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NONLINEAR FEA TO PREDICT TENSION

STIFFENING EFFECT IN REINFORCED


CONCRETE

Guided by:
Dr. K.PANDURANGAN
BY :
M.THENNAVAN (15CE321))

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

NEED FOR THE STUDY

OBJECTIVE

SCOPE

SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

METHODOLOGY

TENTATIVE PROJECT SCHEDULE

REFERENCES

Introduction
Definition (
The

RC Design Pillai & Devadas Menon )

increase stiffness over a cracked section


stiffness, on account of the ability of concrete (in
between cracks) to resist tension. This referred to as
tension stiffening effect.

Tension stiffening mechanism


in reinforced concrete prisms

Tension stiffening is an important phenomenon in


reinforced concrete because it controls not only
deflections but also crack spacing, crack widths and
the formation of multiple cracks.

Tension stiffening effect allows the stress transfer


from the reinforcement to the surrounding concrete
through the interface bond stress-slip property
().

Hence, the concrete stress is gradually increasing


due to this process and also vice versa for stress in
the reinforcement.

Continue..

This stress transfer process continues until the


tensile capacity of the concrete is reached after
which cracks occur.

Therefore, the tension stress carried by the concrete


at any section is important in determining the
location of cracks.

Idealized behaviour of
reinforced concrete prism

Mechanism of cracking

Stage

Description

Un cracked
stage

The stresses are below concrete tensile strength


and the stiffness of the reinforced tensile
member is relatively large.

Formation
stage

Cracks appear in the concrete under the


influence of increasing tensile force.

Stabilized
cracking
stage
Yielding of
the
reinforcemen
t

The tensile force increases steadily, where the


existing cracks grow wider. New cracks may
form at this stage.
The maximum load capacity had been reached,
yet the deformation increase considerably.

Main Parameter Affecting TSE

The main parameters affecting the


stiffening effect in the concrete are :

tension

bar diameter,

concrete strength,

reinforcement ratio,

crack width and spacing,

bond force between the steel and the surrounding


concrete.

Need For The Study

1
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Experimental study on tension stiffening effect in


Reinforced Concrete (RC) is very much involved and
incures materials, testing devices, labour and time.

Usually, finite element (FE) analysis is carried out to


counter check the test values. This helps in refining
the analytical tools, so that even without
experimental proof or check the complex nonlinear
behaviour of RC can be confidently predicted.

Hence, wider attempts were made by many


researchers to accurately predict the Tension
Stiffening Effect in reinforced concrete (RC) using
various FE software.

Continue..

1
1

Experimentally, it is difficult to predict tension


stiffening effect in large diameter bars such as 32
mm, as the size of specimen for determination of
tension stiffening effect may go up to 2.0 metres.

Hence, Finite element analysis is the simplest way


by which tension stiffening effect, cracking in
concrete could be predicted.

Objective

1
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The objective of the present work is to predict the


tension stiffening effect in reinforced concrete axial
tension elements using Finite element analysis.

Scope

1
3

The scope of the present work are


To

identify a suitable software to model nonlinearity of


concrete, crack of concrete and interface between
reinforcement and concrete.
To

validate the finite element analysis result with


experimental work.
To

evaluate the influence of various parameters on


the tension stiffening behavior. This study examines the
influence of different reinforcement ratios (Ast/bd),
concrete compressive strength (30-80 MPa), bar
diameter (8-40 mm) and confinement of concrete with
stirrups on the tension stiffening behavior.

Continue..

1
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To evaluate the effect of headed bar embedded in


the concrete on the tension stiffening behavior.

1
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LITERATURE REVIEW

Tension Stiffening and Cracking of Steel Fiber Reinforced


Concrete
1
Peter H. Bischoff

Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 1, 2003. ASCE

SUMMARY
In

this experimental work, investigates the post


cracking response of reinforced concrete tension
members made with both plain and steel fiber-reinforced
concrete (SFRC).
Loading

was either monotonic or cyclic, and shrinkage


effects are included in analysis of the member response.
Tension-stiffening

results are used to determine the


average tensile response of concrete after cracking, and
an expression is developed to predict this smeared
behavior as a material property for cracked SFRC, as
well as to estimate crack spacings.

SPECIMEN DETAILS

1
7

MIX PROPORTIONS

1
8

TESTING OF SPECIMEN

1
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Test specimens were loaded vertically in a 900 kN


capacity Baldwin test machine using tension grips to
hold the extended bars at each end (Fig. 7).

Average extension was measured over a central 900


mm gauge length using two displacement transducers
placed on opposite sides of the member and attached
to mounting frames firmly clamped onto the specimen.

The member response is characterized by a plot of


axial load versus average member strain, and
measurements were recorded continuously at 0.5 s
intervals. Crack widths and spacing were measured
intermittently.

