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SDH Transmission Network

Layout
06/26/10 NO.1
Transmission Network
Overview

06/26/10 NO.2
Transmission
Transmission Network
Network Function
Function Overview
Overview

Exchange

Voice
Voice
Transport
Transport ATM EX
network
network
Data
Data
IP Router

Image
Image
AN

Video Conference

06/26/10 NO.3
Delaminating
Delaminating And
And Division
Division

For convenience of network layout,we defined two


concept about transmission network.
Delaminating---To delaminate transmission network into
several layers on upright direction,border upon layers is
client/server relationship.
Division---To divide layer network into different part on
level direction ,generally divide on geographic.

06/26/10 NO.4
Delaminating
Delaminating And
And Division
Division

IP
AAL5
GE Vision

PPP
ATM 1/10GE MAC
SDL
Robust
Standard ATM Vision
Packet over POS Mapping
ATM Mapping
SONET/SDH (today’s IP/DWDM)
Robust 1/10 GE
Packet over Cell PL
SONET/SDH PHY
Fiber

Common Vehicle: Digital Wrapper

DWDM

06/26/10 NO.5
ZTE’s
ZTE’s Total
Total Solutions
Solutions for
for Transmission
Transmission Network
Network
ZXWM-32
OLA OTM
Nation and OXC OTM ZXSM-10G
OADM
province OADM
OTM OLA
backbone
OADM ZXSM-2.5G

ZXWM-32
ADM
Regional REG
ZXSM-10G
ADM ADM ADM
and metro ADM ZXSM-2500
junction
ZXSM-150/600/2500V10.0

ADM ADM ZXSM-150/600/2500


Access ADM ADM TM
ADM ZXSM-150(V2)
layer
STM-1 ZXSM-600(V2)
10Base-T E1
EM
ZXSM-10
ZXSM-10
V.28 ZXSM-10
ZXSM-10 LE ZXSM-10
TRK
V.35 V.11 LE
X.21 2B+D
V.28 G.703
06/26/10 NO.6
Basis of Network
Layout

06/26/10 NO.7
Essential
Essential of
of network
network layout
layout

Network structure design


Network protection
Network service scheme
Network synchronous method
Network management system

06/26/10 NO.8
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Principle : ring is the main topology structure


Point to
Chain
point

Ring Tree

Star Mesh

And other topology


06/26/10 NO.9
Transmission
Transmission medium---
medium--- Fiber
Fiber

There are 4 kinds of single mode fiber defined by


ITU-T recommendation :
G.652---single mode fiber
G.653---dispersion shift single mode fiber
G.654---cut-off wavelength shift fiber , main use for
seabed communications
G.655---none zero dispersion shift single mode fiber

06/26/10 NO.10
Transmission
Transmission medium---
medium--- Fiber
Fiber

Loss
❚ Absorb loss
Intrinsic absorb:--- Ultraviolet absorb\ Infrared absorb
Extrinsic absorb:---impurity absorb
❚ Scatter loss
Rayl scatter:

06/26/10 NO.11
Transmission
Transmission medium---
medium--- Fiber
Fiber

Dispersion
pulse width disperse

The optical pulse has different spectrum.when


T

the pulse spread in fiber,the spectrum


components have different speed. It induce
pulse width broad or dispersion with distance
increase.
06/26/10 NO.12
Transmission
Transmission medium---
medium--- Fiber
Fiber

Loss and Dispersion

Dispersion (ps/nm-km)
G.652
SMF 20
G.653
1.0 Loss bandy DSF
0.8
Loss (dB/km)

EDFA 10
bandwidth

0.4 0
NZDF+
G.655+
0.2 -10
NZDF-
G.655-
0.1 -20
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
wavelengh (mm)
06/26/10 NO.13
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Fiber nonlinearity
Scattering
Stimulated Raman Scattering ( SRS )
Stimulated Brillouin Scattering ( SBS )
Kerr (refractive index) domino effect
Self-phase modulation ( SPM )
Cross-phase modulation ( XPM )
Four wave mixing ( FWM )

06/26/10 NO.14
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
Polarization mode dispersion -PMD

✔ cause by dual-refraction of fiber, introduced randomly by


pressure 、 bend 、 wring 、 temperature and so on
✔ cause disturbing between signals
✔ One of the solution is to improve craft of fiber
manufacture or insert polarization controllers at input
and output of system.

