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ANALOG MODULATION

ANGLE MODULATION
A.Sanyasi Rao
Assoc. Prof & HoD

Dept. of ECE
Balaji Institute of Engineering & Sciences
Narsampet, Warangal

In

angle modulation, information is

embedded in the angle of the carrier.
We define the angle of a modulated carrier
by the argument of...
st Ac cos t

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Phasor Form
In

the complex plane we have

t=3
Phasorrotateswithnonuniformspeed
t=1
t=0

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Angular Velocity
Since

phase changes nonuniformly vs.

time, we can define a rate of change
di (t)
i
dt

This

is what we know as frequency

d
st Ac cos 2fct c i 2fc
14 2 43
dt

i t

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Instantaneous Frequency
We

are used to signals with constant

carrier frequency. There are cases where
carrier frequency itself changes with time.
We can therefor talk about instantaneous
frequency defined as
1 di t
fi t
2 dt

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Examples of Inst. Freq.

Consider

an AM signal

d
st 1 km(t)cos 2fc t c i 2fc
14 2 43
dt

i t

Here,

the instantaneous frequency is the

frequency itself, which is constant

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Impressing a message on
the angle of carrier
There

are two ways to form a an angle

modulated signal.
Embed it in the phase of the carrier
Phase Modulation(PM)
Embed it in the frequency of the carrier
Frequency Modulation(FM)

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Phase Modulation(PM)
In

PM, carrier angle changes linearly with

the message
st Ac cos i t Ac cos2fct k p mt

Where

2fc=angle of unmodulated carrier

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Frequency Modulation
In

FM, it is the instantaneous frequency

that varies linearly with message
amplitude, i.e.
fi(t)=fc+kfm(t)

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FM Signal
We

saw that I.F. is the derivative of the

phase
1 d t
fi t

Therefore,

dt
t

i t 2fc t 2 k f mt
0

st Ac cos 2fc t 2k f m(t)dt

0
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a sinusoidal message m(t) Am cos2fmt

The instantaneous frequency
corresponding to its FM version is
Consider

fi t fc k f m(t)

{fc

k f Am cos2 fmt

restingfrequency

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Illustrating FM
1

Inst.frequency
Moveswiththe
Messageamplitude

FM
message

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

0.01

0.02

0.03

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0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

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Frequency Deviation
Inst.

frequency has upper and lower

bounds given by
fi t fc f cos2fmt
where
f frequencydeviation k f Am
then
fi max fc f
fi min fc f
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FM Modulation index
The

equivalent of AM modulation index is

which is also called deviation ratio. It
quantifies how much carrier frequency
swings relative to message bandwidth

f
W
{

baseband

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f
or
fm
{

tone

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Example:carrier swing
A 100

MHz FM carrier is modulated by an

audio tone causing 20 KHz frequency
deviation. Determine the carrier siwng
and highest and lowest carrier frequencies
f 20KHz
frequencyswing 2f 40KHz
frequencyrange :
fhigh 100MHz 20KHz 100.02MHz
flow 100MHz 20KHz 99.98MHz
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What

is the modulation index (or deviation

ratio) of an FM signal with carrier swing of
150 KHz when the modulating signal is 15
KHz?
150
f
75KHz
2
f 75

5
fm 15

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Myth of FM
Deriving

FM bandwidth is a lot more

involved than AM
FM was initially thought to be a bandwidth
efficient communication because it was
thought that FM bandwidth is simply 2f
By keeping frequency deviation low, we
can use arbitrary small bandwidth

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FM bandwidth
Deriving

FM bandwidth is a lot more

involved than AM and it can barely be
derived for sinusoidal message
There is a graphical way to illustrate FM
bandwidth

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Piece-wise approximation of
baseband
Look

at the following representation

Basebandbandwidth
=W

1/2W

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Corresponding FM signal

FM

version of the above is an RF pulse for

each square pulse.
The frequency of the kth RF pulse at t=t k is
given by the height of the pulse. i.e.
fi fc k f mtk

