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Chng 8

L thuyt tr chi v Chin


lc cnh tranh

Vn c tho lun
Tr chi v quyt nh chin lc
Nhng chin lc u th
Xem xt li cn bng Nash
Tr chi lp li

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Vn c tho lun
Tr chi chui (trc - sau)
e da, Cam kt, v S tn nhim
Ngn chn nhp ngnh
Chin lc mc c

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi v nhng quyt nh chin


lc
Tr chi l bt k tnh hung no trong
ngi chi (ngi tham gia) ra nhng quyt
nh c tnh chin lc
VD: hng ny cnh tranh vi hng khc bng cch
nh gi, nhm nhng ngi mua nng gi chng
nhng ngi khc trong u gi

Nhng quyt nh c tnh chin lc dn n


nhng kt qu cho ngi chi: nhng kt qu
to ra li ch hay phn thng

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi v nhng quyt nh chin


lc
L thuyt tr chi c gng xc nh chin lc
ti u i vi mi ngi chi
Chin lc l mt nguyn tc hay k hoch
hnh ng cho vic chi tr chi
Chin lc ti u i vi mt ngi chi l
ci m ti a ha kt qu k vng
Chng ta xem xt nhng ngi chi hp l
h suy ngh cn thn v nhng hnh ng ca
h

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi v nhng quyt nh chin


lc
Nu ti tin rng i th ca ti l hp l
v hnh ng ti a ha li nhun
ca h, ti nn xem xt hnh vi ca h
nh th no khi ra quyt nh v ti a
ha li nhun ca ti?

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi bt hp tc v hp tc
Tr chi hp tc
Nhng ngi chi thng lng nhng hp
ng lin kt m cho php h lp nhng k
hoch chung
VD:

Ngi mua v ngi bn thng lng v


gi hng ha dch v hay mt lin doanh gia
hai hng (chng hn, Microsoft and Apple)
Nhng hp ng lin kt l c th

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi bt hp tc v hp tc
Tr chi bt hp tc
Thng lng v thc thi nhng hp ng
lin kt gia hai ngi chi l khng th
VD:

Hai hng cnh tranh c lp xc nh chin


lc nh gi v qung co tng th phn
Nhng hp ng lin kt l khng th

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tr chi bt hp tc v hp tc
Thit k chin lc da trn s hiu
bit quan im ca i th, v (gi s i
th l hp l) suy ra i th c th phn
ng vi hnh ng ca mnh nh th
no.

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cn bng Nash
Mt tp hp cc chin lc (hay hnh ng) sao
cho mi ngi chi lm tt nht m h c th, vi
nhng hnh ng ca i th c cho trc

Khng c ngi chi no c ng c xa ri


chin lc Nash ca mnh, do n n
nh
Trong m hnh Cournot, mi hng nh gi ca n
gi nh sn lng ca nhng hng khc c nh.
Cn bng Cournot l mt cn bng Nash.

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

10

Cn bng Nash
Cn bng Nash
Ti lm tt nht c th cho trc nhng g anh
lm. Anh lm tt nht c th cho trc nhng g
ti lm.

im cn bng Nash l mt cp chin lc


(a*, b*) i din cho gii php cn bng i
vi hai ngi chi trong a* l chin lc
ti u ca ngi A v b* l chin lc ti
u ca ngi B i ph ln nhau.
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

11

Tr chi mt ln khng lp li
Chin lc u th v cn bng Nash
Chin lc u th l chin lc m t ti
u bt chp i th lm g
V d
A v

B bn nhng sn phm cnh tranh


H quyt nh liu rng c nn qung co hay
khng

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

12

Ma trn kt qu cho tr chi


qung co
Hng B
Qung co

Khng qung co

10, 5

15, 0

Khng
qung co

6, 8

10, 2

Hng A

Qung co

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

13

Ma trn kt qu cho tr chi


qung co
Nhn xt
A: bt chp B lm g,
qung co l tt nht
B: bt chp A lm g,
qung co l tt nht
Qung co

Hng B
Qung co

Khng
Qung co

10, 5

15, 0

6, 8

10, 2

Hng A
Khng
Qung co

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

14

Ma trn kt qu cho tr chi


qung co
Nhn xt
Chin lc u th
cho A v B l qung
co
Khng lo lng v
ngi chi kia
Cn bng trong chin Qung co
lc u th

