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CONTINUING NURSING

EDUCATION
BY: BINI P SAMUEL

CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION

DEFINITION

Continuing education of health


workers includes the experiences
after initial training which help
health care personnel to maintain
and improve existing, and acquire
new competencies relevant to the
performance of their
responsibilities. Appropriate
continuing education should reflect
community needs in health and lead
to planned improvements in the

FEATURES

Unified Approach
Relationships with other systems
Comprehensiveness
Accessibility for woman health workers
Integration with the management process
Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity
Internally coordinated
Relevance in planning
Credibility and economic
Appropriateness in implementation

NEED

Safe and effective nursing care.


Meet the need of the population.
Update the knowledge.
Career advancement.
Acquire specialized skills of personnel and
meet technologic adjuncts.
Prepare in administrative and leadership
positions.
Shape their own destiny.

FUNCTIONS

To meet the health needs and public


expectations.
To develop the practicing abilities of the
nurse.
Recruitment function.
Recognize gaps in their knowledge.
To improve the communication between
the participants, faculty, community, and
health sector.

Functions

To test the participants ability to do


formal academic study.
To shape or support university
educational policies and practices.
To ensure the quality of education.
To grant budget for extension studies.
To maintain academic standards.
To meet educational requirements.

PHILOSOPHY

Nurse`s philosophy of life, nursing and


education, belief, etc. will influence the
philosophy of continuing nursing
education.
It focuses on individual learner.
The thoughtful teacher recognizes that
one`s philosophy of education is always
an emerging one, rather than a static
one.

Philosophy.
Learning must be a continuous
process throughout the lifespan, not
limited to formal courses of study.
Nursing is based on knowledge of
the physical and psychological
functioning of man within his
environment, expanding the
knowledge related to man and his
dynamic, proliferating fields of
operation is of concern.

ELEMENTS

Learner
Teacher/ Educator

Role of Educator
Guide and counselor to the learner.
An arranger and organizer of
learning experiences.
Motivator and an encourager of
students.
Evaluator of programmes.
Involving resources experts for
teaching the students.

Role of educator..
Providing instructional materials.
Select and evaluate materials
prepared by others.
Administrative role (planning,
directing, budgeting and evaluation).
Public relations role to change the
image of nursing and in recognizing
the contributions and potentials of
nurses.

Educational preparation

Master`s degree in his area of


nursing expertise or with a doctorate
in adult education.
Credentials with more publications.
Writing and organizing skills.
A continuing learner.
Clinical expertisedness.

Educational preparation
Depth of nursing knowledge and skill
in its application.
Interest in the subject, enthusiasm in
teaching.
Skill in working with adult learners.
Adequate knowledge about teaching
skills and methods of teaching.
Broad base knowledge.

Competencies and other characteristics

Concern for people.


Flexibility.
Sensitive to group response.
Willing to travel.
Detailed advance preparation and
organization for teaching.
Resourcefulness.
Determination.

Competencies and other characteristics

Self-confidence.
A sense of humour.
Broader outlook.
A zest for life.
An innate curiosity.
Love of Adventure.
Desire to search the unknown.
Interest in self-development and in others
development.

PRINCIPLES

Provision for school and nursing faculty involvement in


planning and teaching the continuing nursing education
courses tends to maintain high educational standards for the
programme.
An adequate staff is essential to planning, implementing and
evaluating a programme which is based on learning needs
and which has an impact on the quality of nursing care
provided.
Responsibilities of the director of continuing nursing education
are:
-Determination of learning needs of the nurse population.
-Development and implementation of a programme to
meet these needs.
-Evaluation of results.

Principles..

Staff services are required with sufficient talents


and numbers to implement the planned
programme:
- Advisory.
-Secretarial.
- Administrative.
- Supportive
- Assistance with research,
publicity, questionnaire, evaluation tools, data
analysis, computer programming.

Principles..

An advisory committee has to be appointed, which


includes:
-Faculty members from a variety of areas
of nursing practice.
-Directors of hospital nursing services.
-Representatives from the state licensing
authority, health department and voluntary agencies.
-Extended care facilities
-Hospital association.
-Medical and allied health professionals.
-Regional medical programme.

Principles.

Other agencies involved in the delivery of


health care in the community.
The community may serve as a liaison
between the school of nursing and the
health community and fulfill a
communication and public relations
function for the university.
Continuing nursing education programme
may be decentralized or centralized.

Principles
Decentralization is characterized by programming within
each academic department, faculty involved in
consultation and surveys with the public interested in
their subject field were most knowledgeable about the
needs for continuing nursing education.

Centralization is characterized by a separate


department or extension division. Financial support is by
either university grants or self-supporting. Faculty may be
assigned to continuing education as a regular part of the
normal teaching load, but for periods they will get extraremuneration or non-university faculty may hired on a
contract basis to teach specific courses.

PLANNING
A successful continuing nursing education
programme is the result of careful and
detailed planning.
Aspects of continuing nursing education
planning:
Broad planning by institution and agencies
responsible for continuing nursing
education.
Specific planning by individuals for their
own continuing education.

Planning

Planning is essential to:


-Meet the nursing needs.
-Use available resources.
-Meet needs at all levels i.e., local,
state, regional, national, and international.
-Avoid duplication and
fragmentation of efforts.
-Help keep at a minimum any
gaps in meeting the continuing education
needs of the nurses.

Planning

-The selection of teaching faculty may


depend on the availability of the person rather than his
expertise or teaching ability. The content of the
programme is designed around faculty knowledge and
learning needs of the participants.
-In interdisciplinary approach requires
representation of all the groups involved; determination
of common and compatible goals for successful
programming.
Planning is an ongoing process, the rapid technologic
advances and proliferation of knowledge demands
continuous planning to meet ever changing learning
needs.

