With the upcoming deployment of wideband wireless network with throughput greater than 100Mbps over high frequency bands such as 5-GHz band and the adopting of multicarrier modulations, more and more challenges are brought to system and hardware design. OFDM, frequently referred as multi-carrier modulation, is becoming the de facto standard for next-generation wideband wireless networks. However, one of the critical issues of OFDM as well as other multicarrier modulation scheme is its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which usually requires large backoff and highly efficient high power amplifier (HPA), large dynamic range analog-to-digital converter (ADC), high linearity up-converter, etc. These requirements lead to expensive hardware systems that are difficult to design. Hence it becomes more and more important to alleviate the burden of hardware design with employing advanced PAPR reduction technologies.
In this tutorial contribution, OFDM RF design challenges and PAPR reduction technologies are presented. They are discussed in terms of both theory and implementation with many examples. Especially a patent search is given too. There are five major parts in this tutorial. In the first part, an introduction to OFDM, the RF design challenges and the PAPR issue is presented. We outline the challenges, which include high power peak, linearity limitation, image rejection, phase noise and distortion, etc., brought to each component of OFDM RF design. Here we focus on high peak power and try to solve the PAPR issue, which is defined from both signal processing and coding perspectives. The problem of PAPR issue is outlined from implementation perspective with the discussion of the effectiveness of signal clipping, which is known as one of the simplest PAPR reduction technique. In the second part, an overview of most popular PAPR reduction approaches is given. It includes coding, signal processing and filtering, selection mapping, signal constellation optimization, etc. The pros and cons of these approaches are compared in terms of performance and implementation complexity. In the third part, PAPR reduction techniques adopted in existing standards are presented and discussed. We cover some of the most important standards including GSM, WCDMA, LTE and UMB. In the fourth part, many PAPR reduction patent examples are presented, followed by a presentation of our recent contributions to PAPR reduction. Our approaches are simple and efficient, with low implementation complexity on the receiver. The conclusions and further works are outlined in the last part.
In summary, this tutorial is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of PAPR reduction form OFDM for a wide array of audiences. It includes not only the background theory, implementation considerations and related standards but also our recent contributions.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 3.0K

With the upcoming deployment of wideband wireless network with throughput greater than 100Mbps over high frequency bands such as 5-GHz band and the adopting of multicarrier modulations, more and more challenges are brought to system and hardware design. OFDM, frequently referred as multi-carrier modulation, is becoming the de facto standard for next-generation wideband wireless networks. However, one of the critical issues of OFDM as well as other multicarrier modulation scheme is its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which usually requires large backoff and highly efficient high power amplifier (HPA), large dynamic range analog-to-digital converter (ADC), high linearity up-converter, etc. These requirements lead to expensive hardware systems that are difficult to design. Hence it becomes more and more important to alleviate the burden of hardware design with employing advanced PAPR reduction technologies.
In this tutorial contribution, OFDM RF design challenges and PAPR reduction technologies are presented. They are discussed in terms of both theory and implementation with many examples. Especially a patent search is given too. There are five major parts in this tutorial. In the first part, an introduction to OFDM, the RF design challenges and the PAPR issue is presented. We outline the challenges, which include high power peak, linearity limitation, image rejection, phase noise and distortion, etc., brought to each component of OFDM RF design. Here we focus on high peak power and try to solve the PAPR issue, which is defined from both signal processing and coding perspectives. The problem of PAPR issue is outlined from implementation perspective with the discussion of the effectiveness of signal clipping, which is known as one of the simplest PAPR reduction technique. In the second part, an overview of most popular PAPR reduction approaches is given. It includes coding, signal processing and filtering, selection mapping, signal constellation optimization, etc. The pros and cons of these approaches are compared in terms of performance and implementation complexity. In the third part, PAPR reduction techniques adopted in existing standards are presented and discussed. We cover some of the most important standards including GSM, WCDMA, LTE and UMB. In the fourth part, many PAPR reduction patent examples are presented, followed by a presentation of our recent contributions to PAPR reduction. Our approaches are simple and efficient, with low implementation complexity on the receiver. The conclusions and further works are outlined in the last part.
In summary, this tutorial is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of PAPR reduction form OFDM for a wide array of audiences. It includes not only the background theory, implementation considerations and related standards but also our recent contributions.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Master Thesis MEE 10120
- An Overview : Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in OFDM system using some new PAPR techniques (with matlab code)
- OFDM08SpringPAPR Tutorial
- Peak to Average Power Ratio (Papr) Reduction in Ofdm Based Radio Systems_3
- Reduction of PAPR for OFDM Downlink and IFDMA Uplink Wireless Transmissions
- OFDM SIMULATION in MATLAB
- PAPR Analysis and Simulation for 3GPP LTE System
- Performance Evaluation of WiMAX or IEEE 802.16 OFDM Pysical Layer
- 5g Waveform Multiple Access Techniques
- Radio over Fiber Technology
- Performance Evaluation of the Physical Layer of IEEE 802.16e standard
- Ofdm Matlab Code PDF
- BER for BPSK in Rayleigh Channel
- 2014 Gnuradio Full Duplex
- OFDM Final Report
- 2017 Small Cell Solution Overview
- DSL Intro-2
- spell1 ppt
- LTE Course
- LTE Planning

