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1/3/17

What is Genetic

Algorithm ?

Algorithm (GA), itself

, suggests, it is

a class of stochastic methods,

modeled after evolutionary

mechanisms of nature.

a popular strategy to optimize

highly non-linear systems with a

large number of variables.

It is rated among the top ten

algorithms of the 21st century, that

has found the largest practical

applications

Father of Genetic

Algorithm !!

Prof.JOHN

HENRY

HOLLAND

Professor, Electrical

Engineering and

Psychology

University of

Michigan ,

Ann Arbor, USA

Presently

Holland

Adaptive Systems and

Evolutionary Computing

Professor at the

Department of

Industrial and Enterpri

se Systems Engineering

(IESE) at the

University of Illinois a

t Urbana-Champaign

David E Goldberg Director of Illinois

Genetic Algorithms

IN INDIA AT IIT

KANPUR

GENETIC ALGORITHM

LABORATORY

BIGGEST

ADVANTAGE of

GAinvolve

!! any

It does not

rigorous mathematics

except the use of Random

Numbers !!

solve very complicated

highly non-linear

optimization problems

George !

1/3/17

Shakespearean Monkey !!

HITTING THE VARIOUS KEYS RANDOMLY HE NEVER

STOPS !!

IS NOT THE CONVENTIONAL ONE, NORMALLY USED BY

US, BUT RATHER A MODIFIED ONE, WITH 26 KEYS FOR

THE ENGLISH ALPHABETS, 1 SPACEBAR AND 5

PUNCTUATION MARKS ( , . ! : ; ).

LET US ALSO ASSUME THAT THE SPACEBAR IS LONGER

THAN THE OTHER KEYS, ROUGHLY 3 TIMES LONGER,

AND HENCE OUR GEORGE, THE MONKEY, HAS THREE

TIMES MORE CHANCE OF HITTING THE SPACEBAR

LETTERS

HITTING A PARTICULAR KEY ?

Total No of Keys

34

Consisting of

Alphabets

26

Punctuation Marks

5

Space Bar

The probability

of hitting

3

of Shakespeares HAMLET ?

To be, or not to be, that is the question;

Whether it is nobler in the mind to

suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous

fortune,

Or to take arms against a sea of

troubles,

The first

line

the above verse

And

byofopposing,

end has

them

42 characters, consisting of,

30 letters,

3 punctuation marks and

9 spaces

OF THIS HAPPENING

If George starts typing, the chance hell

get the first character right is 1 in 34.

Since the probability hell get the second

character right, is also 1 in 34, he has a 1

in ( 34*34 ) (rule of joint probability)

chance of landing on both the first two

correct characters.

It follows that the probability, that George

will type the first line of the full

Shakespearean stanza is:

((1 / 34) 33) X ((3 / 34) 9)

of Hamlet typed, but.

The chances are

1 in

1,066,653,157,510,057,196,835,3

54,658,

914,553,991,296,211,872,584,111

The above number, let us call it N , is

,802,

259,963

incredibly large , of the order of 10 (60) , but

Still 1/N is not

The probability of George getting it

wrong in one try = (1 1/N) 1

Suppose we want George to have a 1

out of 100 chance of getting it wrong

( or 99 out of 100 chance of getting it

correct ) over X # of tries. So we get

(1 1/N) X = 1/100, which can be

written as ,

X

Some More

Calculations

To solve for x, we take the natural

log of each side:

ln(((N-1)/N) X) =

ln(1/100)

or

X * ln((N-1)/N) = ln(1/100)

X = ln(100) / (ln(N/(N-1))

As N goes to infinity, ln(N/(N-1))

1/N, therefore:

X N * ln(100) 5 * N

GEORGE TO HIT IT RIGHT ?

Assume that George is hard working,

and punches the keyboard at

maximum possible speed

Let him type 20 lines ( = 840 characters )

per

second ,

( 20 x 86400 x 365) lines per year.

(N / 630,720,000) * ln(100) = 7.8 * 10 51

years

Universe is only 13.82

Billion Years !!!

THE WORLD WORKING

TOGETHER ??