Hng BKhng
Qung co

qung co

10, 5

15, 0

6, 8

10, 2

Hng A

Khng
Qung co

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

15

Chin lc u th
Cn bng trong chin lc u th
Kt qu ca tr chi trong mi hng lm
tt nht m h c th bt chp i th ca n
lm g
Chin lc ti u c xc nh m khng
lo lng n hnh ng ca ngi chi khc

Tuy nhin, khng phi tr chi no cng


c chin lc u th cho mi ngi chi

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

16

Chin lc u th
Tr chi khng c chin lc u th
Chin lc ti u ca mt ngi chi m
khng c chin lc u th s ph thuc vo
nhng g i th lm
Xem li ma trn kt qu, chng ta c th
thy tnh hung m khng c chin lc u
th

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

17

Tr chi qung co iu chnh


Hng B Khng
qung co
Qung co

Hng A

Qung co

Khng
Qung co

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

10, 5

15, 0

6, 8

20, 2

18

Tr chi qung co iu chnh


Hng B Khng
Qung co

Nhn xt
A: khng c chin
lc u th; ph
thuc vo hnh ng
ca B
B: Chin lc u th
l qung co
Hng A xc nh B
chin lc u th ca
v theo ra quyt
nh
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Qung co

Qung co

10, 5

15, 0

6, 8

20, 2

Hng A
Khng
Qung co

19

Xem xt li cn bng Nash


Mt chin lc u th th n nh, nhng trong
nhiu tr chi mt hay nhiu ngi chi khng c
Chin lc u th
Ti lm tt nht c th bt chp anh lm g. Anh lm tt
nht c th bt chp ti lm g.

Cn bng Nash
Ti lm tt nht c th cho trc nhng g anh lm.
Anh lm tt nht c th cho trc nhng g ti lm.

Chin lc u th l trng hp c bit ca cn


bng Nash

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

20

Xem xt li cn bng Nash


Hai cng ty ng cc trn mt th trng trong
hai loi ng cc mi c th c tung ra th
trng thnh cng, cho bit mi loi c tung
ra bi mt cng ty
Vn kh khn trong la chn sn phm
Th trng cho mt nh sn xut ng cc gin
Th trng cho mt nh sn xut ng cc ngt
Mi hng ch c ti nguyn tung ra mt loi sn
phm
Khng hp tc

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

21

La chn sn phm
Hng 2
Gin

-5, -5

10, 10

10, 10

-5, -5

Hng 1

Gin

Ngt

Ngt

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

22

La chn sn phm
Hng 2

Nu hng 1 bit
hng 2 tung sn
phm mi l ngt,
hnh ng tt nht
ca n l tung sn
phm gin
Gc di bn tri l
cn bng Nash
Cn bng Nash
khc l g?
C 2 im cn bng
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gin

Gin

Ngt

-5, -5

10, 10

10, 10

-5, -5

Hng 1
Ngt

23

Xem xt li cn bng Nash


Khng phi tr chi no cng c im
cn bng Nash
i khi c nhiu im cn bng
i khi khng c im cn bng ti u

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

24

Khng c im cn bng Nash


B

Chin lc

Ko

Giy

0, 0

1, -1

-1, 1

Ko

-1, 1

0, 0

1, -1

Giy

1, -1

-1, 1

0, 0

Nu c hai chn cng chin lc: li ch c hai = 0


Nu hai ngi chn khc chin lc: ngi thua c
xu hng iu chnh
Vic iu chnh xy ra lin tc v khng c im cn
bng
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

25

ng dng ca tr chi khng


lp li
nh gi Bertrand
Hai hng bn 2 sn phm tng t, quyt
nh chn nh gi thp hay cao.
Hai hng phi ra quyt nh ng thi
Ma trn kt qu nh sau

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

26

nh gi Bertrand
Chin lc cn bng

ca hai hng l chn


gi thp
Li nhun bng
khng
Chin lc cao cao
khng phi l im cn
bng do mt hng s
gim gi thu c
li nhun ln hn nhiu

