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Adsorption for

Water Treatment
Ali Masduqi

Contents
Introduction

1.

1.
2.

4.

1.

Definition
Application

2.

5.

Properties of adsorbent

2.
1.
2.
3.

Manufacture of activated
carbon
Properties of activated carbon
Standard Adsorption test

2.
3.

6.

1.
2.
3.

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1.

3.
4.

Adsorption

Single-stage system
Multiple-stage system
Determining amount of carbon

Design of adsorption column


2.

Type of adsorption
Factors affecting physical
adsorption
Adsorption equilibria and
equation

Mass transfer mechanism


Mass transfer coefficient

Design of batch reactor


1.

Nature of adsorption

3.

Kinetics of adsorption

Estimating required adsorber bed


depth
Pilot-scale column testing
Design approach
Guidelines and criteria

1.1

Definition

Adsorption

is the bonding of two particles.


Adsorption is the attachment of molecules or
particles to a surface.
The particle providing the bonding site is called
the adsorbent; its scale is usually > 100 m
The particle bonding to the site is the adsorbate;
most are < 10 m
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Adsorption

1.2

Application

Removal

of organic compound in the water


Removal of NOM (natural organic matter)
Adsorbing particles of interest include viruses and
bacteria
Adsorbing metal ion, include Cd(II), Cr(VI),
Hg(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), V(IV), and V(V)
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Adsorption

2.1

Manufacture of activated carbon

Activated carbons are made from a wide variety of


carboneous starting materials: coals (anthracite,
bituminous, lignite), wood, peat, coconut shells, etc.
Step of manufacturing:
Pyrolysis (carbonization)
Addition of metal chloride Heating to temperature 600
900oC in the absence of air washing with dilute acid or water
Oxidation

(Activation)

Usually using steam in 600 900oC


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Adsorption

2.2

Properties of activated carbon

Ash
Moisture
Densities
Particle

size
Hardness
Pore size
Surface area
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Activated carbon

Adsorption

2.3

Standard Adsorption test

Used to characterize the ability of activated carbons to


adsorb molecules of different kinds and size
Iodine

number
Molasses number
Methylene blue number
Carbon tetrachloride activity

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Adsorption

3.1

1.

Physical adsorption

2.

Type of adsorption

Involves relatively weak forces, and reversible


Occurs at low temperature (room temp.)
Not site specific

Chemisorption

Involves chemical bond (strong), irreversible


Occurs at high temperature, similar to heat of a chemical
reaction
Site specific

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Adsorption

3.2

Factors affecting physical adsorption

Temperature
Nature of the solvent
Surface area of the carbon
Pore structure of the carbon
Nature of the solute
pH of solution
Presence of inorganic salts
Competing solutes
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Adsorption

3.3

Adsorption equilibria and equation

The

equilibrium state is characterized by a certain


solute concentration in the adsorbent (q) an an
associated final solute concentration in the liquid
phase (Ce).

The

equilibrium concentration is obtained from


laboratory experiment
q = x/M, where x = V ( Co Ce)
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Adsorption

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3.3

Adsorption equilibria and equation

The Langmuir isotherm equation

The Freundlich isotherm equation

bq m Ce
1 bCe
1

q KC e n

Langmuir-Freundlich equation

Multisolute isotherm equation


q1

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b1q m1Ce1
1 b1Ce1 b 2Ce 2

q2

Adsorption

bq m Ce n
1

1 bC e n

b 2q m 2Ce 2
1 b1C e1 b 2 Ce 2
11

q= x/m = adsorption capacity (gram adsorbate per


gram adsorbent)
qm = maximum adsorption capacity
Ce = equilibrium concentration of solute (mg/l)
b, K = coefficient of adsorption

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Adsorption

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4.1

Mass transfer mechanism


Zero site free of solute
Transfer of solute across
the film (molecular
diffusion) slow
Mass transfer resistance
reduced by increasing
intensity of mixing

LIQUID
FILM

ADSORBENT

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Adsorption

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4.2

Mass transfer coefficient


q = average solute conc. in the
solid
kf = film mass transfer coeff.

Mass transfer rate:


q
k f So ( C C i )
t

r = radial position
R = total perticle radius
Ds = constant diffusivity

q Ds 2 q
2 r

t r r
r
q
2R (1) n

1
sin nRr exp

qs
r n 1 n

3
R3

2
q(r )r dr

Ds n 22 t
R2

So = surface area of adsorbent


per unit volume

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Adsorption

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4.2

Mass transfer coefficient (cont.)

q
6 1

1 2 2 exp
q

n 1n
q
Ds t
6 2
q
R

1/ 2

Ds n 2 2 t

R2

[ 1 / 2 L]

q
6

1 2 exp
q

Ds 2 t
R2

q
6 1

1 2 2 exp
q

n 1n
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Ds n 2 2 t
R2

Adsorption

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5.1

Adsorption
q

V(Co C1 )
W

Single-stage system

Capacity
W

bq C
q m 1
1 bC1

B ( B 2 D)
C1
2
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V(Co C1 )(1 bC1 )


bq m C1

B (1 / b) ( Wq m / V) C o

Adsorption

&

D C o / b

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5.2

Three
q

Multiple-stage system

stages for Freundlich isotherm

V(Co C1 )
W

KC11 / n W1 V(Co C1 )

q KC1 n
1

KC12/ n W2 V(C1 C 2 )
KC13/ n W3 V(C 2 C3 )

Two
bq m C i
1 bC i

stages for Langmuir isotherm

Wi V(Ci 1 Ci )

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( C o C1 )(1 bC1 )
W1C1
Adsorption

( C1 C 2 )(1 bC 2 )
W2 C 2
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5.3

Determining amount of carbon

Minimum

total carbon for a given final


concentration
Wtot W1 W2
C1

C2

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1/ n

V ( C o C1 )
KC11 / n

V ( C1 C 2 )
KC12/ n

( C o C1 )(1 / n )
1
C1

Adsorption

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6.1

The

Estimating required adsorber bed depth


Bed length:

( HLR )t service
( 1 )( qo / Co )

HLR v Q / A
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Adsorption

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6.2

Pilot-scale column testing

Full-scale adsorber beds often 15 to 20 ft deep, with


diameter of 3 to 6 ft

Pilot-scale columns usually have bed depths of 3 to 10


ft, but their diameters are typically only 3 to 6 in

The internal diffusional resistance (Dst/R2) must be the


same for both columns. Assume Ds and R are the same
for both, thus (t=L/v) should be equal for both
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Adsorption

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6.3

EBCT

Design Approach

EBCT
BDST

Design approach

Bed depth
HLR

Design Approach

tb

No
vC o

(D D o )
Do

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v
kN o

Adsorption

ln

Co
Cb

1 .
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6.4

Guidelines and Criteria

HLR

(hydraulic loading rate): 4.9 24.6 m/hour


L (bed): 3.0 9.0 m

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