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SUBSTRUCTURE

AND
FOUNDATION
CODE
Second Revision 2013
Corrected CS 1
SPB-1

SCOPE
Applied to Design & Construction of Substructure & foundation of Railway Bridge
Checking the existing sub-structures
Structural Design as per relevant IRS
Codes

HYDROLOGICAL DESIGN
INVESTIGATION
Estimation of design discharge
For 50 years recurrence interval
Can be decreased for less important
lines/siding

Method of estimation
From actual data
Computed statistically
By unit hydrograph
By synthetic Hydrograph
By other methods

Design discharge for foundation,


protection works and training works
except free board
should be increased by suitable factor
based on catchments area
Area
Increase
Less than 500 sq. Km
30%
500-5000 sq. Km
30% - 20%
5000 - 25000 sq km
20% - 10%
more than 25000 sq km
< than 10%
4

Design of Waterway
width of spread between stable banks
extra for spill discharge if depth of spill is
appreciable
constricted water way for wide & shallow
rivers
By Laceys formula for alluvial beds &
sustained floods
Pw = 1.811 CQ

For sub-mountain rivers


depends on configuration of active
channels/channels
cost of diversion/training these channels

Increase by twice the weighted width of


submerged piers
5

Depth of Scour
Shall be estimated considering local
condition
Wherever feasible, sounding be taken
specially for flashy rivers and with beds
having boulders or gravels
Scour depth be increased for
Design discharge being more than
observed discharge
Increase velocity due to constriction
Increase in scour near
pier/abutments
6

Depth of Scour
For alluvial rivers
Waterway more than Laceys width
D = 0.473 (Qf /f) 1/3
Waterway less than Laceys width
D = 1.338 (qf2 /f)1/3
Shall increase for foundation, protection &
river training works as per table in clause no
4.6.6
7

Increase in depth of scour (4.6.6)


Nature of the river

Depth of scour

In a straight reach

1.25 D

At the moderate bend conditions 1.5 D


e.g Along apron of guide bunds
At a severe bend

1.75 D

At right angle bend or at nose of 2.0 D


pier
In severe swirls eg. Against
mole head of a guide bund

2.5 TO 2.7 D
8

Afflux ( Increase in water level at upstream due to


obstruction by structure )

For non erodable beds


h = [v2/17.88 + 0.01524] x[ (A /a )2- 1 ]
Full afflux as per formula may not occur
in case of erodable beds

Clearance
Minimum clearance for bridges excluding arch bridges,
syphons, pipe culvert and Box culverts
Discharge (cumecs)
0 - 30
31-300
301 - 3000
Above 3000

Vertical clearance (mm)


600
600 1200 (Pro-rata)
1500
1800

For arch Bridge, Minimum clearance measured to crown


shall be
Span of Arch
Less than 4 m
4.0 to 7.0 m
7.1 to 20.0 m
Above 20.0 m

Clearance
Rise or 1200 mm
2/3 rise or 1500mm
2/3 rise or 1800 mm
2/3 rise
10

Clearance cont.
Clearance can be relaxed by CE/CBE provided
adoption of prescribed clearance results in heavy
expenditure or serious difficulties
clearance can be safely reduced to
Discharge (cum)
Less than 3
3 to 30
31 to 300

Clearance (mm)
300
300 - 400 (Pro-rata)
400 - 1200 (Pro-rata)

Retain existing clearance for works other than


rebuilding
Factors of tendency of rising stream bed to be taken
into account

11

Free Board
Minimum free Board from water level of design
discharge to formation level of Railway
embankment or top of guide bund shall be one
meter
suitably increased if heavy wave action is expected
CE/CBE can relax Free Board in special
circumstances to
Discharge (cumecs)

Min free board (mm)

Less than 3
3 to 30

600
750

More than 30

No relaxation
12

FREEBOARD
4.9.3 While executing works other
than rebuilding a bridge or extending
it for doubling purposes, the existing
freeboard may be retained after
taking measures for safety as
considered necessary by Pr. Chief
Eng./CBE.
13