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hng B
H
n
g

Chin
lc

Thp

Cao

Thp

0, 0

50, -10

Cao

-10, 50

10, 10

27

ng dng ca tr chi khng


lp li
Kim tra nhn vin
Ngi qun l mun nhn vin lm vic
chm ch
Nhn vin mun trn vic
Nh qun l s kim tra t xut ni lm vic
ca nhn vin
Hai ngi khng bit trc chin lc ca
nhau

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

28

Ma trn kt qu
Nhn vin

Qun l

Lm vic

Trn vic

Kim tra

-1, 1

1, -1

Khng
kim tra

1, -1

-1, 1

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

29

Kim tra nhn vin


Nhn vin
Lm vic

Kim tra

Qun l

Khng c cn
bng Nash
Kim tra ngu
nhin s c tc
dng

Khng
kim tra

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Trn vic

-1, 1

1, -1

1, -1

-1, 1

30

Tr chi lp li v s ln
Tr chi trong nhng hnh ng
c thc hin v kt qu c nhn
lp i lp li
Cc hng c quyn nhm chi tr lp
li
Vi mi ln lp li, hng xy dng danh
ting v hnh vi ca mnh v nghin cu
hnh vi ca i th
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13

31

Tr chi Nghch l ngi t


Kch bn
2 nghi can b bt v nht ring
Nghi can c cho bit: nu c hai nhn ti,
mi ngi chu n 5 nm; nu mt ngi
nhn v ngi kia khng, ngi nhn ti
chu n 1 nm v ng bn chu 10 nm

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

32

Ma trn kt qu
Nghi can B

Nghi can A

Th nhn

Khng th nhn

Th nhn

-5, -5

-1, -10

Khng
Th nhn

-10, -1

-2, -2

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13

33

Nghch l ngi t
u l:
Chin lc u th
Cn bng Nash

Nghi can B
Th nhn Khng th nhn

Chin lc u th
ca c hai l th
Th nhn
nhn
Chng cng l cn
Nghi can A
bng Nash
Khng
iu g xy ra nu c
th nhn
hai cu kt v khng
th nhn?

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13

-5, -5

-1, -10

-10, -1

-2, -2

34

Nghch l ngi t
Nhng ngi t i khi ch c c hi
th nhn mt ln trong i
Cc hng c quyn nhm phi nh
gi, sn lng, qung co, lp i lp
li
Cc chin lc s phc tp hn
Cc hng xy dng danh ting ca
mnh v nghin cu hng vi ca i th

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

35

Kh khn trong nh gi
Hng 2

Gi thp

Gi thp

Gi cao

10, 10

100, -50

-50, 100

50, 50

Hng 1
Gi cao

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

36

Kh khn trong nh gi
Lm th no hng tm ra mt chin lc,
nhn chung, l tt nht i ph vi tt c
hay hu ht cc chin lc lc khc?
Chin lc n ming tr ming (tit-for-tat
strategy)
Chin lc trong tr chi lp li trong mt
ngi chi phn ng tng t nhng g i th
lm trong cc tr chi trc, hp tc vi i th
hp tc v tr a vi nhng ngi bt hp tc

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

37

Chin lc n ming tr
ming
iu g xy ra nu tr chi lp li v hn?
Cc i th lp li vic nh gi hng thng,
mi mi
Hnh vi hp tc l phn ng hp l cho chin
lc n ming tr ming
Nu

i th nh gi thp v h b hng kia


S thu c li nhun cao thng do nhng bit
rng ti s h gi thng ti
C hai s thu c li nhun thp hn nu duy tr
gim gi, do vy khng hp l khi gim gi
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

38

Chin lc n ming tr
ming
iu g xy ra nu tr chi lp li hu hn?
Nu cc hng u hp l, h s nh gi cao
cho n thng cui cng
Sau thng cui, khng c tr a g na
Nhng trong nhng thng trc thng cui, bit
rng hng kia s nh gi thp trong thng cui,
s nh gi thp trong thng k cui
C nh th v thy rng ch c mt kt cc hp
l l c hai nh gi thp mi thng

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

39

Chin lc n ming tr ming


Nu cc hng khng tin l i th ca
mnh l hp l hay ngh chnh h khng
hp l, hnh vi hp tc l mt chin lc
tt
Hu ht nh qun l khng bit h s
cnh tranh vi i th bao lu
Trong tr chi lp li, nghch l ngi t
c th c kt cc hp tc
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