Let all the monkeys in the world, say 1

billion in number, type simultaneously

How long will it take to have a 99% probability,

that one of the monkeys, getting it right and

become our Shakespearean Monkey ?

A few calculations will lead us to the conclusion

that this will take about 7.8 * 10 42 years

persists.

Even though billions of monkeys

working together in unison, has

reduced the time on a massive

scale, (of the order of 1 billion), we

still havent solved the problem of

hitting a Shakespearean monkey,

in an amount of time, that any

human could experience in his or

her lifetime.

20

1/3/17

Inspiration from

the Natural

Evolution

Process !!

THE HUMAN

EVOLUTION !!

Natures Starting

Point !!

( Mr Tracey Cools

gggg. Grandfather !! )

Civilisation Started

Design Engineer,

Rolls Royce

OPTIMISATION

Years ago !!

during the Fishlook 2003 exhibition in Jakarta. Indonesia, Singapore

and Malaysia have participated in this sevenday exhibition

to find the gold fish with the nicest colour and shape.

ADAPTION TO SURROUNDINGS

TOGETHER, TO ESACPE FROM

BEING HUNTED AND SAVE

THEMSELVES FROM A SCUDDING

The Evolutionary Theorist

DARWINIAN

HYPOTHESIS

It

is

neither

the

strongest nor the most

intelligent

of

the

species that survive,

but

the

one

most

responsive to change

CONSEQUENCES OF THE

DARWINIAN HYPOTHESIS

Primary Driving Mechanism of Evolution

is Natural Selection

Individuals better adapted to

environment will leave behind, on an

average, more off springs than their

less adapt colleagues.

A LITTLE BIT OF GA

HISTORY !!

Even

Revolution during the late 1950a there were attempts

at modeling biological evolution.

Genetic

the 1960s and were later developed by Holland and

his students and colleagues at the University of

Michigan during the 1970s.

Hollands

Artificial Systems presented the genetic algorithms

as an abstraction of biological evolution and gave a

theoretical framework for adaptation under the

genetic algorithms.

1980S AND 1990S

due to Internet revolution and increase in

power of Pcs

Pattern Recogonition

Flow Control Devices

Structural Optimisation

Micro-chips Design

Aerospace Applications

Micro-Biology

1990s saw commercial and business

applications

Stock Market Predictions

Scheduling and Planning

OCCUR ?

29

1/3/17

The

information determining

the growth and development of

individuals of a species is

encoded in their genes.

In

individuals breed,

complementary portions of

their genetic material

(chromosomes) are passed on

to their off spring randomly .

INHERITANCE

features that made their parents fitter than

average. Otherwise evolution is reset at every

generation

VARIABILITY

must co-exist in the population. Otherwise

natural selection has nothing to operate upon .

TWO ESSENTIAL

INGREDIENTS

A POPULATION OF RABBITS

RABBIT POPULATION ?

SOME RABBITS ARE FASTER AND

SMARTER

THEY ARE LESS LIKELY TO BE EATEN BY

THE FOX

MORE OF SUCH SMARTER ONES TEND TO

SURVIVE ON AN AVERAGE

THEY TEND TO BREED AMONG

THEMSLEVES AND ALSO AMONG LESS

SMARTER ONES

GENETIC MATERIAL.

ONES SURVIVE BECAUSE OF LUCK.

SMARTER AND FASTER THAN THEIR

PARENTS IN THE ORIGINAL POPULATION,

BECAUSE ACCORDING TO DARWINIAN

HYPOTHESIS, ONLY THE FITTEST SURVIVE

WITH MORE PROBABILITY

NATURES PRINCIPLE

BEST

INDIVIDUALS REPLICATE

AND GET PROPAGATED IN THE

POPULATION MORE AND MORE

AVERAGE

WORST

INDIVIDUALS STAY ON

INDIVIDUALS WHITHER

AWAY AND DIE A NATURAL

DEATH

SMART ONES

SURVIVE !!

PHENOTYPE OF

BIOLOGICAL

EVOLUTIONARY

PROCESS

37

1/3/17

Genotype is the information contained

within the DNA.

Genotypes can only be determined by

biological tests and not by observations.