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

for OFDM

Shu Wang

LG Electronics Mobile Research, USA

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Introduction

• Understanding the PAPR (Peak-to-Average-Power Ratio) of OFDM from

• a signal processing perspective,

• a coding perspective, and

• an implementation perspective.

• PAPR reduction in research and standards.

• Known techniques: clipping, coding, PTS, SLM, dynamic PA backoff,

single-carrier modulation, etc.

• Relevant standards: GSM, WCDMA, UMB, LTE, etc.

• Two PAPR reduction techniques are investigated for regular OFDM.

1) PAPR reduction with group-based cyclic delays

2) PAPR reduction with subcarrier remapping

• Three PAPR reduction schemes are investigated for layer-modulated

OFDM

1) Rotated Layer Modulation

2) PAPR Reduction with Layer-Based Cyclic Delay

3) PAPR Reduction with Group-Based Cyclic Delay

2

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

0.25

max s( t )

PAPR = ≈ O( L )

E s( t ) 0.2

2

0.15

1.5

3.01dB

1

0.1

Imaginary Part of OFDM Signal

0.5

0

0.05

0.5

1

0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Peak-to-Average-Power Ratio (dB)

1.5 6.53dB

2

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

8PSK, L=128

Real Part of OFDM Signal

3

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

•The statistic properties of PAPR can be CCDF ( γ ) = Pr ( PAPR > γ )

described by CCDF (complementary

cumulative distribution function). = 1 − Pr ( PAPR ≤ γ )

•And let’s do something a little bit

heuristic.

[

= 1 − Pr CG ( p ≤ γ ) ] L

)

symbol is complex Gaussian

distributed.

• When the number of subcarriers,

L, become large, the instantaneous

power of each OFDM signal chip

can be modeled by a chi-

distributed signal with two degree

of freedom.

high PAPR sounds like rare event,

can we just ignore it? N=64, oversampling factor 4, Thompson, et al 2005

4

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

(L-1)-sphere cap with c

max Euclid distance r

max S ( t ) s( t )

2 2

1

max C ( z ) z = e jθ

2

PAPR = ≤ max =

E S(t)

2 2 2

c c

(L-1)-sphere

c0 + c1 z + + c L −1 z L −1

= C ( z ) = c ∗ w( z ) z = e jθ

5

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

•AM/AM characteristics of the Rapp SSPA model, P=2

vin

vout = 1

| vin | 2 P 2P

1 + ( )

Vsat

PA output Knee factor. Typically

saturation level P=2~3

•The knee factor P controls the smoothness of the SSPA characteristic. When P = 2,

it is known to be a good representation of the HPA’s in the sub-10 GHz

frequency range.

6

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

OFDM, P0=2, N1=256, 8*ovs, alpha=.125

10

BO=5 dB

BO=7 dB

0 BO=10 dB

10

Upper half of power spectrum (dB)

20

30

40

50

Source: Intersil

60

70

80

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

frequency normalized to symbol rate

7

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• Peak transmit power is limited by

• Regulations

• Interference. both in-band and out-of-band interference are

concerned.

• Hardware Limitations, especially when the bill of materials and

power consumption are among the major concerns.

• High PAPR of OFDM signals, especially at the high carrier

frequency, e.g. 2-5GHz, and with high-order modulations, brings

new challenges for the implementations.

• It demands the HPA with large backoff.

• It demands the high power amplifier with better efficiency.

• It requires the up-converter with high linearity.

• It requires the ADC with large dynamic range.

• It requires the LO with low phase noise level.

8

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• GSM: The modulation is GMSK, which has a constant envelope and is

optimized for amplifier PAPR requirement.

• WCDMA: DPDCH and DPCCH are I-Q/code multiplexed and complex

scrambled. The complex scrambling codes are formed in such a way that

the rotations between consecutive chips within one symbol period are

limited to ±90o. The full 180 rotation can happen only between

consecutive symbols.

• UMB: The scheduler adapts assignments of different ATs based on their

PA characteristics and power limitation and schedule power-limited users

away from the edge of spectrum allocation and other users on the

remaining spectrum with taking into account user’s power limitation as well

as channel selectivity across subbands.