06/26/10 NO.15
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
factors of restricting
transmission distance
Power Budget---include fiber loss 、 tie-in 、 dispersion 、
margin of power 、 margin of equipment
Dispersion Budget---light source chirp 、 dispersion
Polarisation mode dispersion---PMD
Fiber nonlinearity ---Stimulated Scattering (SRS\SBS) 、
Kerr (refractive index) domino
effect(SPM\XPM\FWM)
06/26/10 NO.16
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

System transmission solution of


ultra-long distance

✔ Fiber Loss => amplify,use optical


amplifier;
✔ Fiber dispersion => dispersion
compensating;
✔ Nonlinearity => decrease transmitter
power;
✔ PMD => no effective compensational
method.
06/26/10 NO.17
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Method of system design

The worst value arithmetic


complying with ITU-T

06/26/10 NO.18
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

The worst value arithmetic-------


Before end of live , all margins of optical
cable and equipment use up . At this time system
can work normally.
this is the most normal method of system
design. It is basis design method for SDH.

06/26/10 NO.19
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
The power calculation is made according to
the following formula:
L=(Ps - Pr - Pp―C―Mc)/(α f+
L αof sregenerator
— transmit distance ) section
Ps — minimum transmit power of S point at end of life

Pr — worst input sensitivity of R point at end of life

(BER≤10-12 );
Pp —optical path penalty, L16.2 equal to 2dB,others equal

to 1dB; ( total dispersion penalty )


06/26/10 NO.20
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

L=(Ps - Pr - Pp―C―Mc)/(α f+
C — attenuation sum αof all
)
s optical connectors,

0.5dB/connector
Mc — margin of optical cable, generally in 3dB

α f — attenuation coefficient of optical cable;


(generally in 0.20dB/Km or 0.22dB/Km)
α s — attenuation coefficient of optical cable melt
connection (generally in 0.025dB/Km)
06/26/10 NO.21
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
The worst value at EOL means take into account initial transmit
power and aging margin-ML (generally in 1.5dB) at transmitter ;

and take into account initial input sensitivity and aging margin-Me
(generally in 3 dB) .
Speed ( Transmitter Receptor
Mb/s )
Factory Factory
Type inspection and ML EOL(dB Type inspection and Med EOL(dB
project dB m) project B m)
acceptance(dBm acceptance(dBm
) )
2488.320
RXMM930 0 1.5 -1.5 TXSSS331 -31.5 3 -28.5
(1550nm)

06/26/10 NO.22
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

example:
example:

ZXSM-600 : initial transmit power is 0dBm,initial input sensitivity is –31.5dBm


ZXSM-2500: initial transmit power is 0dBm,initial input sensitivity is –31.5dBm
Mc — optical cable margin(generally in 3dB) ;

α f + α s— equal to 0.27dB;

result:
result: ZXSM-600 : L=81.48km
ZXSM-2500:L=77.78km
generally: ZXSM-600 : when L>=90km ;
ZXSM-2500 : when L >=85km , advisement EDFA

06/26/10 NO.23
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Transmission solution
of ultra-long distance

Transmitting power budget solution


of ultra-long distance——

Erbium doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA )

06/26/10 NO.24
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Basic applications of EDFA

Locati on and functi on Characteri sti c


I nput power l arge
BA After transmi tter
Saturati on output power
Booster Amplifier Im
prove output power
l arge
I nput power sm al l
PA Before receptor
Saturati on output power
Pre-amplifier Improve i nput sensi ti vi ty
l arge

LA I n l i ne I nput power smal l


Line amplifier Com
pensati ng l i ne l oss Hi gh requi rement on SNR

06/26/10 NO.25
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Basic structure of EDFA Erbium


doped
isolator fiber isolator
coupler
Input Output
signal signal
1530 ~1565nm

980nm
pump
laser

pump wavelength : 980nm or 1480nm

06/26/10 NO.26
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
Amplified principle of EDFA

N3

Input 1550 nm
signal signal N2

1550 nm
980 nm 1480 nm stimulated
Pump emission
source N1

working bandwidth : 1530 ~ 1565nm


06/26/10 NO.27
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Transmission solution of
ultra-long distance
Problem of using EDFA:lead in noise =>OSNR become worse=>bit error
Forward Error Correction technique (FEC)
Equivalent improve OSNR
out-band FEC : improve OSNR about 5-6dB , generally in 5.5dB
in-band FEC : improve OSNR about 2-3dB
out-band FEC+in-band FEC : improve OSNR about5.6dB
Adapt to high-speed system and DWDM

06/26/10 NO.28
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Calculating method of dispersion limit distance

L = DA/D km
❚ Dispersion accommodation of optical source---DA ps/nm
❚ Dispersion coefficient of fiber ---D ps/(nm.km )
G.652 1550nm D= 17~20 ps/(nm.km)
1310nm D= 3.5~5 ps/(nm.km)
G.655 1550nm D= 2~6 ps/(nm.km)