Danger Level
is that level which when reached, safety of the bridge is
likely to be adversely effected.
Traffic shall remain suspended till a responsible officials
as per para 706 inspects and declares it safe for running
traffic.
Shall be fixed by Divisional Engineer for each bridge with
great caution & with due regards to conditions obtaining
at site.

shall be a level which is lower of


followings
provides adequate vertical clearance
Provides minimum free board to approach banks and
guide bunds
Level of water which is likely to cause unduly large afflux
say more than 0.5m
14

In case no past history of damage or serious


threat, following can be taken as
i)Girder/Slab Bridge

broad
guide
Water
Way
<
>
>
>
>

6.1m
150 to 300mm
6.1
< 12.2m
450mm
12.20 < 30.5 600mm
30.50 < 61.0m
750mm
61.00mm
1200mm

Clearance below
bottom of girders/slab
lines for fixing

D.L.

ii)Arch bridges
Span < 4m

Springing Level

Span > 4m or
2/3rd rise below
multiple span
crown level

15

iii)Box Culverts
Bottom of Slab

iv)Pipe Culverts
Top of inside pipe

v)Balancing culverts and bridges

50mm below top of pier/abutments in case of


of the

culverts with girder/slabs or crown intrados


arch

Above guide lines are for general guidance and should be


used where specific guide lines are not issued.
In case floods higher than danger level occurred several times
without causing damage to bridge, revision of D.L. may be
examined.
Factors of tendency of rising stream bed to be taken into
account
16

LOADS, FORCES AND STRESSES


Loads & effects of forces be taken as per Bridge
Rules
Loaded length be chosen to give most adverse
effect
Forces due to gradient effect be taken

Dead Load
Load of superstructure
Permanent load on it
Use IS 1911 for unit weights
( Schedule of unit weight of building materials)

17

Live Load
As per bridge rule
Use 25 T/DFC/RMG/A Class Loading
Live load reaction on abutment of simply
supported span
Gravity type
Non gravity type -

50% of total EUDL for shear


minimum vertical reaction
corresponding to maximum LF

Live Load reaction for piers on simply supported span


- to be worked out for
One span fully loaded
Both span fully loaded

18

Live Load ( contd.)


Pier of gravity type
For one span loaded - 50% of total EUDL for
shear
Both span loaded for equal span - 50% of
total EUDL for BM

For non gravity piers/gravity piers


supporting unequal span
Appropriate axle load giving maximum LF
19

Dynamic Augment
On top of bed block as per Bridge rule
For gravity type substructure, further multiply by
Bottom of bed block
Top 3m below bed block
Beyond 3m

0.5
0.5 to 0
No impact

For non gravity type


Up to scour level, full dynamic effect as on top
of bed block

Slab top culvert with no bed block


Top 300mm considered as bed block.

For ballast wall


upto 1.5m depth
beyond 1.5m

0.5
No DA
20

Longitudinal forces
As specified in Bridge rules and as applicable in design
calculations

Temperature effect
Need not be considered if superstructure is free to
expand/contract

Frictional resistance of expansion bearings


Equal to vertical reaction due to DL+LL multiplied by
frictional coefficient.
Frictional coefficient as per Bridge rule

PSC/RCC slab on unyielding piers/abutments


DL * 0.5 for concrete with bitumen layer in between
DL * 0.6 for concrete not roughened

21

Earth Pressure
Earth retaining structure be designed for
active pressure from earth fill
Active earth pressure as per Colombs
formula
Pa = 1/2 wh2 Ka
Acts on earth face at h/3 above section under
consideration with an angle to normal to
the back face
Formula is for granular back fill with effective
drainage
22

Passive
formula

earth

pressure

as

per

Colombs

Pp = 1/2 wh2 Kp
Acts on front face at h/3 above section under
consideration with an angle to normal