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Range of frequencies?
We

have a bunch of RF pulses each at a

different frequency.
Inst.freq corresponding to square pulses
lie in the following range
fi max fc k f mmax
fi min fc k f mmin
mmin

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mmax

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We

will have a series of RF pulses each at

a different frequency. The collective
spectrum is a bunch of sincs
highest

lowest

f
4W

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Measure

the width from the first upper

zero crossing of the highest term to the
first lower zero crossing of the lowest
term
highest
lowest

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Closer look
The

Each

sinc is 1/2W wide. Therefore, their

zero crossing point is always 2W above
the center of the sinc.

2W

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Range of frequenices
lowest

highest

Above

range lies
<fc-kfmp-2W,fc+kfmp+2W>

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FM bandwidth
The

range just defined is one expression

for FM bandwidth. There are many more!
BFM=4W+2kfmp

Using

=f/W with f=kfmp

BFM=2(+2)W

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Carsons Rule
A popular

expression for FM bandwidth is

Carsons rule. It is a bit smaller than what
we just saw
BFM=2(+1)W

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Commercial FM
Commercial

following parameters
Baseband;15KHz
Deviation ratio:5
Peak freq. Deviation=75KHz
BFM=2(+1)W=2x6x15=180KHz

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FM
NBFM

is defined by the condition

f<<W
BFM=2W
This is just like AM. No advantage here
WBFM

is defined by the condition

f>>W
BFM=2 f
This is what we have for a true FM signal

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Boundary between narrowband and

wideband FM
This

distinction is controlled by

If <1-->NBFM
Needless

to say there is no point for going

with NBFM because the signal looks and
sounds more like AM

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Commercial FM spectrum
The

FM landscape looks like this

carrier

FMstationA

25KHzguardband

FMstationB

FMstationC

150KHz
200KHz
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FM stereo:multiplexing
First,

two channels are created; (left+right)

and (left-right)
Left+right is useable by monaural
Leftchannel

mono

Rightchannel
+

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Subcarrier modulation
The

mono signal is left alone but the

difference channel is amplitude modulated
with a 38 KHz carrier
Leftchannel

Compositebaseband

mono

Rightchannel
+

DSBSC
fsc=38kHz
-

fsc=
38KHz
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freq
divider
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Stereo signal
Composite

baseband signal is then

frequency modulated
Compositebaseband

Leftchannel

mono

Rightchannel
+

FM
transmitter

DSBSC
fsc=38kHz
fsc=
38KHz

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freq
divider
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Stereo spectrum
Baseband

spectrum holds all the

information. It consists of composite
baseband, pilot tone and DSB-SC
spectrum
Left+right

DSBSC

19KHz

38KHz

15KHz

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First,

FM is stripped, i.e. demodulated

Second, composite baseband is lowpass
filtered to recover the left+right and in
parallel amplitude demodulated to recover
the left-right signal
Left+right

DSBSC

19KHz

38KHz

15KHz
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lowpass
filter(15K)

Left+right

+
left

coherentdetector

15KHz
19KHz 38KHz

bandpass
at38KHz

right

lowpass

FM
PLL
X

lowepass
Divide2

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VCO

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Subsidiary communication
authorization(SCA)
It

is possible to transmit special

programming ,e.g. commercial-free
music for banks, department stores etc.
embedded in the regular FM programming
Such programming is frequency
multiplexed on the FM signal with a 67
KHz carrier and 7.5 KHz deviation

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SCA spectrum
Left+right

DSBSC
SCAsignal

15KHz

19KHz

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38KHz

59.56774.5

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f(KHz)

FM

receiver is similar to the superhet

layout

RF

mixer

LO
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IF

limiter

AFpower
amp

Discrimi
nator

deemphasis

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Frequency demodulation
Remember

that message in an FM signal

is in the instantaneous frequency or
equivalently derivative of carrier angle
t

0
t

st Ac 2fc 2k f mt sin 2 fc t 2k f m(t)dt

Doenvelopedetectionons(t)