RESULT

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CONCLUSION

2
1

Shrinkage causes an initial shortening in the member


response that must be accounted for to evaluate
tension stiffening effects correctly. Crack widths are
not affected when member shortening is ignored.

SFRC specimens exhibited smaller crack spacings, and


the resulting greater number of cracks leads in part to
an observed reduction in crack widths. Increased
tension stiffening also contributes to reduced crack
widths.

Hence, the ability of SFRC to transfer tension across


cracks leads to a reduced crack spacing and increased
tension stiffening, both of which contribute to
improved crack control.

BOND STRESS BEHAVIOR BETWEEN CONCRETE AND STEEL REBAR:


FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

2
2

Md. Rashedul Kabir, Md. Mashfiqul Islam


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURAL Engineering volume 5, No 1, 2014

SUMMARY
In

this work , analysis of the transfer of bond stress in


concrete surrounding the reinforcing steel is done.
Generated stress in the transition region between steel
concrete is detected by finite element modeling using
ANSYS 11.0 program for different pull-out specimens of
varying concrete strength.
Development

of longitudinal and radial shear stress in


concrete due to applied load on a 20mm diameter steel
rebar is observed.

FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM


23

STRATEGY
A

simple pull-out specimens are modeled in the Finite


Element (FE) framework of ANSYS 11.0. Variation in
reinforcement grade shows no change in bond-stress
behavior. Hence, three model of different concrete strength
for same reinforcement grade and diameter are prepared.
In

total three models are prepared for the analysis


purpose. Development length is provided 240mm (12
times of the diameter of rebar is used as per ACI 318-11).
Sufficient development length must be provided to produce
required stress in reinforcement.
All

the models are analyzed considering perfect bonding


between reinforcing bar and surrounding concrete.

ELEMEMT TYPES

2
4

The concrete is modeled using SOLID65 eight-node


brick element, which is capable of simulating the
cracking in tension and crushing in compression
behavior (Figure 2a).

Reinforcement is modeled using SOLID45 element


(Figure 2b) which has identical degrees of freedom to
those for SOLID65 (ANSYS 2005).

To relate with the practical situation of pull-out test,


SOLID45 is chosen over LINK8 to model 3D eight
noded elements. Perfect bonding between these two
elements is considered during modeling.

PULL-OUT SPECIMEN

2
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MATERIAL
PROPERTIES

2
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FE RESULTS AND
DISCUSSIONS

2
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The load is applied as displacement boundary


condition and the applied displacement is provided in
500 steps followed by 2 sub-steps for each step.

Figure 4 shows the applied displacement vs. time step


curve for different models. It is clear that the concrete
with higher compressive strength is capable to carry
higher displacement before failure.

CONCLUSION

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Maximum

shear stress in concrete appears at the top


portion of the concrete cylinders. Shear stress is higher at
the concrete close to steel rebar.
Stress

in concrete both in Y-direction and in XY plane


increases with the increase in concrete strength. High
strength concrete generates more stress before failing
occurs.
Most

of the cracks appear at the upper portion of


concrete cylinder since stresses in this zone is
significantly higher in both directions.
After

formation of crack, sudden change in stress


direction occurs in concrete.

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF TENSION


STIFFENING AND CRACKING IN FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRET
Sooraj Chandra R.S , Dr. Sabeena M.V
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
Vol. 5, Issue 8, Aug 2016

2
9

SUMMARY
The

successful implementation of the tension


stiffening behaviour is demonstrated through the
prediction of deformation of reinforced steel as per
uniaxial load using a general nonlinear FE analysis
package (ANSYS) by modelling and analyzing
reinforced concrete prism member.
Based

on the study, it has been found that the


addition of fibers has increased the tension stiffening
effect considerably. Crack spacing increased and
number of cracks and crack width were decreased with
the increase in fibre content.

SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION

3
0

The main objective of this research is to do an


experimental and analytical (nonlinear FE analysis)
investigation on the behaviour of fibre reinforced
concrete tension ties to that of normal strength
concrete ties. Mainly they are,
a) Load-deformation behaviour
b) Crack spacing

SPECIMEN DETAILS

3
1

FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING


3
2

ANSYS, commercially available Finite Element (FE) software, of


version 16.1 was used for the analysis of prismatic tension
members. The actual behaviour of concrete should be simulated
using the chosen element type.

For the present type of model Conta174 and Targe170 elements


were chosen. Fig 4(a) and Fig 4(b) shows Geometries of
Conta174 and Targe170. Conta174 is used to represent contact
and sliding between 3-D "target" surfaces and a deformable
surface.

The element is applicable to 3-D structural and coupled field


contact analyses. The element also allows separation of bonded
contact to simulate interface delamination.

