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AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design

Reference: AASHTO Guide for the Design of Pavement Structures, 1993

By
Mumtaz A. Usmen, PhD, PE
Professor of Civil Engineering
Wayne State University, USA
MUSMEN@WAYNE.EDU
Huancayo, Peru

Pavement Performance
Structural performance: related to the
physical condition of the pavement with
respect to the factors that have negative
impact on the capability of the pavement
to carry the traffic load.
These factors include: cracking, faulting,
raveling, and so forth.

Functional performance: is an indication


of how effectively the pavement serves
the user.
The main factor considered under functional
performance is riding quality.

Design Formula and Criteria


= predicted number of 80 kN (18,000 lb.) ESALs


= standard normal deviate
= combined standard error of the traffic prediction and performance
prediction
SN = Structural Number
SN = + +
= layer coefficient
= layer thickness (inches)
= layer drainage coefficient
PSI = difference between the initial design serviceability index, , and
the design terminal serviceability index,
= subgrade resilient modulus (in psi)

Design Period and Analysis Period


Performance or design period
Initial construction to terminal
serviceability

Analysis period
Time of design strategy, includes at
least one rehabilitation
High volume 30 - 40 years
Low volume 15 - 20 years

Reliability
Reliability (R)
Probability that pavement will perform
satisfactorily over the design period

Standard Deviation
Overall
standard deviation ()

standard error of the estimate for traffic


and performance
Flexible = 0.35 - 0.45
Rigid
= 0.25 - 0.35

Traffic Loads
= 18-kips equivalent single axle load (ESAL)

= directional distribution factor, expressed as a


ratio; accounts for the distribution of loads by
direction (i.e., east-west, north-south).
= lane distribution factor, expressed as a ratio;
accounts for the distribution of loads when two
or more lanes are available in one direction
= the cumulative two-directional 18-kp ESAL
units predicted for a specific section of highway
during the analysis period.

Serviceability Concept
Pavements ability to serve the existing
traffic using the highway

Interstate
Urban
2.5

3.0

Environmental Effects on Serviceability

Temperature, moisture, roadbed


swelling

Subgrade Resilient
Modulus

triaxial test

from
Bearing

Subgrade Seasonal
Variation

Freeze Time

Recovery
Time

Effective Roadbed
Modulus

Softer subgrade sustains more


damage

=Cumulative

Damage

Effective Resilient
Modulus (

Flexible Pavement
Design Chart

Once SN value is set, thickness design begins

SN a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3
SN1 a1 D1
Proceed in
this
direction

SN 2 a1 D1 a2 D2 m2
SN 3 a1 D1 a2 D2 m2 a3 D3 m3


Layer Coefficients
()
Base

and subbase
Correlations from CBR, R (Hveem
Resistance)
for Untreated, Cement Treated,
and Asphalt Treated Base Courses
Asphalt Paving Mixtures
CBR
for Hot Mixed Asphalt (HMA)


HMA Layer Coefficient
()


Base Layer Coefficient
()
=
f(Base Type)
Untreated Base
(AASHTO Figure 2.6)

Asphalt Treated Base (ATB)


(AASHTO Figure 2.9)

Cement Treated Base (CTB)


(AASHTO Figure 2.8)

Untreated Layer
Coefficient ()


ATB Coefficient
()


CTB Coefficient
()

Subbase Layer Coefficient ()

Drainage Effects
Drainage coefficient for base and
subbase
Based on percent of time saturated and
drainage
0 to 1.4 (poor to excellent)


Drainage Coefficient
(

Recommended Minumum Thicknesses of


Pavement Layers