Genotype is an inherited trait and

hereditary information, passed by the

parents determines genotype.The entire

genetic information about an organism is

contained in a genotype even those that

are not expressed visually or otherwise .

GENOTYPE EXAMPLES

The gene responsible for certain

diseases

The gene responsible for eye

color

The gene responsible for hair

color

The gene responsible for height

The gene responsible for certain

type of behaviour

THE PHENOTYPE

Phenotype is simply the expression of information

within a gene. It is the visible or observable

results of genes, combined with the environmental

influence on an organisms appearance or

behavior.

It is the expression of gene information,

observable with the senses (like the sound of a

birds chirping or the colour of a cats hair)

Phenotype is not an inherited trait only the

genes that may cause that phenotype are.

PHENOTYPE EXAMPLES

The length of a foxs tail

The color of the stripes on a

cat

The size and shape of the

spots on a dogs back

An individuals shoe size

1/3/17

Can we breed

Monkeys with

required traits?

42

at the Shakespearean Monkey,

our

traget

?

Based on the principles of

evolution, that we have just

now seen, can we breed

monkeys, that have the trait of

typing correctly the characters

of the Shakespearean verse ? In

this context,

The Genotype is their DNA

signatures

The Phenotype is the English

alphabet they type correctly.

Signatures

Assume

determine the ability of the monkeys

to type any of the 42 characters in the

text to be, or not to be , that is the

question ; , correctly

the number of correct characters he

types

By

characters that match the

of 100 Monkeys !!!

Monkey Breeding

Scenario

selection as parents and are allowed to breed

combination of two selected parent monkeys.

( crossover )

average, to type more characters correctly

and improve their fitness

childs DNA string , also has a small

probability of ( mutation ) i.e. of becoming

a random character, rather than one from the

GENETICALLY ENHANCED MONKEYS

become the parents and are again allowed

to go through the selection, crossover and

mutation processes

It is expected that the average fitness of

the population shows a steady, but rather

a very very slow, improving trend.

The monkeys become genetically

enhanced with generation after

generation and finally we fervently hope to

produce our darling , the Shakespearean

Monkey , which is The target

GENETICALLY ENHANCED

MONKEYS

biologically, let us assume ( even though this is

nearly impossible ) that, each generation of

monkeys lives, on an average, 10 years and that

200 generations produce a target monkey.

We have to wait for 2000 years to produce a

Shakespearean Monkey

This is still a long time for humans,

But it is very very less ( by 57 orders ) compared

to the

N , that we computed earlier.

Even though we figured out the

genetic processes of selection, crossover and mutation and try to

implement them on a population of

monkeys , we still havent solved the

problem of hitting a Shakespearean

monkey, in an amount of time, that

any human could experience in a given

lifetime.

What do we do ?

Today

we have proliferation of

computers

They have, day by day , become

tinier and cheaper

possess unimaginable

processing power and memory

Parallel Processing Technology

enables still higher and higher

computing power and speed

Can we , then, simulate the

evolutionary cycle on the digital

computer, choosing an

appropriate DNA

representation

randomly simulate the three

processes of selection, crossover and mutation

Can We Simulate

the Evolutionary

Process on the

Computer ?

Can We Breed

Digital

Monkeys ?

Monkey Evolution

The Digital Monkey !

determine individual monkeys pattern of typing.

the text To be, or not to be: That is the

question: That is the Shakespearean Monkey !!

including the spacebar on the keyboard ( instead

of 34, taken earlier ) and 42 characters in the

desired string.

information?

Binary Representation

of DNA

Each key on the monkeys typewriter

corresponds to a 32-bit number. In binary

representation this is a 5-digit string as

2 5 = 32. Thus

KEY # 1 = a or 00000

KEY # 2 = b or 00001

KEY # 3 = c or 00010

etc. etc. etc. up until

KEY # 32 = SPACE or 11111

ITS INTERPRETATION

0101100111101010100101010101011110000101

We can divide it in to 5-bit segments:

01011 00111 10101 01001 01010 10101 11100

00101

Which translates to a typing sequence of key #s:

11,7,21,9,10,21,28,5.

To start from 1 instead of 0, we add 1 to each

of these numbers.