In this project, this element replaces Fe 500 TMT reinforcement


bar in tension stiffening prism specimen. Targe170 is used to
represent various 3-D "target" surfaces for the associated
contact element replaces the M25 grade concrete .

FEA MODEL TENSION STIFFENING PRISM


3
3

In both experimental and analytical approach, load-deformation behaviour was getting as a


result. In Fig 5(a) and 5(b), considering the geometry and uniaxial force reaction over the FEA
model tension stiffening prism specimen and the deformation are indicated. From the solution
information we can collect all the relevant results required for the study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3
4

CONCLUSION

3
5

Based on the results obtained from experimental and analytical works in


this study, the following conclusions are made.
While considering the bar diameters it is clear that, 8 mm bar has less
ability to control the sudden local instability at the crack formation, as that
of 10 mm bar. Based on the results, the prism specimens containing 10
mm diameter reinforcement bar shows more tension stiffening behaviour
than that of specimens containing 8 mm diameter reinforcement bar.

From

load deformation graphs it is clear that, prism specimens containing


10 mm diameter reinforcement bar has more ability to carry axial load than
that of specimens containing 8 mm diameter reinforcement bar. Especially
in the case of SFRC specimens contains 1% steel fibres.
Within

the limitations of ANSYS FEA model also shows tension stiffening


behaviour. FEA model shows tension stiffening effect much less than
experimental specimen and much more than bare bar response in axial
load carrying condition.

Summary Of Literature

3
6

Based on the literature review it is predicted that tension


stiffening effect is important from the serviceability point of view.
This

tension stiffening effect in concrete is greatly influenced


by the bond force which is acting at the interface of the steel
and the surrounding concrete.
The

bond stress leads to the formation of the first primary


crack at the mid part of the specimen, when the applied tensile
force is equal to the tensile strength of the concrete.
At

the cracked section the tensile strength of the concrete


drops to zero, where the tensile stress in steel is maximum as
the entire stress is taken by the steel only at the cracked section.

Continue..

3
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SI
NO

PARAMETER

INFERENCE

1.

Reinforcement Ratio

It is clear that tension stiffening


increases with a decrease in
reinforcement ratio. However, it is not
clear whether the effect is directly
proportional to the decrease in
reinforcement ratio.

2.

Concrete Strength

High strength concrete requires higher


loads to crack the specimens. In
addition, better bond between
concrete and reinforcement allows
stresses to be transferred more
effectively between the bar and
concrete making the average stress
contribution of concrete higher

3
8
SI
NO

PARAMETER

INFERENCE

3.

Diameter of bar

Bar diameter and the reinforcement


ratio are inter related. No change in
the tension stiffening effect will be
predicted when the reinforcement
ratio is maintained same for different
bar diameter.

4.

Concrete Cover

As the bar diameter increases, the


cover of the specimen is reduced
leading to the formation of the
splitting cracks, which is very worse,
lead to total reduction in tension
stiffening effect in concrete, which
extends even to spalling of the
concrete.

3
9
SI.NO

PARAMETER

INFERENCE

5.

Crack width
and Crack
spacing

The cracks in concrete have an


important role in the tension stiffening
effect on concrete. Generally owing to
low tensile strength concrete
undergoes cracking and the cracked
concrete section does not offer
anything to the load carrying
mechanism. The crack width and the
spacing are greatly influenced by the
cover that is provided and the
reinforcement ratio and diameter of
the bar which is provided.

Finite element analysis on RC

4
0

In ansys, solid 65 and link 180 element are used to


make a reinforced concrete model and analyzed by
static structural . (Ansys help manual)

Mesh density will affect the FE result. Mesh size


varies between rebar and concrete, finer mesh is
used surrounding the rebar and remaining area
coarse mesh is applied. The result varies from
location to location. (Rashedul Kabir et al 2014).

Contact between two material (i.e Concrete &


Rebar) normally used bonded type in linear analysis
and in case of nonlinear analysis no separation
type, friction, frictionless. (Ansys help manual)

Continue..

4
1

Finite element analysis of ABAQUS software are used


to Solid C3D8R element for both concrete and rebar
and CONN3D2 element used for interface between
two materials.

Finite element analysis in TSE

4
2

The ABAQUS are used to model a concrete damage


plasticity (CDP) to simulate inelastic behavior of
concrete and assuming to two failure mechanism in
tensile cracking and compression crushing. Nonlinear
analysis used to show the crack pattern.

Various researchers approached with various FE


models for predicting tension stiffening effect. Among
those various established FE models, the DIRECT
TENSION TEST FOR BOND as per RILEM standards
has been adopted for predicting the tension stiffening
effect. This method investigates the tension stiffening
effect varying the bar diameter, reinforcement ratio
and the size of the specimen.