• LTE: SC-FDMA, which has low PAPR in time domain but high PAPR in

frequency domain, is adopted. SC-FDMA has about 1.5 for 16QAM and

2.5dB for QPSK in PAPR gain but less frequency diversity gain.

9

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• Clipping: In-band distortion mostly is negligible. But out-of-band distortion is more

serious.

• Filtering and Signal Processing :

• time-invariant linear filter results in less peak regrowth and lower PAPR than DFT

filter in general, if there is no spectral masking.

• Partial Transmit Signaling (PTS): divide/Group into clusters and each of them is done

with a smaller IFFT. [Muller and Huber, 97 ]

• Tone Reservation (TR): inserting anti-peak signals in unused or reserved subcarriers.

The objective is to find the time-domain signal to be added into the original time-

domain signal such that PAPR is reduced. [Tellado, 00]

• Coding: The idea is to select a codeword with less PAPR. it still is an open problem to

construct codes with both low PAPR and short Hamming distance.

• Selected Mapping (SLM): it is based on selecting one of the transformed blocks for each

data block, which has the lowest PAPR. [Bauml, Fisher and Huber, 96]

• Constellation Optimization

• Tone Injection (TI): the basic idea is to increase the constellation size so that each of

the points in the original basic constellation can be mapped into several equivalent

points in the expanded constellation.

• Active constellation extension (ACE): similar to TI. [Krongold and Jones, 03]

10

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• Input is divided into M clusters,

• Each cluster is converted into time-domain with shorter IFFT

• Combine the M output sequence to minimize the PAPR

•Selective Mapping (SLM)

• This method is based on generating M statistically independent transformed

blocks for each data block and transmitting the one with the lowest PAPR.

• Multiple data streams by M different sequences

• Converted them independently into time domain with IFFT

• Select the best sequence for transmission.

•In general, both of them require transmitting some side information about the identity

of the selected block.

11

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

e j 2πnT∆ f

F ( f ) ⇔ f t − nT∆ ( )

Time-domain shifting is equal

to frequency-domain rotating

F ( f − nf ∆ ) ⇔ e j 2πnf ∆ t

f (t)

Frequency-domain shifting is

equal to time-domain rotating

12

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• Frequency-domain subcarrier remapping brings time-domain

rotation on OFDM subcarriers.

• From a time-domain perspective, it is similar to PTS.

• With PTS, however, the direct rotation of subcarriers in time

domain may change frequency-domain pilot pattern.

• Time-domain cyclic delays of subcarriers brings the rotation of

subcarriers in frequency domain.

• From a frequency-domain perspective, it is similar to SLM.

• With SLM, however, the rotation of subcarrier with SLM is done

in frequency domain, which is separated from the PAPR

detection by IFFT. This results in high calculation complexity

and/or processing delay.

13

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• PAPR Reduction with Subcarrier Remapping

• Multiple OFDM signals are generated based on different

symbol-to-subcarriers mapping rule

• The OFDM signal of the lowest PAPR is selected for

transmission.

• PAPR Reduction with Group-Based Cyclic Delay

• The input subcarriers are partitioned into multiple groups.

• The PAPR of the sum output can be reduced with properly

adjusting the delay of each group’s IFFT output.

14

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Tx and/or

Symbol-to- Parallel to

Serial and

Subcarrier IFFT

Cyclic

Mapping Prefix

Format 1

Tx and/or

Symbol-to- Parallel to

Serial , and

Subcarrier IFFT

Cyclic

Select the

one with

Mapping Prefix lowest

Format 2 PAPR

Tx and/or

Symbol-to- Parallel to

Serial and

Subcarrier IFFT

Cyclic

Mapping Prefix

Format N

15

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

0

10

1

10

Gaussian Approx

CCDF

10

2

with No Cyclic Delay

with Tx Format Selection, G=2

10

3 QPSK/OFDM, L=128

4

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (dB)

16

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Cyclic delay

IFFT and Cyclic/

Zero Prefix

Dividing,

Decomposition ,

Grouping or Combining

Clustering , or and PAPR

amplitude calculation

adjustment if

necessary

Cyclic delay

IFFT and Cyclic/

Zero Prefix

PAPR control

17

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

10

1

10

QPSK/OFDM, L=128

CCDF

2

10

3

10 Guassian approximation

with no PAPR reduction

with group-based cyclic delay, G=2

with partial transmit signaling, G=2

4

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (dB)

18

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

01 00

0011 0000

0001

0010

b1b0 θ

α 0111

10

0110

2β 0100

11 0101

1111 1100

00 1101

01 β 1110

θ

e1e0 2α

10 1011 1000

1010 1001

11

QPSK/QPSK Hierarchical Modulation b1e1b0e0

together.