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amplifier
AM

may skip RF amp but FM requires it

FM receivers are called upon to work with
weak signals (~1V or less as compared
to 30 V for AM)
An RF section is needed to bring up the
signal to at least 10 to 20 V before mixing

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Limiter
A limiter

is a circuit whose output is

constant for all input amplitudes above a
threshold
Limiters function in an FM receiver is to
remove unwanted amplitude variations of
the FM signal
Limiter

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A limiter

needs about 1V of signal, called

quieting or threshold voltage, to begin
limiting
When enough signal arrives at the
receiver to start limiting action, the set
quiets, i.e. background noise disappears
Sensitivity is the min. RF signal to
produce a specified level of quieting,
normally
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Sensitivity example
An

FM receiver provides a voltage gain of

200,000(106dB) prior to its limiter. The
limiters quieting voltage is 200 mV. What
What we are really asking is the required
signal at RFs input to produce 200 mV at
the output
200 mV/200,000= 1V->sensitivity

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Discriminator
The

fi(t)=fc+kfm(t)

What

we need is a device that linearly

f
isattheIFfrequency
follows inst. frequency
carrier

Of10.7MHz

Disc.output

75KHz

+75KHz

fcarrier

Deviationlimits
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Examples of discriminators
Slope

detector - simple LC tank circuit

operated at its most linear response curve
ThissetupturnsanFMsignal
intoanAM

output

fcfo

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Phase-Locked Loop
PLLs

are increasingly used as FM

demodulators and appear at IF output
fin

Phase

Error signal

comparator

Lowpass

Output proportional to
Difference between fin and fvco

filter

Control signal:constant
When fin=fvco

fvco

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VCO input
VCO

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PLL states
Free-running

PLL free-runs
Capture

Once VCO closes in on the input frequency, PLL

is said to be in the tracking or capture mode
Locked

or tracking

Can stay locked over a wider range than was

necessary for capture

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PLL example
VCO

free-runs at 10 MHZ. VCO does not

change frequency until the input is within
50 KHZ.
In the tracking mode, VCO follows the
input to 200 KHz of 10 MHz before losing
lock. What is the lock and capture range?
Capture range= 2x50KHz=100 KHz
Lock range=2x200 KHz=400 KHz

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If

there is a carrier center frequency or LO

frequency drift, conventional detectors
will be untuned
PLL, on the other hand, can correct itself.
PLLs need no tuned circuits
output

If fc drifts detector has no way of

correcting itself

Slope detector
fcfo
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Zero crossing detector

FM

Hard

limiter

Zero
Crossing
detector

Multi
vibrator

Output

Averaging
circuot

FMinput
morefrequent
ZCsmeans
higherinstfreq
inturnmeans
Largermessage
amplitudes

Hardlimiter

ZCdetector
multiV
Averaging circuit

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NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION

AMPLITUDE MODULATION

The

objective here is to establish a

relationship between input and and output

Modulated signal s(t)l

BPF

detector

filter

output
BT=2W

Noise n(t)

-fc

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fc

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Establishing a reference
SNR
Define

(SNR)c=avg. power of modulated signal/

avg. noise power in the message bandwidth

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Tuner

plus coherent detection

DSB-SC

BPF

x(t)

LPF

v(t)

s(t)
n(t)

Cos(2fct)

st Ac m(t)cos2fc t
s2 t avg.power Ac 2 m2 (t) / 2 Ac2 P / 2
P avg.messagepower
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Also

defined as channel SNR:

Ac2 P

2WNo

Ac 2 P / 2
WN
{ o

(SNR)c

noisepowerinthemessagebandwidth
Flat noise spectrum:white noise

No/2

Noise power=hatched area

-W

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Output SNR
Carrying

signal and noise through the rest

of the receiver, it can be shown that output
SNR comes out to be equal to the input.
Hence
SNRo
1
SNRc

