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Overview

Fundamentals
Introduction
Seismic waves: Propagation Velocity and Amplitudes
Seismogram
Measurement systems
Sources, receivers, Acquisition strategies
Data processing
Pre-processing
Filter und Deconvolution
Velocity analysis and Stacking
Migration
Interpretation

Basic scheme of the seismic data


processing
Measurements
Loading of the data/conversion
Demultiplexing
Geometry

Navigation

Pre-Processing

Editing
Amplitude correction
Frequency filter
Deconvolution
CMP-Sorting

Prestack

Velocity analysis
NMO-Correction
Stacking
Migration

Poststack

Post-processing

Printing/storage

Printing/storage

Frequency analysis
Analysis of the frequency content of the
data
Difference in frequency content for
interface waves, Noise and Reflections
In what frequency range are the
reflections present ?

Outline
Periodic and transient waveforms
Fourier transformation
time domain <-> frequency domain
Frequency filters
Tapering
Field examples

Frequency content of a shot

high freq.
noise:
low freq.
ground-roll

Waves
Amplitude
Phase

Acos(2ft)
Acos(2ft-)
t

1
Period ==
f

Period
Wavelength v

2
Wavenumberk =

Velocityv

Periodic and transient


waveforms
Periodic waveform

Transient waveform

Periodic waveforms
Any periodic waveform, may be
decomposed into a series of sine (or
cosine) waves whose frequencies are
integer multiples of the basic repetition
frequency
It is necessary to define not only the
frequency of each component, but also its
amplitude and phase

Fourier transformation
Fourier Transformation:

G f

i 2 ft

g
t
e
dt

G f

g t cos(2ft )dt i g t sin(2ft )dt

Inverse Fourier
Transformation:

g t G f e i 2ft df

g t G f cos(2ft )df i G f sin( 2ft )df

Summation of different
frequencies

Fourier transformation

g(t)

A(f)

Amplitude-Spectrum

(f)

Phase-Spectrum

G(f) = A(f) e i(f)

where A(f)={[Real part of G(f)]2+[Imaginary part of G(f)]2}1/2

(f)=tan-1

imaginary part of G(f)


real part of G(f)]

Imaginary part

A(f)
(f)

Real part

frequency
amplitude
phase
f1
f2

Sum:

f1

f2

Sum:

f1

f1

f2

f2

Sum:

Sum:

Digital representation of continuous amplitude and phase


spectrum associated with a transient waveform

Spike function

DC bias

Transient waveforms
approximating
seismic pulses

Frequency filter
Low Pass

High Pass

f
Notch filter

Band Pass

Tapering

Tapering of filters
Butterworth
Hanning
Ormsby

Amplitude and phase characteristics.

Band-pass filtered raw field


records

Corrected for geometric spreading: frequency


absorption remains