40

Tr chi lp li
Kt lun
Hp tc kh c th l tt nht do nhiu yu
t c th thay i trong di hn
Cn c s lng t cc hng
Cn c cc iu kin v cu v chi ph n
nh
iu

ny c th dn n chin tranh gi nu
nhng iu trn khng xy ra

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

41

Tr chi chui (trc sau)


Nhng ngi chi hnh ng ln lt,
i ph vi hnh ng ca i th v
phn ng li
VD: M hnh Stackelberg
i ph vi chng trnh qung co ca i
th cnh tranh
Quyt nh nhp ngnh
i ph vi nhng quy nh

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

42

Tr chi trc sau


Tr li vi v d la chn sn phm
Hai loi ng cc mi (ngt, gin)
Thnh cng ch khi mi hng sn xut mt
loi sn phm
Sn phm ngt tt hn

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

43

Tr chi la chn sn phm


iu chnh
Nu c hai hng cng b quyt nh c
lp v ng thi, h s chn sn phm
ngt v c hai u b l
iu g xy ra nu hng 1 xc tin sn
xut v gii thiu sn phm mi trc?
By gi, l tr chi nhiu giai on
Hng 1 s ngh v nhng g hng 2 s lm

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

44

Tr chi la chn sn phm


iu chnh
Hng 2

Hng 1

Gin

Gin

Ngt

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Ngt

-5, -5

10, 20

20, 10

-5, -5

45

Hnh thc m rng ca tr chi


Hnh thc m rng ca tr chi
Biu din nhng hnh ng c th c trong
tr chi di dng cy quyt nh

Cho php mt ngi hnh ng sau t kt


qu tt nht cho hng 1

Do hng 2 c th da vo quyt nh
ca hng 1, lun c 2 im cn bng
Nash v chng n nh

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

46

Tr chi la chn sn phm in


Hnh thc m rng

Gin

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

-5, -5

Ngt

10, 20

Gin

20, 10

Ngt

-5, -5

Hng 2

Hng 1
Ngt

Gin

Hng 2

47

Tr chi trc sau


Li th ca ngi i trc
Trong tr chi la chn sn phm ny, r
rng c mt li th cho ngi i trc
Hng u tin c th chn mc sn lng
ln, theo p hng hai chn sn lng nh
C th biu din li th ca ngi i trc
bng cch xem li m hnh Stackelberg v
so snh n vi m hnh Cournot

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

48

Li th ca ngi i trc
Gi s: c quyn i

P 30 Q
Q Q1 Q2
MC 0
Cournot :
Q1 Q2 10 v P 10 100 / hng
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

49

Li th ca ngi i trc
c quyn i
Cu kt
Q1 Q2 7 ,5 v P 15 112 ,50 / hng

Hng 1 ra tay trc (Stackelberg)

Q1 15

Q2 7 ,5 v P 7 ,50

1 112 ,50
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 56,25
50

La chn sn lng
Hng 2

Hng 1

7,5

10

15

7,5 112,50, 112,50

93,75, 125

56,25, 112,50

10

100, 100

50, 75

75, 50

0, 0

125, 93,75

15 112,50, 56,25

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

51

La chn sn lng
Ma trn kt qu ny
biu din nhng kt
cc khc nhau

Cng ra tay, c hai


cng sn xut 10
Nu hng 1 i trc
(Q=15), vic tt nht
hng 2 lm l sn
xut 7,5

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hng 2
7,5
7,5 112,50, 112,50