06/26/10 NO.29
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
Transmission solution of
ultra-long distance
Solution of dispersion
 Dispersion compensating fiber(DCF)
Localization : insert loss,need compensate by EDFA

 External modulator
Usual External Modulator :
----Electric Absorb (EA)
----LiNbO3
----MZ(III-V)
 Choose lower dispersion fiber(for example:G.655)
06/26/10 NO.30
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Dispersion compensating module and


technical parameter

Type DCM- DCM-40 DCM-60 DCM-80


20
Dispersion compensating
range (ps/nm) -329±15 -680±21 -1020±31 -1360±41

Insertion loss (dB) < =4.1 < =5.1 < =7.0 < =8.9


(typical value) (3.2) (4.4) (6.0) (7.7)

06/26/10 NO.31
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network
Transmission solution of
ultra-long distance

Solution of optical source chirp——


improve optical source
Such as :
adopt External modulate source
adopt Pre-chirp source

06/26/10 NO.32
Structure
Structure Design
Design of
of network
network

Referenced
Configuration
<85km L16.2 OI16
85~100 km L16.2 OI16+BA(14dB)
100~140 km Ultra-long distence(EA)OI16+BA(14dB)

140~150 km Ultra-long distence(EA)OI16+BA(17dB)

150~175 km Ultra-long distence(EA)OI16+BA(14dB)+PA

175~185 km Ultra-long distence(EA)OI16+BA(17dB)+PA

06/26/10 NO.33
Network
Networkself-healing
self-healingprotect
protectand
andswitch
switch
Time requirements of
service restore

Two time threshold value of service break off :


(1)50ms : When interrupting time is less than 50ms , it
could meet requirements of the most service.It takes no
effect to PSTN and low speed data service.
(1)2s : When interrupting time is less than 2s , it
could ensure stability of transmission network and
signaling network. We regard it as the target value of
network restore ( we call it Connection Drop out Time---
CDT )。

06/26/10 NO.34
etwork self-healing
Network
Network self-healing protect
protect and
and switch
switch
Calculation of multi-section
switching time

Total switching time : T =T1+ (N-2)×T2 + T3 ×2 + L/c


T1 : time interval of checking alarm signal ( 0.4ms )
T2 : passing through time of transporting K1 、 K2 bytes in
ADM(1.5ms/2F , 3ms/4F )
T3 : time of bridge and switch (≤ 8ms )
T4: time interval of signal transmitting in fiber, include transporting K bytes in
REG stations.
N : number of ADM station on ring
L : perimeter of ring
C : velocity of light in fiber ( 200KM/ms)
06/26/10 NO.35
H A B
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
ADM ADM ADM

ROUTER
1601

ADA
ASM-40

ZXSM-NMS E1

Manager center2
ADA
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
G ADM ASM-40 ADM
C

ROUTER
1601

ZXSM-NMS

Manager center1

ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500


ADM ADM ADM

F E D
Collecting south ring: N=8, L=5110km
06/26/10
(Didn't’t consider processing time of DWDM)
NO.36
R A R R R R R A R R R R R
ZXSM-2500
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
ADM
REG ADM REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG

ZXSM-2500 ROUTER ROUTER ZXSM-2500


A
R REG ADM
1601 1601

ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
R REG ADA ADA REG R
ASM-40 ASM-40
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
R REG REG R
E1
E1
R
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 R
REG REG REG REG

R R
ADA ADA
ZXSM-2500
ASM-40 ASM-40 REG R
R R
ROUTER ROUTER
ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
R REG REG 1601 1601 REG REG R

R ZXSM-2500
REG
ZXSM-2500
REG R
ZXSM-NMS ZXSM-NMS
R ZXSM-2500
REG
ZXSM-2500
REG R
Manager center2 Manager center1
R ZXSM-2500
REG
ZXSM-2500
REG
R

ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500 ZXSM-2500
REG ADM REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG REG ADM

R A R R R R R R R R R R A
R:REG A:ADM
06/26/10 NO.37 Southwest ring: N=5, L=4266km
calculating result
Southwest ring: N=5, L=4266km
switching time=0.4+(5-2)×1.5+2×4+4266/200=34.23ms

Collection South ring: N=8, L=5110km


switch time=0.4+(8-2) × 1.5+2 × 4+5110/200=42.95ms

06/26/10 NO.38
Network
Network service
service distribution
distribution

For example two fiber bi-directional


multi-section shared protection ring

D STM-16 环 B

06/26/10 NO.39
Network
Network service
service distribution
distribution

Service matrix list

A B C D
1*STM-1 1*STM-1 1*STM-1
A 63*2M 63*2M 63*2M
1*STM-1 1*STM-1 1*STM-1
B 63*2M 63*2M 63*2M
1*STM-1 1*STM-1 1*STM-1
C 63*2M 63*2M 63*2M

