydrocarbons through a
process known as reforming. Currently, most
hydrogen is made this way starting from natural gas.
An electrical current can also be used to separate
water into its components, oxygen and hydrogen.
This process is known as electrolysis.

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

The plant

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

The plant
The plant mainly consists of:

Solar cells
Electrolyzer
Fuel cell
Hydrogen tanks
Inverter
Auxiliary components

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Solar cells
Types of solar cells
Crystalline silicon panels, = 13-15%
Monocrystalline
Polycrystalline

Black silicon/All Black panels (lower


efficiency)
Thin-film panels, =12%

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Electrolyzer
A device performing the
water electrolysis for
hydrogen production.

Today
the
energy
efficiency
electrolyzers is around 60%.
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

of

Fuel cells
A fuel cell is an
Electrochemical generator
in which electrical energy is
produced by the reaction
between a fuel (hydrogen)
and a gaseous oxidizing
compound (oxygen or air).
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Fuel cells
High electrical efficiency, with values
ranging from 40-48%, up to over 60%
for high-temperature cells.

Reduced environmental impact (as


both
gaseous
emissions
and
acoustics).
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Inverter
The inverter is an electronic
device or circuitry that
changes (DC) to (AC).
The inverter uses the technique
MPPT to employ and maximize
power output.
Peak efficiency is usually in the order of
96% to 98%
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Fuel tanks
The hydrogen produced by electrolysis is
pressurized up to the maximum nominal
pressure of 7 bar or less.
Auxiliary components
Compressor
Nitrogen cylinder
Pressure regulator

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

How it works ?

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

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Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

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Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

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Case Study

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Case Study
Solar panels
Area: 20 m2
Maximum power: 3 kW

Electrolyzer
Max. Power Consumption: 400 (W/h)
Max. Water Consumption: 0.9 (L/h)
Max. Gas Output: 80-100 (L/h)

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Case Study
Fuel tanks
storing the hydrogen at the same pressure at
which is produced in the electrolyzer (7bar).

Fuel cell

Cell Type: PEM (Proton exchange membrane)


Output Voltage: (42 ~ 80 VDC)
Output Power: (DC 1.1~3.3 KVA)
Fuel Pressure: (5.5 ~ 8.3 Bar)
Cooling Type: Air Cooling

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Case Study
Inverter

Maximum power: 2600 W


Output voltage: 184 ~ 264 V
Nominal current: 11.9 A
Frequency range: 47 ~ 50 Hz

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Results

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Results

The Daily Load on 5th of July


Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results

Monthly load

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Results

Solar Irradiation Data


Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results

Energy produced by the panels


Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results

Hourly average values of the power produced


and absorbed
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results

Monthly Absorbed Energy in absence of the Plant


Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results

Monthly Absorbed Energy in presence of the Plant


Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Results
To calculate the energy savings, we have
compared
the
annual
electricity
consumption from the utility without the
pv/hydrogen-based plant, with the same
consumption if the plant is present.
If hydrogen is produced and stored through
electrolysis, the power consumption from
the utility decreases from 5859.3 kWh up to
3305.14 kWh, resulting in 44% savings.
Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators
and fuel cell

Conclusions

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Conclusions
Notwithstanding the promising saving in energy
consumption, the practical feasibility of the proposed
system is currently constrained by the development
of the technologies of fuel cells, electrolyzers, and
solar panels.
When these technologies will be sufficiently mature,
PV/hydrogen-based plants like the one proposed
here will be economically feasible on a large scale.
In this case, it could be also necessary to evaluate
different solutions for the hydrogen storage, to avoid
the storage of significant quantities of hydrogen in
high-pressure tanks very close to the users.

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Questions ??

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell

Thanks for your


attention

Solar panels with hydrogen accumulators


and fuel cell