•Superposition precoding with interference cancellation outperforms TDM and FDM

schemes in most time.

•Layer modulation is one of the popular implementations of superposition

precoding.

19

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

base/enhancement layers

• Extends coverage with layered source coding

• Provides a more graceful degradation of reception.

•Besides using a dedicated DVB-H network, DVB-H service can

also be embedded into DVB-T network using layered modulation.

• DVB-H service use the HP input while DVB-T services use LP.

• The HP input can offer increased robustness in mobile environment

over the LP input

• The LP input can serve higher bit-rate for fixed reception service

20

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

• The enhanced layer modulation with rotating enhancement layer

• The signal constellation of the enhancement layer is rotated for

• lowering PAPR,

• lowering symbol error rate, and

• Increasing achievable throughput.

• PAPR reduction with layer-based cyclic delay

• The input two layers are individually processing with IFFT.

• The enhancement layer is cyclic delayed and added into the based layer

in time domain.

• With proper adjusting the delay, the PAPR can be reduced.

• PAPR reduction with group-based cyclic delay

• The input subcarriers are partitioned into at least two groups.

• The output PAPR can be reduced with properly adjusting the delay of

each group’s IFFT output.

21

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Power and/

Layer 1 or Phase

Symbols Adjustment

Parallel to

Superpostion Serial and

and IFFT PAPR

calculation

Power and /

Layer 1 or Phase

Symbols Adjustment

22

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

0

10

1

10

CCDF

2 Gaussian Approximation, L=128

10

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.01, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.09, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.25, L=128

Enhanced QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.01, L=128

3

10 Enhanced QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.04, L=128

Enhanced QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.09, L=128

Enhanced QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.16, L=128

Enhanced QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.25, L=128

4

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (dB)

23

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Layer-1

IFFT Cyclic

Symbols Delay

Combining

and PAPR

calculation

Layer-2

IFFT Cyclic

Symbols Delay

PAPR control

24

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

0

10

1

10

Regular Hierarch.

Cyclically Delayed Modulations

Hierarch. Modulations

CCDF

2

10

Gaussian Approximation, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.01, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.09, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.25, L=128

3

10 Cyc. Del. QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.01, L=128

Cyc. Del. QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.04, L=128

Cyc. Del. QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.09, L=128

Cyc. Del. QPSK/QPSK, P /P =0.16, L=128

2 1

Cyc. Del. QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.25, L=128

4

10

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (dB)

25

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

layered- Delay

modulated

symbols are Combining

divided into and PAPR

multiple smaller calculation

groups of

layered-

modulated Cyclic

symbols IFFT Delay

PAPR control

26

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

0

10

1

10

CCDF

2

10

Gaussian Approximation, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.01, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.09, L=128

Regular QPSK/QPSK, P2/P1=0.25, L=128

3

10 with PAPR Reduction, P2/P1=0.01, L=128, G=2

with PAPR Reduction, P2/P1=0.04, L=128,G=2

with PAPR Reduction, P2/P1=0.09, L=128, G=2

with PAPR Reduction, P2/P1=0.16, L=128, G=2

with PAPR Reduction, P2/P1=0.25, L=128, G=2

4

10

0 2 4

Peak-to-Average 6Power Ratio

8 (dB) 10 12

27

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Conclusions (1/2)

• PAPR reduction is a historic issue existing with the development of

wireless communication systems.

• The high PAPR of OFDM bring higher requirements and more

challenges on the system implementation, which limit the actual

performance of OFDM systems.

• It brings higher requirements on HPA, ADC, heat dissipation,

signal processing, etc.

• Two new PAPR reduction technologies are proposed.

• PAPR reduction with transmission format selection

• Low processing delay

• High complexity

• PAPR reduction with cyclic delay diversity

• Simple and seamless PAPR reduction. No additional

demodulation overhead

• Better demodulation. More diversity

• Compatible with any modulation and coding scheme.

28

C00-NTAH-20070827-008

Conclusions (2/2)

• Rotational layer modulation has lower PAPR than regular layer modulation,

providing properly rotating the enhancement layer.

• It has PAPR reduction gain, though it is not significant.

• The PAPR reduction gain depends on the power splitting between layers.

• With cyclic delays, additional PAPR reduction is achievable

• The performance of layer-based approach depends on the power splitting

between layers, while the group-based approach doesn’t.

• In general, the group-based approach has a constant better performance

than the layer-based approach.

• The group-based approach has the best performance of the three proposed

approaches.

• Simple and seamless PAPR reduction. No additional

demodulation overhead

• Better demodulation. More diversity

• Compatible with regular modulations as well as the enhanced layer

modulation for high throughput.

29

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