12,8,22,10,11,22,29,6

And which translates to the phrase:

lhui ju;f

BINARY STRING

question: out of the monkey, well need a

longer genome a ( 42 x 5 ) 210 -bit

character string.

For example:

10000001111011100000001010000001100

001110101100100010000000001010110000

101101000000111101101011111001011010

000100000010101011100100111001001100

011101100101011111010101001100011101

1101001110011111001100000110001

This translates into

16,

10,

16,

21,

24, 11, 8, 3, 27, 11, 28,

5, 11, 18, 14, 9, 17, 27,

9, 17, 27, 20, 28, 31, 6,

4, 8, 0,

22, 16,

5, 15,

1, 17

adding 1 ), as the following text:

qhxafamhleiakylid:l;wqqflsojr:fpvjr

:u; gbr

Pool of

Monkeys !!

following DNA sequences (expressed as a

character string after genome-phenome

conversion).

2. cklavicmemt :bbkyyn fjgd?y?k?dlgoyponkoa

3. lt;wv hmstx,cxy ,mo;vwwpbqkuibuhq;fq'ow

4. zqayapqfiszwrh ?isye: ghg:mllowxzcuyadly

5. ielcm,sc dnzm,ngeuviu:lu;zo ojxwpizvk;adqe

HOW DO WE GENERATE

THE BINARY STRINGS ?

between 0 and 1

If a is less than 0.5 consider the bit

as 0

If it is greater than or equal to 0.5

consider the bit as 1

There are no strict rules !!. You can

frame your own rules and follow. The

binary sequence has to be randomly

generated that is the only

requirement

Simple isnt it ?

Evolving the

Monkeys Next

Generation

The first step is the Selection of Parents

Each monkeys fitness is defined as the #

of characters in their DNA that match To

be, or not to be: that is the question:

Monkeys are selected in the order of

their ranking by fitness

Various selection methods are possible

each with its own advantages and

drawbacks.

SELECTION METHODS

ELITIST

SELECTION

FITNESS PROPORTIONATE SELECTION

ROULETTE WHEEL SELECTION

SCALING SELECETION

TOURNAMENT SELECTION

RANK SELECTION

GENERATIONAL SELECTION

STEADY STATE SELECTION

HIERARCHIAL SELECTION

SELECTION BY ROULETTE

WHEEL

(i) is the fitness of ith member of the

population pool )

q(i-1) <= r <= q(i )

SELECTION BY

ROULETTE WHEEL

It

selected more than once but that will have a

high fitness ratio (a big chunk in the

roulette wheel).

This

selected but with considerably less chance.

This

variability and keeps the evolution process

progressing, preventing it from getting

struck at a particular generation.

PROBABILISTIC SELECTION

BASED ON FITNESS

Better

individuals are

preferred

Best is not always picked

Worst is not necessarily

excluded

Nothing is guaranteed

Mixture of greedy

exploitation and

Next Generation

1. ,:drxkaitxsdp: f?ynjasqosupchujk,,

rizhg:r

Fitness = 0

2. cklavicmemt :bbkyyn fjgd?y?k?

dlgoyponkoa

Fitness = 1

3. lt;wv hmstx,cxy

,mo;vwwpbqkuibuhq;fq'ow

Fitness = 2

4. zqayapqfiszwrh ?isye:

ghg:mllowxzcuyadly

Fitness = 0

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Target

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#1

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#2

#3

y

#4

e

#5

Fitness

Match Rows

40

34

40

11

Selection, Cross- over and

Mutation

Total

Fitness = 5

1. % of Total Fitness = 0%

2. % of Total Fitness = 20%

3. % of Total Fitness = 40%

4. % of Total Fitness = 0%

5. % of Total Fitness = 40%

Selection, Cross- over and

Mutation

Next,

for breeding. Each monkeys chance at

being selected is equal to their % of total

Fitness. In this case, its as if we spun a

Roulette wheel with these possible

outcomes: 2,3,3,5,5 (since Monkeys 1 and

3 scored a zero, they are not eligible for

reproduction). Lets assume we randomly

select monkeys #3 and #5 to be our first

parents.

