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3D IC Technology

Contents

Limits of 2D

3D-IC Benefits

3D-IC Technology

10 Jan 2017

LIMITS OF 2D

10 Jan 2017

Limits of 2D

1D gate to 3D gate

MOS devices start 3D in 22 nm technology

High K Metal
Gate to increase
field effect

Current
drive
(mA/m)
2.0

Tri-Gate for
increasing drive
current and
reducing leakage

Strain to
increase mobility

1.5

Gate
material

1.0

Strain

0.5
0.0
130 nm

90 nm

65 nm

45 nm
32 nm
Technology node
4

10 Jan 2017

22 nm

17 nm

Limits of 2D

Giga-device to its limits


Technology

130nm

90nm

100M

250M

2006

2D

2.5D

3D

32nm

22nm

5nm

500M

2G

7G

150 G

2008

2010

45nm

Complexity

Packaging
200
4
Core+
Embedded Core+
DSP
DSP
blocks
11Mb
Mb
Mem
Mem

Core
Core
DSPs
DSPs
10
10Mb
Mb
Mem
Mem

Dual
Dualcore
core
Dual
DSP
Dual DSP
RF
RF
Graphic
Graphic
Process.
Process.
100
100Mb
Mb
Mem
Mem
Sensors
Sensors

2012

Quad
QuadCore
Core
Quad
DSP
Quad DSP
3D
3DImage
ImageProc
Proc
Crypto
Cryptoprocessor
processor
Reconf
ReconfFPGA,
FPGA,
Multi
MultiRF
RF
11Gb
Memories
Gb Memories
Multi-sensors
Multi-sensors

2020
??

Limits of 2D

Needs for improved protection, but noise margins reduced


500 mV

100 mV

Supply (V) margin

margin

5.0
3.3

I/O supply

2.5
1.8
1.2
1.0

Core supply

0.5 0.35 0.18 130n 90n 65n 45n 32n 22n 17n
Technology
Adapted from ITRS roadmap for semiconductors, 2011
6

10 Jan 2017

Limits of 2D

Needs for improved reliability but


reduced operating windows
IESD

Destruction

IEMC
Thermal stress

IC operation
area

Safe ESD
protection
window

IC Reliability
constraints
VESD
VEMC

IC linear
susceptibility

IC non-linear
susceptibility

Adapted from Lowering Component Level HBM/MM


ESD Specifications and Requirements, Industry Council
on ESD Target Levels, White Paper 2007
7

10 Jan 2017

IC
vulnerability

3D-IC BENEFITS

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

Evolutionary
and revolutionary
interconnect
technologies are
needed to
enable migration
to 3D

ITRS 2009 - The next Step in Assembly and Packaging:


System Level Integration in the package, white paper

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

Georgia-Tech vision of SoC

From Georgia Tech 3D system packaging research


http://www.prc.gatech.edu.
10

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

The integration of 3D technologies will enable performances, form factor and


cost requirements of the next generation of electronic devices

From 3DIC & TSV Report Cost, Technologies & Markets,


2007, Yole Dev.
11

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

One new piece in the puzzle

From 3DIC & TSV


Report Cost,
Technologies &
Markets, 2007,
Yole Dev.

12

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

3D Packaging contributes to More than


Moore at a reasonable price
2008 : Why 3D?
2010 How 3D?
2012 : When 3D?

20xx : Why 2D?
From ITRS 2011 Executive
Summary, and Yole Dev.

13

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

3D technology enables the integration of ICs fabricated in different


technologies

4m vias

CMOS, CCD, SOI, Sensor

Bosch process

0.18m SOI
0.35 m SOI

B. Aull, et. al., Laser Radar


Imager Based on 3D Integration
of Geiger-Mode Avalanche
Photodiodes IEEE SSCC 2006.

C. Bower, et. al., High Density Vertical Interconnects


for 3D Integration of Silicon ICs, 56th ECTC, San
Diego, 2006.