For checking stability of abutments, 1/3 rd


passive pressure can be allowed up to scour
level.( Modified for old bridges vide C.S no. 23)
Semi-empirical
methods can be used for
structures up to 6m fill above foundation or
checking existing sub-structures where
Granular track fill/drainage condition is not satisfied
Not practicable to follow theoretical method
23

EP due to surcharge
On account of LL+DL shall be considered as equivalent to
load placed at formation level extending upto front face of
ballast wall
Surcharge due to L.L. for different standards of loading
Standard of
loading

Surcharge
Kg/m S

Width of uniform
distribution at
formation level (m) B

MBG

13700

3.0

MMG

9800

2.1

MGML

9800

2.1

NG A Class

8300

1.8
24

Forces due to water current


Applied on any part of Bridge substructure
submerged under running water

Water pressure on piers parallel to direction of


water current
P = KAV2
Suitable cut water be provided to reduce water
pressure

Max. mean value of velocity (V) is taken from


past records
In absence of past record
For alluvial beds, calculated by formula
V = [ Q f2 / 140 ]1/6 [ A/a]
In absence of data assume 3m/sec

For other than alluvial beds


Estimate from observation / Past record of adjacent
sites
25

Forces due to water current Cont.


Where current strikes at an angle, velocity be
resolved in two component, one parallel and
other normal to pier and pressure calculated
To take care possible variation in direction of
current, 20% water pressure be assumed to act
as additional force in normal direction to pier.
For supports made of two or more piles or
trestle column, treat group as solid rectangular
pier of same overall width with taking K as 66

26

Buoyancy Effect
For Designing of Foundation
Full buoyancy effect upto HFL or LWL, depending on
most critical combination.
Can be reduced upto 50% of buoyancy at the
discretion of Engineer if foundation are resting on
rock and have adequate bond with it.

Checking stability against overturning


Effect of buoyancy upto HFL

For calculation of foundation pressure


Upto LWL for max. foundation pressure
Upto HFL for min. foundation pressure

Design of submerged masonry / concrete


substructure
Buoyancy effect through pore pressure upto 15% of
full buoyancy
Upto LWL for checking compressive strength
Upto HFL for checking tensile strength

27

Wind Pressure
For span 18m and above as per Bridge rule.

Seismic Forces
Bridge as a whole and every part be design to
resists stress by seismic force as per bridge rule
The stresses be calculated as effect of forces
applied vertically or horizontally at the centre of
mass of elements of structure
Conveniently divided from design purpose
No seismic force for slab, box and pipe culvert
Seismic force considered for substructure in
different zones
Zone II to III
For bridges of length > 60m

and Span > 15m


Zone VI & V
For Bridges of all spans

28

Seismic forces on substructures above scour


depth shall be
Horizontal and vertical seismic forces due to self
weight of structure ignoring reduction due to
buoyancy and uplift
Hydrodynamic forces
Increase in Earth Pressure
Horizontal and vertical seismic forces due to D.L. of
superstructure and L.L. as specified in Bridge rules
transferred from superstructure to substructure
through bearings.

Substructure be designed for worst case


assuming horizontal seismic force to act either
parallel or perpendicular
to the direction of Traffic
to the face of pier / abutment for skew substructure.

Bridges should not be founded on loose or


poorly graded sands in Zone III, IV & V unless
suitable methods of compaction or
stabilization are adopted.

29

Combination of Loads and Forces


Combination I Worst Possible
combination of DL, LL, I, LF,CF,
EP,WC&B, TMP where considered and
EXB to movements
Combination II Combination I + WL
Combination III Combination I + SF
Combination IV Forces During
erection +WL or SF

30

Permissible Stresses
For brick/stone masonry substructure are
specified in para 5.14.3 of sub-structure code.
For plain or reinforced cement concrete, it is
specified in IRS concrete Bridge Code
If concrete substructures are but in stages,
permissible tensile stress be limited to 80%

Permissible increase in stress


For various combinations of loads, permissible
stress shall be increased as
Combination I
Combination II&III
Combination IV