Schematic of Cross

over

Crossover:

Position for crossover on the two parent chromosomes

randomly selected

Offspring share characteristics of well-performing parents

Combinations of well-performing characteristics generated

Mutation:

Bit for mutation randomly selected

New characteristics introduced into the population

Prevents algorithm from getting trapped into a local optimum

on Bit Strings

Mutation

MUTATIONis a genetic operator used to

maintain genetic diversity from one

generation of a population of

genetic algorithm chromosomes to the

next.

It is analogous to biological mutation.

Mutation alters one or more gene values

in a chromosome from its initial state. In

mutation, the solution may change

entirely from the previous solution.

MUTATION

solution by using mutation.

Mutation occurs during evolution

according to a user-definable

mutation probability. This

probability should be set low.

If it is set too high, the search will

turn into a primitive random search

with no focus on target

a bearing on the Convergence to

Target

tend to fill the population

with copies of the best

individual from the

population

Using selection and

crossover operators will tend

to cause the algorithms to

converge on a good but suboptimal solution

CROSS-OVER OPERATION

Pc

random number r

for the cross-over operation

among the selected pool

MUTATION

OPERATION

DECIDE ON A MUTATION

PROBABILITY-- Pm

Beware:

Too large Pm best chromosomes

are lost unnecssarily

MUTATION

Generate a random number r

If r < Pm mutate that bit ( 0 to 1

or 1 to 0 )

Now the new population is ready

for next evaluation of fitness

The above operations are done in a

cyclic manner many times ( many

generations )

The ultimate population is expected

to contain the best chromosome

( optimum solution ).

Cross Over or

Mutation ?

Cross

is important or absolutely

necessary ?

Decades

of debates have no

definite answer

However,

it

which GA is applied and

each

own right and is to be

implemented in the correct

measure

PRESERVED DURING ANY GENERATION

INDIVIDUALS

INDIVIDUALS

SPECIAL ADVANCED GA

OPERATORS

Comparisons

Traditional . Vs. Evolution Based

Methods

best

initial guess

may

optimum

population

more

of guesses

optimuma better solution

MIMICKING NATURAL

EVOLUTION

Generation n

Initial Population

Fitness to Environment

Best ones having high fitness breed

randomly

Variability (at any time individuals of

varying

fitness coexist)

Next Generation n +1

MIMICKING NATURAL

EVOLUTION

Numerical Simulation

Generation 0

Select feasible sets of independent variables

initial population

These are coded as genes (strings of binary / real

numbers)

Rank them by the objective function and select the best

few

Allow then to breed by crossing their genes at random

positions

To introduce variability mutate the strings randomly

POPULTION

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

POPULATION

SET OF SOLUTIONS

FITNESS TO ENVIRONMENT

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

NATURE

CHROMOSOME

SELECTION

CROSSS-OVER

MUTATION

EVOLUTION

COMPUTER

CODING FOR INDEPENDENT

VARIABLES

SEARCH OPERATORS TO MIMIC

GENETIC BREEDING

OPTIMAL SOLUTION

Comparison

Nature .vs. Computer GA

Nature

not

very efficient

at

not

Computer

efficient

Genetic algorithm

and fast

optimisation

mating

Parallel

Problems

HOW GA OPERATES ?