Hng 1 10

125, 93,75

15 112,50, 56,25

10

15

93,75, 125

56,25, 112,50

100, 100

50, 75

75, 50

0, 0

52

e da, Cam kt, v S tn nhim


Nhng nc i chin lc
Nhng hnh ng no mt hng c th lm
t c li th trn th trng?
Ngn

cn nhp ngnh
p i th gim sn lng, xut ngnh, tng gi
Tha thun ngm lm li mt hng

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

53

e da, Cam kt, v S tn


nhim
Lm th no ra tay trc
Biu hin cam kt
Phi lm nhiu hn l ch tuyn b s sn
xut loi ng cc ngt
u

t vo chin dch qung co rm r


t mua khi lng ln ng v pht tn hiu
cho hng 2 bit

Cam kt phi thuyt phc hng 2 ra quyt


nh m hng 1 mong mun

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

54

e da, Cam kt, v S tn


nhim
Nhng e da rng
Nu mt hng s t hn nu n nh gi
thp, e da nh gi thp s khng ng tin
trong mt i th
Khi cc hng bit c kt qu ca nhng
hnh ng ca nhau, cc hng s khng th
e da hng khc h tun theo
Trong v d y, Hng 1 s nh gi cao v
Hng 2 bit iu .

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

55

nh gi cho my tnh x l vn
bn
Hng 2
Cao

Thp

Cao

100, 80

80, 100

Thp

20, 0

Hng 1

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

10, 20

56

e da, Cam kt, v S tn


nhim
i khi cc hng cng a ra cc e da
ng tin cy
Kch bn
Race Car Motors, Inc. (RCM) sn xut xe hi
Far Out Engines (FOE) sn xut ng c xe
c bit v bn phn ln cho RCM
Tr chi chui vi RCM l ngi lnh o
FOE khng c th lc e da l s sn
xut nhng ng c ln do RCM kim sot
sn lng ca n
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

57

La chn sn xut
Race Car Motors
Xe nh
Xe ln

ng c
nh

3, 6

3, 0

1, 1

8, 3

Far Out Engines


ng
c ln

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

58

e da, Cam kt, v S tn


nhim
RCM lm tt nht bng cch sn xut xe
nh
Bit rng Far Out s, theo , sn xut
ng c nh
Far Out thch sn xut ng c ln hn
Far Out c th p Race Car sn xut xe
ln khng?

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

59

e da, Cam kt, v S tn


nhim
Gi s Far Out e da s sn xut ng
c ln bt chp RCM sn xut g?
Khng ng tin do mt khi RCM tuyn b h
s sn xut xe nh, FOE s khng c ng
c thc hin li e da
C th lm cho li e da ng tin bng
cch thay i ma trn kt qu bng cch gii
hn nhng la chn ca bn thn!!!
ng

ca hay ph hy mt t cng sut sn


xut ng c nh

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

60

La chn sn xut c iu
chnh
Race Car Motors

ng c
nh

Xe nh

Xe ln

0, 6

0, 0

1, 1

8, 3

Far Out Engines


ng
c ln

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

61

La chn sn xut c iu
chnh
Nhng cam kt chin lc ny c th c
hiu qu nhng khng phi khng c ri
ro
Ph thuc nhiu vo nhng hiu bit chnh
xc v ma trn kt qu v ngnh sn xut
C th c nhng i th khc m h khng
bit n v do vy c th thua l

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

62

Vai tr ca ting tm
Nu Far Out c ting l ngi phi l
H e da s sn xut ng c ln bt chp Race Car
sn xut g

e da c th ng tin bi v nhng ngi phi l


khng phi lun lun ra nhng quyt nh ti
a ha li nhun
Mt ngi c mi ngi bit l rt in
(crazy) c th to ra li th ln
y l chin lc quan trng trong tr chi lp li
v c th gip hng thu c li nhun ng k
trong di hn
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

63

Chin lc mc c
V tr mc c c th ph thuc vo kh
nng tc ng n v th mc c tng
i
Xt 2 hng gii thiu mt trong hai sn
phm b sung cho nhau:
Hng 1 c li th chi ph v sn phm A
Hng 2 c li th chi ph v sn phm B

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

64

Chin lc mc c
Hng 2

Sn xut A

Sn xut A

Sn xut B

40, 5

50, 50

60, 40

5, 45

Hng 1
Sn xut B

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

65

Chin lc mc c
Cu kt:
Hng 1 sn xut A v
Hng 2 sn xut B
(50,50)

Khng cu kt:

Hng 2

Sn xut A

Hng 1 sn xut A v
Hng 2 sn xut B do Hng 1
y l chin lc u
Sn xut
th ca B (50,50)
Cn bng Nash