Nil
33 1/3%
40%

31

CERTIFICATION OF EXISTING
MASONRY/CONCRETE SUBSTRUCTURE
Shall be based on physical condition of pier
and abutments
Certification for new types locos, rolling stock
and train composition causing increase in T.E.
& B.F.
Criteria for Masonry abutments / piers
100% overstressing in compression allowed subject to
good condition of masonry
200% overstressing in compression allowed subject to
good condition of masonry and close observation of
Bridges as directed by CE

32

For more than 200% overstress in compression, Bridge


be strengthened / rebuild to appropriate loading
If Max tensile stress exceed 100% tensile zone be
neglected and equivalent compressive stress be workout

Criteria for Mass Concrete abutments/piers


In bending compression, 50% overstress
permitted subject to good condition of masonry
If maximum tensile stress exceeds 100%
Calculate equivalent comp. stress

neglecting

tensile zone.

33

For gauge conversion


Checking substructure
Existing gravity type substructures be retained
provided max. stresses do not exceed permissible
stresses by
(i)

100% in comp. in masonry

(ii)

No overstress in comp. in concrete

(iii)

100% in tension in masonry/concrete

Foundations
The pressure on soil at the base of foundation shall not
exceed the safe/allowable bearing pressure

34

EQUIVALENT STRESS
Rectangular Base
Tension develops if e>B/6
For e<B/6
q= F/A(1+-6e/B)

For e>B/6
q= F/A{4B/(3B-6e)}
q=0 at 3(B/2-e)

35

EQUIVALENT STRESS
Circular Base
Tension develops if e>r/4
For e<r/4
q= F/A(1+-4e/r)

For e>r/4
q= K F/A where K is
e/r

.25 .30

.35

.40

.45

.50

.55

.60

.65

.70

.75

.80

.90

2.43

2.70

3.10

3.55

4.22

4.92

5.90

7.20

9.20

13

80

2.2

36

FOUDATIONS
General Design Criteria
Preferably locate on a firm ground having
stable strata.
Should fulfill following basic requirements
Safety against strength failure.
Safety against deformation and differential
settlement.
Allowable bearing pressure shall be taken lessor of
Net ultimate bearing capacity / 2.5
maximum allowable pressure on foundation without
causing excessive settlement(>25mm or excessive
differential settlement)

In open foundations
Resultant lie within middle third
Depth of foundation in soil > 1.75m below scour level.
Shall not normally rest on compressible soils.
37

Sub- soil Investigations


Scope

To determine nature, extent and engineering


properties of soil/ rock strata and ground water table.
Use IS:1892, 6935, 2720,1498, IRC:78 for guidance

Subsurface investigation be carried out during


three stages
Reconnaissance Survey
Bad locations for foundations are avoided
Reliable data from geological and topographical maps
scrutinized

Preliminary Survey
scope restricted to determine depth, extent,
composition,characteristics of various strata

Final Location Survey


Detail tests to design safe and economical structure.
38

Information to be obtained during subsurface investigation


Site Plan
Cross Sections along the proposed bridge
Environmental factor
Geo-technical Information
Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of sub-grade reaction
A review of performance of a similar structure
Assess possible effects on existing structure

39

Open Foundations

Trial Pit Method.


Soil classification by visual inspection or simple classification
tests.
Safe bearing capacity can be assumed from Table-6, as a guide.

Deep Foundations
Exploratory bore holes and samples at every 1.5m or change of
strata.
If undisturbed samples can not be taken, in situ field tests may
be done.
Normally depth of boring extends to 1.5 to 2.0 times foundation
width below foundation level.
Soft strata shall be penetrated completely
Guidance may be taken from IS 2132 & IS58763

40

Foundation in Non-cohesive strata


Bearing Capacity - can be determined
by several methods
Plate load test (For shallow depths only)
dynamic cone penetration test
standard penetration test.
Guidance of IS 6403, 2911 (Pt.I&IV), 2131, 4968 (Pt
I&III), 1888 & 1904 may be taken

41

Settlement/ can be determined by


Plate load test
Standard Penetration Test
Settlement taken place very quickly and over for
dead load during construction stage.

