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Modern Education American School

Physical Science
Chapter 11: Introduction
to Atoms

Development of the Atomic


Theory
Democritus (philosopher): Atomos; which
means indivisible.
Aristotle (philosopher): Atoms dont exist;
earth, water, fire and air.
Dalton (conducted experiments):
All substances are made of atom. Atoms are small
particles that cannot be created, divided or destroyed.
Atoms of the same element are exactly alike, and
atoms of different elements are different.
Atoms join with other atoms to make new substances.

Development of the Atomic


Theory
Thomson (Cathode-Ray Tube
Experiment):
Sub-atoms called negative corpuscles
(electrons)
Plum-pudding model (positive sub-atoms
exist to balance the electrons)

Cathode ray properties (the blue color


line):
-Moves in a straight line
-Negatively charged (seen with electric
fields and magnetic fields)

Development of the Atomic


Theory
Rutherford (Gold
Foil Experiment):
Alpha particles (hydrogen particles) are
positive particles.
When bombarded with gold foil there were 3
observations:
Alpha particles move straight (space in atom)
Alpha particles deflect (negative electrons in
atom)
Alpha particles bounce back (positive nucleus)

Development of the Atomic


Theory
Bohrs Model: Electrons around
nucleus have definite paths located
in levels.
Electrons can only jump from one level to
another.

Development of the Atomic


Theory
The Modern Theory (Schrodingers
Model)
No definite paths for electrons
Cannot predict the location of electrons in
each level.
Electrons are likely to be found in regions
First level
called ELECTRON CLOUDS
Nucleu
s

electron
clouds

The Atom
Atoms are very small
Aluminum foil thickness contains 50,000
aluminum atoms.

Sub Atoms
Protons:
Positively charged (+)
Their mass is so small each is given a 1 atomic mass unit
(1 amu)
Located inside Nucleus

Neutrons
No charge
More massive than protons (gives most of the atoms
mass)
Still given mass = 1 amu, still difference between it and
protons is trivial
Located inside Nucleus

Sub Atoms
Electrons
Negative charge (-)
Mass is almost zero
Located outside nucleus in electron clouds

Atoms are neutral ( protons = electrons)


or (+ = -)
If the charges are not equal then atoms
become ions, either a negative ion or
positive ion (Discussed in Chapter 13)

Lets Build some Atoms!


1 positive proton and 1 negative
electron to balance itHydrogen
2 positive protons (yikes!!) then add
neutrons in nucleus. 2 electrons to
balance the protons.Helium
In an uncharged atom protons must
equal electrons but neutrons can
vary!
Example: Gold atom; 79 p+, 118 n
and 79 e-

How to identify an Element


Same atoms make an element
Example Carbon atoms make Carbon
element
How to identify an element?
By its number of protons (ATOMIC NUMBER)
Example: Atomic number = 6
Carbon
Atomic number = 1
Hydrogen

Are All Atoms of an Element the


Same?
NO.why?
You can build 2 different hydrogen
elements:
1 proton and 1 electron
Or 1 proton, 1 electron and 1 neutron

These different hydrogen elements


have different mass.

ISOTOPES
Atoms have the same atomic number
but different number of neutrons.
Occur naturally and isotopes of an
element share the same chemical and
physical properties.
Some are UNSTABLERADIOACTIVE!
Radioactive means nucleus can release
neutrons or the neutrons change to
protons and electrons.

How to identify one isotope from


another?
Mass number which is mostly in the
nucleus
Mass number = protons + neutrons
For example,
Boron has 5 p, 5 e and 5 n
Mass number = 5 + 5 = 10 amu
If another Boron has 5 p, 5 e and 6 n
Mass number = 5 + 6 = 11 amu

Two Isotopes: Boron - 10 and Boron 11

Atomic Mass
Elements occur as a mixture of isotope
atoms
How to calculate mass?
For example,
69% copper-63
31% copper-65
Calculate mass of the copper element.
(0.69 x 63) + (0.31 x 65) = 63.6 amu

Atomic mass is the weighted average of all


the isotopes in an element.

Activity
Calculate Atomic Mass of Carbon

Answer: 12.025 amu

Forces that keep the atoms shape


1. Gravity (dense nucleus attracts electrons)
2. Electromagnetic force (negative electrons
attracted to positive protons and
electrons repel each other)
3. Strong force (neutrons allow protons
together in nucleus)
4. Weak force (neutrons released from
nucleus) (Radiation)..
CANCERRRRRR!!!!

Strength of Forces
In decreasing order:

strong force
electromagnetic force
weak force
gravitational force