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Group

Assignment

Consumer Behavior
Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing - UOK
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Team Members
No

Student Name

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Index No

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Tuan Kitchilan

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 20

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M. Shafraz

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 34

03

M. Marwan

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 15

04

Srikara Abeygunawardhana

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 27

05

B. D. Lakmal

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 39

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P. I . J . George

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 54

07

M. H. Afzal Nazim

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 16

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FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

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FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

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FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

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FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

12

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

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FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

14

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

15

FGS / PGDMKT / 2016 / 00

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What is

Motivation is the driving force with in induvial that impels to action


Motivation refers to an activated state with in a person that lead
to goal -directed behavior

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Motivation Theory & Marketing Strategy


Consumers do not buy products: instead they buy Motive
satisfaction or Problem solutions
Marketers must discover the motives that their products and
brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these
motives
Do Marketers create needs ?

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Motivation Theory & Marketing Strategy

Marketers do create demand !


Demand is the willingness to buy a particular product or service
It is caused by a need or motive, but it is not the motive

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Motivation Process

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Personality
Perception
Learning
Attitudes

Tension
Reduction

Types of Needs

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Goals

Generic Goals

Product Specific Goals

Paracetamol

Panadol

Motor Bicycle

Yamaha FZ, Bajaj Discover

Car

BMW, Benz

Shirt

Emerald, Le Bond
Convert generic goals to specific goals with the status

- The Selection of Goals Personal experience


Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms & values
Goals accessibility in the physical and social environment
Individual characteristics

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Motivations and Goals

Positive

Negative

- Motivation -

- Motivation -

A driving force toward some


object or condition

- Approach Goal A positive goal toward


which behavior is directed

A driving force away from


some object or condition

- Avoidance Goal A negative goal from which


behavior is directed away
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Buying Decision

Emotional

Appearance

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Logical

Dependability

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Buying Decision

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Emotional

Features

Logical

V Tec Turbo 3000CC

Engine Type

Basic Manual / Auto

Large Alloy + low profile tyres

Alloy Wheels

Basic Rim / Standard

Nissan Skyline

Brand

Alto / Maruti

Leather / Recaro Sports seats

Seats

Standard

5 Million

Cost

2 Million

Special Paint

Paint

Standard

5 km per liter

Fuel Consumption

14 km per liter

Hi Fi sounds + TV

Sound

Basic Radio

Body kit / Spoiler

Accessories

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Arousal Theory of Motivation

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Suggest that People take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels
of arousal. (Best or Ideal) When arousal levels get too low
i.e. A person might watch and exciting movie or go for a jog. When arousal
levels get too high, on the other hand, a person would probably look for ways
to relax such as meditating or reading a book
We are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level
can vary based on the individual or the situation

Arousal of Motives

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5 Dimensions of Motivation
Sheths Consumer Motives
- Concerning Products / Services Benefits Functional utility or functional performed
Aesthetic / Emotional appearance or attractiveness
Social status or esteem value
Situational unexpected benefit
Curiosity interest aroused

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5 Dimensions of Motivation
Nike Shoes
Functional Safety / Durability
Emotional
Social status / brand image
Situational sports
Curiosity Innovation

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Discovering Purchase Motives

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Manifest Motives are motives that are known and freely admitted
Latent Motives are either unknown to the consumer or are such
that he / she is reluctant to admit them
Projective techniques are designed to provide information on
latent motives

Discovering Purchase Motives

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Substitute Goals

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Substitute goals are used when a customer can not attend a


specific goal he or she anticipate will satisfy a need
Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time
i.e. Primary goal is having a Mercedes Benz or BMW &
alternative goal / substitute goal is Lexus

Lexus using this strategy to attract customers who desire


to have a Benz or BMW such type of vehicle

Defense Mechanism

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Defense mechanisms are unconscious mechanisms aimed at


reducing anxiety that arises from three different scenarios

When

the ID impulses are in conflict with each other

When

the id impulses conflict with Superego values and beliefs

When

an external threat is posed to the Ego

Motivational Conflict
Three types of motivational conflict:
1.Approach

Approach Motivational Conflict

A choice between two attractive alternatives


2. Approach Avoidance Motivational Conflict
A choice with both positive and negative consequences
3. Avoidance Avoidance Motivational Conflict
A choice involving only undesirable outcomes

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Approach Approach Motivational Conflict

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A choice between two attractive alternatives

A consumer who recently received a large cash gift for graduation (situational variable)
might be ton between a trip to Dubai (perhaps powered by a need for stimulation) and a
new motor bike (perhaps driven by the need for assertion). This conflict could be
resolved by a timely advertisement designed to encourage one or the other action. Or a
price modification, such as "buy now, pay later." could result in a resolution whereby
both alternatives are selected

Approach Avoidance Motivational Conflict


A choice with both positive and negative consequences,

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Exists when consumers desire a good but wish to avoid it at the


same time

Avoidance Avoidance Motivational Conflict

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Consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives

When a consumer's old washing machine fails, this conflict may occur. The
person may not want to spend money on a new washing machine, or pay to
have the old one repaired, or go without one. The availability of credit is one
way of reducing this motivational conflict.

Application of Motivational Theories in Marketing

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Two Factor Theory

Trio Needs Theory

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An Illustration of Consumer Motivations According to


Maslows Hierarchy
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Hedonic
Value

Utilitarian
Value

Utilitarian Motivation VS Hedonic Motivation


Utilitarian Motivation Lead to

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Hedonic Motivation Lead to

Choose the most convenient


place to have lunch

Going out to a trendy, new


restaurant for dinner

Buying a tank of gas for the car

Driving the car fast on a curvy


road even when not rushed

Choosing to shop with retailers


that are seen as useful and easy
to use

Choosing to shop with retailers


that are seen as fun and exciting

Using air freshener to cover up a


strange smell in the apartment

Using air freshener because one


really likes the smell

Going gift shopping out a sense


of obligation to give a gift

Giving gift to enjoy the giving


process and the joy the recipient
experiences when opening the
gift

Application of Maslows Hierarchy of


Needs to the Marketing of Cars
Self
actualization
Needs Self
Development
& Realization

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Cars models that exude opulence


and luxury BMW ( The Ultimate
Driving Machine) or Mercedes
Benz S Class
Car models that features
excellent safety features like
side impact, Advanced
warning systems. Volvo
positions on safety. Its tag line
is Volvo for Life
Cars that are used for
basic transportation
economy models such
as Alto or Maruti

Fredrick Herzbergs Theory of Motivation

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Dine in a 5 star Hotel


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Product Level An Apartment
Motivato
rs

Value Appreciation
Resell Value
Rental Value
Brand name &
associated with it
Amenities
Value for money
Quality of construction, car /
vehicle parking space, good
connectivity, social
infrastructure & vicinity

Room dimensions, unit


plan, floor plan,
specifications

Hygiene
Factors

Shelter
Safety

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A Trio of Needs

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Application in Consumer Behaviour

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A Trio of Needs - Brand community

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A Trio of Needs Affiliation Need

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A Trio of Needs

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A Trio of Needs Power Need

CEO Club Hammedias

Rolex Wrist Watches

Achievement
- MBA Advertisement
- PHD advertisement

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Motivation Theory & Marketing Strategy

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Motivation Theory & Marketing Strategy

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Thank you!

Physiological Needs

Safety Needs

Self Actualization Needs & Esteem Needs

Innate Needs

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Acquired Needs

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Acquired Needs
Three Acquired needs that vary in strength among people

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Baby
Carry
Cot