Sensor
14

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

Improve electronic efficiency

3D minimizes interconnect parasitic effects


3D simplifies multiple supply voltage distribution
3D reduces package pin count
More uniform, high density power delivery

J. Lu, Monolithic 3D Power Delivery


Using Dc-Dc Converter, 3D
Architecture Conference, October,
2006, Burlingame, CA.

15

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

A significant increase in bandwidth

2D

3D

Buffer

3-stage

1-stage

Pad Load

3-5 pF

1 pF

Interconnect
capa

5-20 pF

0.1-1 pF

Interconnect
inductance

5-30 nH

0.1-1 nH

Current drive 10-100 mA

1-10 mA
16

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

A significant reduction in I/O complexity

Solder ball
ESD protection
Voltage
translation
and level
shifers
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10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

A better power efficiency

Smaller wire-length distribution


Shorter wires decrease the
average load capacitance and
resistance and decrease the
number of repeaters needed for
long wires.
The reduced average interconnect
length in 3D IC, vs 2D IC, improves
the wire efficiency by 15-25 %
Active power may be reduced by
25-50%

T. Topol Three-dimensional integrated circuits , Ibm


Journal Research, 2006
18

"Implementing a 2-Gbs 1024-bit


-rate Low-Density ParityCheck Code Decoder in 3D-Ics
, Lili Zhou, ICCD 2007
10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits
2.5D

ICs

The yield of a single 7-Billion CMOS die is too low


4 dies (1.7 B-device each) connected by transposer
The 4-die Virtex-7 reaches 7 Billion devices

19

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

Tera-Hertz
computing
in 2015

From ITRS 2009 Assembly


and Packaging.

20

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Benefits

Atlas photon detector at CERN

The HE physisict dream

High Energy Physics requires sophisticated


detectors
integrating sensors
readout electronics.

Review of 3D
Related
Technologies for
HEP, R. Yarema,
2007

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10 Jan 2017

3D-IC TECHNOLOGY

22

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Higher complexity at lower cost

Stacking of memories

12 chips, 840 m thickness

8 chips, 560 m thickness


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10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Interposers

Based on silicon or glass


Replace traditional PCB
laminate or ceramic
technologies
Alternative to very large 2D ICs
at prohibitive costs
Very high density and
bandwidth
Bridge platform between 2D
and 3D

Pitch (m)
From Georgia Tech 3D system
packaging research
http://www.prc.gatech.edu.
From 3DIC & TSV Report Cost,
Technologies & Markets, 2007,
Yole Dev.
24

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology
Direct

bond interconnect (DBI) using magic metal


R around 50 m

Review of 3D Related
Technologies for HEP R.
Yarema, 2007

Ziptronix, 3D Conference, Oct, 2007

25

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology
Wire-Bond

vs. Through-Silicon-Via (TSV)

LOH, 3D
Stacked
Microprocessor:
Are We There
Yet? , IEEE
Micro, 2010

A. Chambers, ThroughWafer Via Etching,


Advanced Packaging,
April 2005

26

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Source:
Yole
Dev.

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10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Terrazon with super contact

28

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Process offered by CMC, CMP


and MOSIS

Terrazon with 2 flip chips

29

Jan 10, 2017

3D-IC Technology

IC design with Direct


Bond Interconnect (DBI)

From CMP annual users meeting, 3D-IC


Integration, January 20th 2011, PARIS

30

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

Via formation for die to wafer process

Development of 3D
Integrated Circuits for
HEP, R. Yarema

31

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology

MIT Lincoln Labs


3D case study

R. Yarema,
Development of
3D Integrated
Circuits for
HEP, 12th LHC
Electronics
Workshop,
Valencia, Spain,
September 2529, 2006

32

10 Jan 2017

3D-IC Technology
Development of 3D
Integrated Circuits for
HEP, R. Yarema, 2006
3D IC Pixel Electronics,
the Next Challenge, R.
Yarema, 2008

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10 Jan 2017