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sn xut A

Sn xut B

40, 5

50, 50

60, 40

5, 45

66

Chin lc mc c
Gi s mi hng cng mc c v quyt
nh cng nhau hp nht thnh hng th
ba
Chin lc u th cho c hai hng l
tham gia hp nht

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

67

Chin lc mc c
Hng 2

Ring l

Ring l

Hp nht

10, 10

10, 20

20, 10

40, 40

Hng 1
Hp nht

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

68

Chin lc mc c
Lin kt cc vn mc c
Hng 1 tuyn b n s hp nht ch khi
Hng 2 ng sn xut A v Hng 1 s sn
xut B
Hng 2 s chuyn tm sn xut A trong khi
hng 1 sn xut B
Li

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

nhun ca hng 1tng t 50 ln 60

69

Chin lc mc c
Nhng bc i chin lc c th c
s dng trong mc c
Lin kt cc vn trong mc c c th
lm li cho mt bn v lm thit bn kia

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

70

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


Hng ro nhp ngnh rt quan trng i
vi sc mnh c quyn
Tnh kinh t nh quy m, sng ch v bn
quyn, tip cn nhng u vo c bit
Cc hng cng c th ngn cn nhp ngnh

ngn cn nhp ngnh, hng hin


hnh phi thuyt phc i th tim nng
rng nhp ngnh s khng sinh li

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

71

Kh nng nhp ngnh


Hng tim nng (X)
(nh ph $80)

Gi cao
(Tha hip)

Nhp

ngoi

100, 20

200, 0

70, -10

130, 0

Hng hin hnh (I)


Gi thp
(Chin tranh gi)

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

72

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


Kch bn
Nu X khng gia nhp, I thu c li nhun
$200 triu
Nu X nhp v nh gi cao, I thu c $100
triu v X kim c $20 triu
Nu X nhp ngnh v nh gi thp, I kim
c $70 triu v X l $-10 triu

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

73

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


C th e da X bng chin tranh gi
nu nhp ngnh
Khng ng tin do mt khi X nhp ngnh,
tt nht l cc hng tha hip v duy tr gi
cao

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

74

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


iu g xy ra nu I u t trc khi
nhp ngnh tng cng sut?
Cam kt khng th hy b

To ra ma trn kt qu mi do li nhun
b ct gim khi u t
Li e da hon ton ng tin
Hp l i vi Hng X l ngoi th
trng
2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

75

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


Tim nng (X)

Gi cao
(Tha hip)

Nhp

ngoi

50, 20

150, 0

70, -10

130, 0

Hin hng (I)


Gi thp
(chin tranh gi)

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

76

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


Nu hng hin hnh c ting l mt i
th cnh tranh gi, thm ch l b l, theo
li e da s ng tin.
L trong ngn hn c th c b p
bng li ch di hn khi l nh c quyn

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

77

Ngn cn nhp ngnh


Sn xut my bay thng mi c tnh
kinh t nh quy m cao
Airbus v Boeing ang xem xt nhng
kiu mi
Gi s vic c hai cng sn xut my
bay mi th khng kinh t

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

78

Pht trin my bay mi


Airbus
Sn xut

Khng sn xut

Sn xut

-10, -10

100, 0

Khng sn xut

0, 120

0, 0

Boeing

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

79

Pht trin my bay mi


Nu Boeing i trc
Boeing s sn xut
Airbus th khng
Sn xut

Airbus
Sn xut

Khng sn xut

-10, -10

100, 0

0, 120

0, 0

Boeing
Khng sn xut

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

80

Pht trin my bay mi


Cc chnh ph c th thay i kt cc
ca tr chi
Chnh ph chu u ng tr cp
Airbus trc khi Boeing quyt nh sn
xut
Khi Airbus c tr cp, ma trn kt qu
ca 2 hng thay i ng k

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

81

Pht trin my bay mi


sau tr cp ca chu u
Airbus
Sn xut

Khng sn xut

Sn xut

-10, 10

100, 0

Khng sn xut

0, 120

0, 0

Boeing

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

82

Pht trin my bay mi


sau tr cp ca chu u
Airbus s sn xut
(chin lc u th)
Boeing th khng
Sn xut

Airbus
Sn xut

Khng sn xut

-10, 10

100, 0

0, 120

0, 0

Boeing
Khng sn xut

2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

83