PLANNING PROCESS
1.Plan
2. Establishing goals and
objectives.
3. Determining needs and
priorities.
4. Assess the available resources.
5. Plan the budget appropriate for
the programme.

EVALUATE THE RESULTS AT STATED INTERVALS

Evaluation is needed to assess the


effectiveness of the programme or the
progress in order to find out to what
extent pre-set goals have been achieved
evaluations should be done at different
stages of the programme. E.g. Preparatory
stage; Implementation stage; the impact
of programmes; the process of programme
operation, the management systems,
efforts and performance evaluation.

Purpose of evaluation:

To identify the areas which require greater attention


in-terms of participation of trainees, academic
activities and management (at planning stage).
To identify bottlenecks in various activities carried out
during the operation of the programme
(implementation stage).
To assess the applicability of training in field or actual
situation.
Qualitative improvement in instruction, promotes
better learning, determines future changes and
needs.
For quality control or qualitative improvement.

What to evaluate?

Evaluation should cover:


The growth and satisfaction of
participants.
The outcome course and the whole
programme/activity/task.
Effectiveness of faculty members.
Transfer of knowledge.
Effect on the system.

Procedures for
evaluation

Pre-test and post-test.


Attitude tests.
Observation of skills.
Questionnaire.
Audio or visual tapes.

Evaluation Design

Focus of evaluation- what do you want to find out?


Device the instrument- collection of information.
Organize the formation-coding, organizing, storing
and retrieving.
Analyze the information.
Report the findings.
Reassessing the goals.
Updating, modifying the plan periodically based on
needs.
Evaluate the design for validity, reliability,
credibility, timeliness and pervasiveness.

CORRESPONDENCE
COURSE

LIBERAL EDUCATION

DEFINITION
"It is the education ofgrown
up men and women who are
more than 18yrs old.
Education for adults mainly
those who could not get any
formal education in the early
days of their lives".

Purpose of adult
education
i) Individuals point of view: From individual's
point of view the purpose of adult education
are,
Remedial
Development of physical health
Vocational development
Development of social skills
Self development
Recreational aim

Purpose of adult
education
ii) Social point of view:

Promotion of social cohesion


Conservation and Improvement of
national resources
Building Co-operative groups
Inculcation of social ideology

NEED & IMPORTANCE OF ADULT


EDUCATION

A new hope for the illiterate


to wider intellectual horizon of partially illiterate adults.
to broaden the political horizon of the adults ie. value of
vote.
to complete India's political awakening.
to set the cultural tone of the community.
to make adult life a happy and joyous living.
to satisfy the recreational needs of rural adults.
to train the adult in co-operative living.
to compulsory primary education.
Continuing education - Education does not end with
schooling. It is a life long process.

ORGANIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION

i) Village level: Youth clubs and Mahila mandals are


organized for this purpose. In village panchayats, secretary
of co-operative society if any, primary school teachers
should combine their efforts.
ii) Block level: 2 full time officers at the block level 1 - one
man & one women.
iii) District level: district social education officer.
iv) State level: the rank of a joint or Deputy director at the
state level to look after the administration of all aspects of
adult education.
v) Central level: Ministry of education is in-charge of all the
programmes of adult education. So all these programmes
are directly implemented by it either through central
scheme of through the state education department.

The changing concept of adult education:

MATERIALS FOR ADULT EDUCATION


1. Reading Materials:
Books and pamphlets
Daily Newspapers: All adults are interested in
news, and all over the world the daily news - sheet
provides the chief reading matter for adults.
Periodicals, Charts, Graphs and Maps were also
used.
2. Audiovisual Materials:
The main A.V. aids used are black board, bulletin
board, film, film strips, maps, graphs, charts,
Records.

METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS:

1. Learner - dominated methods: In these methods


the learner dominates. He initiates and mostly
depends upon himself. These are following 3
subgroups within these methods.
Trial & Error Method: drill and practice.
Individual investigation method:Here the
process involves thinking out a thing or learning
by insight, supplemented by use of library, use of
laboratory, Questionnaire, survey and field trips.
Project method:It combines the essentials of first
two methods.

METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS..

2. Teacher - dominated methods:


Here the teacher is more active and
dominates the learning process. It includes
a) Lecture Method
b) Counseling
c) Case work -Here the teacher goes into
the history of an individuals case and
teaches him the way to lead a happy and
satisfying life.

METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS .

d) Demonstration:This is of 2 types.
Method demonstration - pupils are
shown how to do a thing. Eg: Washing a
baby's sore eyes.
Result demonstration - adults are shown
the start and end of an demonstration.

METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS .

3. Co-operative methods:
Apprenticeship - a student learns
through working in close co-operative
with his teacher.
Group discussion

AGENCIES OF ADULT EDUCATION:

Classes of people like teachers, government


servants, volunteers, social education workers etc.
Regular educational institution like schools,
colleges, universities, libraries, museums,
correspondence schools, community centres,
agriculture extension groups.
Informal educational device like forums, study
circles, discussion groups, listening groups, camps
etc.
Recreational educational bodies like theatres.
Institutions whose primary function is not
education. Eg: Religious bodies.

PROBLEMS OF ADULT
EDUCATION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Non co-operation of adults:


Problem of social education workers:
Problem of attendance :
Problem of vocational training:
Problem of Equipment:
Problem of social backwardness:
Problems of suitable literature
Problem of Finance:

TEACHER EDUCATION

INSERVICE EDUCATION

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