1*STM-1 1*STM-1 1*STM-1


D 63*2M 63*2M 63*2M

06/26/10 NO.40
Network
Network service
service distribution
distribution

Sketch of time slot distribution


A B C D A

NO.1 1*STM-1 1*STM-1


1*STM-1 1*STM-1
NO.2 63*2M 63*2M
63*2M 63*2M
NO.3
1*STM-1
NO.4
63*2M
NO.5 1*STM-1

NO.6 63*2M

NO.7

NO.8

Red: 63*2M Black:1*STM-1


06/26/10 NO.41
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Basic Synchronous Mode

Master
clock
Slave clock

Mutual
synchronous mode
Master-Slave
synchronous mode
06/26/10 NO.42
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Clock level

Primary reference clock G.811

Slave clock of tie station G.812

Slave clock of end station G.812

SDH clock G.813

06/26/10 NO.43
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Clock type
•Cesium atomic clock
•Quartz crystal oscillation
•Rubidium atomic clock
Working mode
•Locked mode
•Hold over mode
•Free running mode

06/26/10 NO.44
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

SDH network synchronous mode(according


to work principle )

synchronous mode all clock in network lock on one primary


reference clock
pseudo synchronous There are several G.811 clocks. They have same
mode nominal frequency ,but their precise frequency is
difference.
plesiochronous mode Some NEs’ clock become holdover or free mode after
one or more synchronous route and backup route are
all fault.
Asynchronous mode There is much frequency difference between NEs’
clock , clock precision can’t meet G.813 , it will
produce AIS, SDH network can’t work in this mode 。
06/26/10 NO.45
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Synchronous network timing reference chain


1 K

G.811 G.812 G.812


PRC N*G.813 Tie station N*G.813 Tic station N*G.813

Require: Principle :
1 ) total number of G.813 less than for network reliability, the
60 number of NE is as less as
possible on timing chain.
2 ) K less than 10
3 ) N less than 20

06/26/10 NO.46
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Timing method of SDH


NE

external In this manner,timing source of NE is provided


synchronization timing by external timing clock, 2Mb/s and 2MHz/s
from PDH network are often used 。
extract timing source subdivided to overpass timing(REG) 、 loop
from line timing(TM) and line timing(ADM)

SDH equipment Equipment clock accuracy of TM and ADM must be


clock less than or equal to ±4.6×10-6

06/26/10 NO.47
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Timing of SDH NE
The reliability of synchronization network must be high,
normally,NE or node require there must be two or more
synchronization direction to get timing signal, thus, if original
timing source is unavailable, it can get the timing signal from
backup direction.

In SDH network , timing reference between Nes is often


transported by lower level Nes’ clock , so something is needed
to indicate the quality of timing signal, according to this, we can
get the best timing direction to insure the performance of
synchronization network. At present , the SSM byte is
recommended by ITU-T to indicate timing signal’s quality 。
06/26/10 NO.48
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Recommended by ITU-T :
b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7

Not defined Signal Quality

Perfect synchronization
not achieved

06/26/10 NO.49
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock

Definition of S1 by ITU-T

S1(b5—b7) Synchronization status message

0000 Message unknown

0010 G.811 clock

0100 G.812 clock for tandem station


1000 G.812 clock for end station
1011 G.813 clock for SDH equipment

1111 Message unused

06/26/10 NO.50
Synchronous
Synchronous method
method of
of network
network clock
clock
Best Timing
Source
ZTE Redefines S1 Byte
Selection
Based on ITU-T
Realized,
Recommendations
Timing Ring
b 0 b 1 b 2 b 3 b 4 b 5 Avoided
b6 b7

Patented technology Signal Quality

Perfect synchronization achieved


Patented S1 byte handling
06/26/10 NO.51
❚ Questions : ( network layout ) :
❚ 1. simply describe conception of Delaminating and Division to transport
network, give a sketch of SDH network structure.
❚ 2. Transmission loss of fiber means , the main
reason is and , also lead by the shortage of fiber structure.
❚ 3. In calculating formulae of protection and switching ,
❚ T=Talarm+Tpass*(N-2)+Tswitch*N+L/c ,
❚ ‘N’ means the number of stations on the ring, stations point to the
quantity of on the ring.
❚ A. ADM B. REG C. ADM+REG
❚ 4. Give a sketch of SDH timing link model and describe.
❚ 5. Introduce method of overcoming dispersion limit in simple words.

06/26/10 NO.52
06/26/10 NO.53