Therefore,

any reduction in input SNR is

linearly reflected in the output

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(SNR)o for DSB-AM

Following

a similar approach,
SNRo
k2P

2 1
SNRc 1 k P
k : AMmodulationindex
P : avg.messagepower

Best

case is achieved for 100%

modulation index which, for tone
modulation, is only 1/3
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performance
An

AM system using envelope detection

needs 3 times as much power to achieve
the same output SNR as a suppressed
carrier AM with coherent detection
This is a result similar to power efficiency
of the two schemes

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Threshold effect-AM
In

DSB-AM (not DSB-SC) there is a

phenomenon called threshold effect
This means that there is a massive drop in
output SNR if input SNR drops below a
threshold
For DSB-AM with envelope detection, this

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NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION

FREQUENCY MODULATION

FM
s(t)

BFP

n(t)

Noisy

Limiter

FM
detector

LPF
(W)

FM signal at BPFs output is

x t st n(t)
Ac cos2fct t r(t)cos2fc t t
1 4 4 4 2 4 4 43
noise

where

t m(t)dt
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Phasor model
can see the effect of noise graphically

(t)
ce
Re

ive

ig
ds

noi
se

We

nal

ig n
FM s

-
(t)

(t)

al

(t)

(t)
reference

The angle FM detector will extract

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Small noise
For

small noise, it can be approximated

that the noise inflicted phase error is
=[rAc]Sin(
So the angle available to the FM detector
is +
FM Detector computes the derivative of
this angle. It will then follow that...

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Skipping

further detail, we can show that

for tone modulation, we have the following
ratio
SNRo 3 2

SNRc 2

SNR

rises as power of 2 of bandwidth; e.g.

SNR
Bandwidth-SNR exchange

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Comparison with AM
In

DSB-SC the ratio was 1 regardless.

For commercial FM, =5. Therefore,
(SNR)o/(SNR)c=(1.5)x25=37.5
Compare

this with just 1 for AM

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Capture effect in FM
An

FM receiver locks on to the stronger of

two received signals of the same
frequency and suppresses the weaker one
Capture ratio is the necessary
difference(in dB) between the two signals
for capture effect to go into action
Typical number for capture ratio is 1 dB

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Normalized transmission
bandwidth
With

all these bandwidths numbers, it is

good to have a normalized quantity.
Define
normalized bandwidth=Bn=BT/W
Where W is the baseband bandwidth

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Examples of Bn
For

AM:
Bn=BT/W=2W/W=2

For

FM
Bn=BT/W~2 to 3

=5 in commercial FM, this is a very

large expenditure in bandwidth which is
rewarded in increased SNR

For

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Noise/bandwidth summary
AM-envelope

detection

2
SNRo
2 SNRc
2
Bn 2

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Noise/bandwidth summary
DSB-SC/coherent

detection

(SNR)o=(SNR)c
Bn=2
SSB

(SNR)o=(SNR)c
Bn=1

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Noise/bandwidth summary
modulation and =5
(SNR)o=1.5 2(SNR)c=37.5 (SNR)c

FM-tone

Bn~16 for =5

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Preemphasis and
deemphasis
High

pitched sounds are generally of

lower amplitude than bass. In FM lower
amplitudes means lower frequency
deviation hence lower SNR.
Preemphasis is a technique where high
frequency components are amplified
before modulation
Deemphasis network returns the
baseband to its original form
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Pre/deemphasis response
Flat

up to ~500Hz, rises from 500-15000 Hz

17dB

Deemphasis circuit
Is between the detector
And the audio amplifier

preemphasis
+3dB

-3dB
deemphasis
-17dB
500 Hz

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2120 Hz

15KHz

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Suggested homework
3.41
5.3
5.7

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