Allowable bearing pressure


Judiciously decided keeping in view importance of
structure and criteria mentioned earlier.

42

Foundation in cohesive strata


Foundation
can be determined as in case of non-cohesive strata

Settlement
settlement takes place over a long period of time
settlement below foundation should be computed for dead loads only

P = Pi + Poed + Ps
Pi

immediate settlement

Poed

- Primary consolidation settlement

Ps

- Secondary settlement

43

Time Rate of settlement


Computed as per IS:8009(Pt.I)based on Terzaghis one
Dimensional Consolidation Theory
In practice consolidation takes place much faster due to
i) Three dimensional consolidation
ii) Release of hydrostatic pressure out side the footing area
iii) Horizontal permeabilities are usually much higher than
the vertical
Rate settlement be therefore corrected by a factor of 3 to 5
times faster
Actual rate of settlement in the area from similar cases can
help to predict the rate accurately.

44

Allowable Bearing Pressure


Based on criteria given in para 6.1
In cohesive soil due to spread of settlement
over a long period, measures to tackle the
balance settlement at the time of placement of
super structure be considered.

45

Foundation on Rock
Shall be designed taking into consideration
Nature of Rock formation
Dip and strike of the rock strata.
Presence of faults and fissures
Should not be founded on faulted strata likely to slip
Fissured strata shall be stabilized by grouting

Bearing Capacity shall be computed


From shear strength properties
Shear strength may be determines by unconfined compression test
ultimate bearing capacity shall be taken as 4.5 times the unconfined
compressive strength

46

Allowable Bearing pressure


Shall be decided after taking into consideration
weakness of rock strata such as
Sloping rock surface
Stratification of alternate layers of sound & weak rock
Presence and extent of joints
Planes of weakness such as bedding planes, faults,
cavities etc
Factor of safety of 3 be adopted for sound rock
Allowable bearing pressure be further reduced based on
weakness of rock

47

Non-Homogeneous and Unsound Rocks


A factor of safety of 6 to 8 on unconfined
compressive strength is normally adequate
For badly disintegrated or very soft rocks ( core
recovery < 35% & test cylinders not available),
Adopt methods prescribed for soil
Take guidance of IS 4464, 5313, 6926, 11315(Pt II)

48

Permissible increase in allowable bearing pressure


May be increased for combinations of loads
Combination I
Combination II
Combination III

NIL
33.33%
40%

Condition of stability
Following factor of safety be adopted
Against overturning - Combination I
- Combination II or III
Against sliding
- Combination I
- Combination II or III

2.0
1.5
1.5
1.25

49

Design of Deep Foundations


Bottom of foundation be taken to provide
adequate grip
Depth of foundation below water level for
design discharge shall not be less than 1.33
times of max. depth of scour
Effect of skin pressure be taken for calculation
of foundation pressure except in seismic
zones IV & V
Dynamic augment need not be considered
For design of well foundation, methods
described in Appendix-V may be used
50

51

Clearance/ Free Board


Clearance
Is the vertical distance between water level of the
design discharge including afflux and the point on the
bridge super-structure where the clearance is required
to be measured

Free Board
Is the vertical distance between the water level
corresponding to the design discharge including afflux
and the formation level of the approach bank or the top
level of guide banks

52

f = 1.76

53

54

55

Hydrodynamic Forces
F = Ce h We
Where
Ce = A Coefficient (table 5)

h = Design horizontal seismic

coefficient
We = Weight of water of enveloping
cylinder
56

Height of Submerged portion


of pier(H) : Radius of
Enveloping Cylinder

Value of Ce

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

0.390
0.575
0.675
0.730

C1

C2

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.0

0.410
0.673
0.832
0.922
0.970
0.990
0.999
1.000

C3
0.026
0.093
0.184
0.289
0.403
0.521
0.760
1.000

C4
0.9345
0.8712
0.8103
0.7515
0.6945
0.6390
0.5320
0.4286 57

58

59

60