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General Foundation Program



Its an electronic device that is used for information

It has the ability to store, process, and retrieve data.
It is a Programmable Machine

A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices,

and software

What a computer does?

A computer accepts input, processes data, stores data, and

produces output
data): Knowledge that is
Data(raw information): The representation of information
by a computer system.
Computers are made up of two parts:
Hardware: The physical equipment required to create, use,
manipulate and store electronic data.
Software: The programs & instructions that operate a
computer, manipulate the data and execute particular functions
or tasks.

1.1 Functional blocks of a computer

Input ----store & process ---output

Input Devices: An input device is any device that is used to

provide data and control signals in to the computer.

Output Devices: An output device is any device used to output

or get information out of the computer.

Storage Unit : It holds data and instructions inside the computer

Central Processing Unit : The CPU is like the brain of the

computer and performs all the functions.

It performs all calculations.

It takes all decisions.
It controls all units of the computer.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the
Central Processing Unit (CPU).
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):
All calculations and comparison are performed in the ALU of the computer.
The ALU can perform basic arithmetic operations and logic operations.
Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from
storage unit to ALU once the computations are done, the results are
transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the
output unit for displaying results.
Control Unit:
The control unit instructs the input unit, where to store the data after

receiving it from the user.

It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU
and back.