METHODOLOGY
COLLECTION OF MATERIAL
DATA

MODELLING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AXIAL ELEMET USED FINITE


ELEMENT SOFTWARE

ANALYSIS OF MODEL

VALIDATING WITH EXPERIMENTAL RESULT AND STUDEIS THE


PARAMETERS

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4
4

WORKOUT FE MODEL

Element used
ANSYS
SOLID 65 - CONCRETE
LINK 180 - REBAR
CONTA 170 - INTERFACE ELEMENT
TARGET 175 - INTERFACE ELEMENT

4
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Solid 65 element

4
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SOLID65is used for 3-D modeling of solids with or


without reinforcing bars (rebar). The solid is
capable of cracking in tension and crushing in
compression. The element is defined by eight
nodes having three degrees of freedom at each
node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z
directions. Up to three different rebar specifications
may be defined.

LINK 180 element

4
7

LINK180is a 3-D spar that is useful in a variety of


engineering applications. The element can be used
to model trusses, sagging cables, links, springs,
and reinforcement. The element is a uniaxial
tension-compression element with three degrees
of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal
x, y, and z directions.

MATERIAL DATA USED


PROPERTIES

CONCRETE
M30 Grade

4
8

PARAMETER

ABAQUS/ANSY
S

Density (Kg/m3)

2350

Youngs Modulus (Mpa)

27386.127

Tensile Strength ( Mpa)

3.83

Poissons Ratio
Compressive Strength
( Mpa)

0.20
30

Continue..
PROPERTIE
S

4
9

PARAMETER

ANSYS/ABAQU
S

Density ( Kg/m3)

7850

Youngs Modulus ( Mpa)

2x105

STEEL Fe 415 Poissons Ratio


(IS 17862008)

0.3

Yeild strength of steel ( Mpa)

415

Ultimate strength of steel


( Mpa)

485

Stress strain curve for


concrete

5
0

Stress Strain curve for


Rebar(Fe415)

5
1

Ansys Model

5
2

To develop a Tension element model in


Workbench, size of 100x100x600 mm and 10 mm
diameter of rebar embedded centrally placed in
concrete element.

5
Meshing a size 10 mm over a element 3and
applying contact between concrete and
rebar.

5
4
Applying a force at end of the rebar and other
end of rebar fixed as shown in fig below.

Result

5
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Axial load vs Strain Response

5
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Crack pattern

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REFERENCES

5
8

Beeby, A.W. and Scott, R.H. (2005). Cracking and deformation


of axially reinforced members subjected to pure tension, Magazine
of Concrete Research, Vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 611621.

Bischoff, P. (2003). Tension stiffening and cracking of steel fiber


reinforced concrete, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 174182.

Bischoff, P. (2005). Reevaluation of deflection prediction for


concrete beams reinforced with steel and fiber reinforced polymer
bars, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 5, pp.
752767.

CEB (1992). CEB-FIP Model Code 90, Thomas Telford, London, UK.

Eligehausen, R., Popov, E.P. and Bertero, V.V. (1983). Local


Bond Stress-Slip Relationship of Deformed Bars Under Generalized
Excitations, Report no. UCB/EERC-83/23, Earthquake Engineering
Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Continue..

5
9

I. Vilanova, L. Torres, M. Baena , M. Llorens, Numerical simulation


of bond-slip interface and tension stiffening in GFRP RC tensile
elements, Composite Strutures 153 (2016) 504513, @ 2016
Elsevier Ltd.

David Z. Yankelevsky, Mahmood Jabareen, Amir D. Abutbul, Onedimensional analysis of tension stiffening in reinforced concrete
with discrete cracks, Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 206217,
@ 2007 Elsevier Ltd.

T. Dede *, Y. Ayvaz, Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beam


with/without tension stiffening effect, Materials and Design 30
(2009) 38463851, @ 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Paola Costanza Miglietta , Giovanni Grasselli, Evan C. Bentz,


Finite/discrete element model of tension stiffening in GFRP
reinforced concrete, Engineering Structures 111 (2016) 494504,
@ 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Continue..

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Rahimah Muhamad, M.S. Mohamed Ali*, Deric John Oehlers and


Michael Griffith, The Tension Stiffening Mechanism in Reinforced
Concrete Prisms, Advances in Structural Engineering Vol. 15 No.
12 2012.

L. Dahmani,a A. Khennane,b and S. Kacia, Crack Identification In


Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Ansys Software, Strength of
Materials, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2010.

J. Shafaie1, A. Hosseini2, M. S. Marefat3, 3d Finite Element


Modelling Of Bond-slip Between Rebar And Concrete In Pull-out
Test, 3rd International Conference on Concrete & Development,
CD02-019.

Md. Rashedul Kabir1, Md. Mashfiqul Islam2, Bond stress behavior


between concrete and steel rebar: Critical investigation of pullout test via Finite Element Modeling, International journal of civil
and structural engineering, volume 5, no 1, 2014.

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THANK YOU !!!