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(Power System Analysis Toolbox)

By :
H. Lotfizad


PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for static and dynamic analysis

and control of electric power systems.

PSAT is written by Federico Milano , in September 2001,

while he was studying as Ph.D. student at the Universita di
Genova, Italy,

First public version of PSAT completed in November 2002,

when he was a Visiting Scholar at the University of
Waterloo, Canada.

Now Federico Milano is working as assistant professor at

the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain
but he maintains PSAT in the spare time


PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for electric power system

analysis and control.

PSAT includes Power Flow , continuation power

flow, optimal power flow, small signal stability
analysis and time domain simulation.

All PSAT operations can be assessed by means of

graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a Simulinkbased library provides an user friendly tool for
network design.


PSAT core is the power flow routine, which also takes

care of state variable initialization.

Once the power flow has been solved, further static

and/or dynamic analysis can be performed.

These routines are:

1. Optimal power flow (OPF)

2. Continuation Power flow (CPF)
3. Small signal stability analysis
4. Time domain simulations
5. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement.

Useful features
Mathematical Models & Utilities
A variety of utilities
Bridges to other programs
Data Format Conversion capability

Mathematical Models
In order to perform

accurate power system

analysis, PSAT supports a variety of static
and dynamic component models, as

Mathematical Models

Power Flow Data

CPF and OPF Data
Switching Operations
Regulating Transformers
Other Models

PSAT utilities

Simulink library for drawing networks;

GUIs for settings system and routine parameters;

User defined model construction and installation;

GUI for plotting results;

Filters for converting data to and from other formats;

Command logs.

PSAT bridges to other programs

PSAT includes bridges to GAMS and

UWPFLOW programs.
This bridges highly extend PSAT ability of

performing optimization and continuation

power flow analysis.

Comparison between PSAT

& Other Matlab Power System Toolboxes

standard power flow (PF)

continuation power flow and/or voltage stability analysis (CPF-VS)
optimal power ow (OPF)
Small signal stability analysis (SSSA)
time domain simulation (TDS)
Electro Magnetic Transient analysis (EMT)
graphical user interface (GUI)
graphical network construction (CAD)

PSAT Users

PSAT is currently used in several countries. These include:

Modern Countries like : USA , Canada , England , France, Australia, Japan ,

Italy , Spain , Sweden , China , Norway

Under developing countries like : Algery, Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia,

Egypt, Guatemala, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran,
Costa Rica, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines,
Puerto Rico, Romania, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Venezuela.

PSATusers around the world.

PSAT Installation
1- Download the last PSAT version :
2- Requirements (ver 1.2.2) : Matlab 6.5
(ver 2) : Matlab 7
3- Installation :

Extract PSAT zip files in a good location


Add PSATs Path to MATLAB default path

PSAT quick tutorial

PSAT Installation
Launching PSAT
Loading Data
Running the Power flow Program
Displaying Results
Saving Results

Launching PSAT
Type psat in MATLAB Prompt
>> psat
This will create all the structures required by the
toolbox , then opens psat GUI

Loading Data
Almost all operations require that a data file is loaded.
To load a file:
Load only a data file :
- Menu File/Open/Data File
- Short cut <Ctr-d>

Load a saved system:

- File/Open/Saved System
- Short cut <Ctr-y>

To allow portability the .out files used for saving system results include also the
original data which can be saved in a new .m data file.

The data file can be either a .m file in PSAT format or a Simulink model created
with the PSAT library.

If the source is in a different format supported by the PSAT format conversion

utility, first perform the conversion in order to create the PSAT data file.

Running the Power flow Program

To run the power flow routine:

Menu Run/Power Flow
Short cut <Ctr-p>

It is not necessary to load again the data file every

time it is modied, bacause :

The last version of the data file is read each time the power flow is
The data are updated also in case of changes in the Simulink
model originally loaded.

Other Analysis

solving the first power flow, the

program is ready for further analysis, such
as CPF , OPF ,


of these procedures can be

launched from the tool-bar or the menubar of the main window.

Displaying Results

Results can be generally displayed in more than one way, either

by means of a graphical user interface in Matlab or as a ascii text

These routines only create a text report:

Standard Power flow (in a .txt , .xls or .tex file)

PMU placement (in a .eig file)
SSSA (Small Signal Stability analysis) (in a .pmu file)

These routines create graphical output :


Saving Results

To save actual System status in a .mat file :

Menu File/Save/Current System

Shortcut <Ctrl-a>

All global structures used by PSAT are stored in this

file which is placed in the folder of the current data file

all static computations allow to create a report in a text

file that can be stored and used later.


The main settings of the system are directly included in the main window

Other general settings

Menu Edit/General Settings or <Ctr-k>

To change the default values for some fields of the Settings structure

Base frequency
Base Power
Start & End Simulation Time
static and dynamic tolerance
Maximum number of iterations

Menu Edit/Set Default

To save a customize settings , use it as default values for the next sessions

Menu File/Save/Settings

Network Design

Using The Simulink environment :


Creating a CAD able to design power networks

visualize the topology
change the data stored in it
without the need of directly dealing with lists of data.

Simulink has been thought for control diagrams with outputs and inputs
This is not the best way for approaching a power system network.
Thus, the time domain routines that come with Simulink and its ability to
build control block diagrams are not used.

PSAT simply reads the data from the Simulink model and writes
down a data file.

Network Design
To launch

PSAT library

click on Simulink icon in the menu-bar,

the menu Edit/Network/Edit Network or
the short cut <Ctr-s>.


Tools that provided with PSAT

data format conversion functions

user defined model routines.

PSAT static data files can be converted in the

IEEE Common Data Format

User defined model routines provide a simple

way for extending the capabilities of PSAT

PSAT Interfaces

PSAT provides interfaces :


These interfaces highly extend PSAT ability to perform OPF and CPF

The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is a high-level

modeling system for mathematical programming problems.

UWPFLOW is an open source program for sophisticated continuation

power flow analysis

UWPFLOW consists of a set of C functions and libraries designed for

voltage stability analysis of power systems

Using PSAT for analysis of

Voltage Collapse

Based on C. A. Canizares, Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts,

Practices and Tools," Tech. Rep. IEEE/PES Power System Stability

Direct Methods for determining

Saddle-Node Bifurcations (SNB)

Limit-Induced Bifurcations (LIB)

Continuation Power Flow (CPF)

The CPF is more general than DMs

CPF can be used for determining:
generator reactive power limits
voltage limits
flow transmission limits.

CPF Settings

PSAT plot for DM & CPF Results


Figure depicts CPF nose curves as

displayed by means of the PSAT GUI for
plotting results system.


graphic refers to three load voltages

of the IEEE 14-bus test system

IEEE 14-bus test system psat plots

Special Thanks to
Session Audiences