Imagine an army of

parachutists dropping

onto the landscape of a

problem's search space,

with each one being

given orders to find the

highest peak. Small

mutations enable each

individual to explore its

immediate

neighborhood, while

selection focuses

progress, guiding the

algorithm's off-springs

uphill to more

promising parts of the

solution space. Crossover enables transfer

of information among

EXPLORATION AND

EXPLOITATION

RANDOM SEARCH EXPLORES THE SEARCH

SPACE - IGNORES EXPLOITATION OF POTENTIAL

REGIONS OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

THE SEARCH SPACE BUT EXPLOITS THE BEST

SOLUTION FOR IMPROVEMENT

BALANCE BETWEEN EXPLORATION AND

EXPLOITATION

MINIMISATION

GA TEND TO MAXIMISE A GIVEN

FUNCTION

TO MINIMISE AN OBJECTIVE

FUNCTION DEFINE IT AS NEGATIVE OF

ORIGINAL

min f(x) = max { -f(x)}

We can also redefine the objective

function as

f(x) = 1/ {1+f(x) }

HANDLING NEGATIVE

FUNCTION VALUES

GA ASSUMES THAT OBJECTIVE

FUNCTION IS ALWAYS POSITIVE

VALUES WE ADD A CONSTANT C

DISADVANTAGES OF GA

BEING

STOCAHSTIC IN NATURE,

CONVERGNCE IS RATHER SLOW

PROBLEM

SPECIFIC SETTING OF

VARIOUS PROBABILITIES ( CROSS-OVER

MUTATION ETC ) THOUGH SOME

EMPIRICAL RULES ARE KNOWN

IDEAL

TO CHOOSE

NEEDS

GETTING NEAR TO THE OPTIMUM

SOLUTION

PROBABILISTIC STEPS

The

random

Probabilistic

selection based on

fitness

- Best is not always picked

- Worst is not necessarily excluded

Random

crossover points

Often,

there is probabilistic

GENETIC ALGORITHMS

A FORMAL DEFINITION

The genetic algorithm is a

probabilistic

search

algorithm

that iteratively transforms a set

(called

a

population)

of

mathematical objects (typically

fixed-length

binary

character

strings), each with an associated

fitness

value,

into

a

new

population of offspring objects,

using the Darwinian principle of

natural

selection

and

using

operations that are patterned

after naturally occurring genetic

SOLVING BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

CHROMOSOMAL REPRESENTATION OF

PARAMETERS

REPEAT IN A CYCLE

RANKNING

MATE

BY FITNESS

SELECTION

CROSS-OVER

MUTATION

NEW

POPULATION

IS OBTAINED.

Typical

Chromosome

A POPULATION

Ranking by

Fitness

MATE

SELECTION

CROSSOVER

MUTATION

Best Target

Individual !!

Eureka !!!

THE GA CYCLE

RANKING BY FITNESS

POPULATION

MUTATION

BEST SOLUTION

PARENT SELECTION

CROSSOVER

Typical GA Operation

Overview and Flow Chart

Initialize population at random

Evaluate fitness of new

chromosomes

Good

Enough?

Yes

No

based on fitness

Perform crossover and

mutation on parents

Done

GA EXAMPLE

Maximise

f(x) = x 3 - 60 * x 2 + 900 * x +100

0 x 31

5-bit binary digit string ( only

integer values )

ANALYTICAL SOLUTION

3 x2 120 * x + 900 = 0

X = 30 and 10

6x 120 = 0

At x = 10 6x 120 = - 60

maximum = 4100

At x = 30 6x 120 = + 60 Hence y is

minimum =100

10

Hence y is

The Function

Plot

GA Example

Generate random individuals

Chromosome

P1

P2

P3

P4

Binary String

11100

01111

10111

00100

TOTAL

AVERAGE

f(x)

28

15

23

4

212

3475

1227

2804

7718

1929.50

GA Example

wheel selection

Crossover point is chosen randomly

Mutation is applied randomly

GA Example Crossover

P3

P2

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

P4

P2

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

C1

C2

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

C3

C4

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

Breeding

The average value has risen 1929 to 2933

P2 was the strongest individual in the initial

population. It was chosen both times but we have

lost it from the current population

We have a value of x=7 in the population which is

the closest value to 10 we have found analytically.

Chromosome

P1

P2

P3

P4

Binary String

11111

00111

00111

01100

TOTAL

AVERAGE

f(x)

31

7

7

12

131

3803

3803

3998

11735

2933.75

MOVEMENT OF POPULATION

( NPOP = 2 ) WITH GENERATIONS

Ge

n

P

1

P

2

Av

Max

1

7

3

1

1552

2973

1

7

2

5

1849

2973

1

7

0

8

3973

3972

0

8

0

9

4021

4069

0

9

1

0

4089

4100

20

1

0

1

4

3892

4100

FURTHER GENERATIONS

population members. Of course this is a

trivial problem.

Further examples and applications will show

the power of GA in solving more complex

problems involving several parameters.

But before that, let us brush up the basics of

optimisation as applied to engineering design

problems.

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