Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Theories of Elastic Failure

Introduction

by utilizing the previous knowledge we can determine


the principal stresses, maximum shear stresses and the
distortions (strains) in the members subjected to
combined loadings --------- (ANALYSIS)

The members can be designed based on the above

values of stresses/strains (determined in the analysis)


to withstand the combined loadings ------ (DESIGN)
Inverse Problem

Introduction

The strength of material is generally determined in a

single case of loading i.e. uniaxial tension or


compression, shear or torsion whereas the structural
members may observe the combination of these
stresses.
Hence it is more complex to design a member to
resist combined loads because the strength /
mechanical properties cannot be determined for all
possible combinations of loadings.

Introduction

To correlate the strength under various combined

loadings with simple mechanical properties of


materials THEORIES OF FAILURE were
developed
Maximum principal stress theory
Maximum principal strain theory
Total strain energy theory
Maximum shear stress theory
Shear strain energy theory

Theories of Failure

For this specific course we will limit our scope to


only ELASTIC FAILURE of materials.

a. Brittle failure
b. Combined ductile & brittle
failure
c. Complete ductile failure

Maximum Principal Stress Theory

Rankines theory
Material fails when maximum

principal stress developed due to


external applied loads exceeds the
stress at the elastic limit state

Maximum Principal Stress Theory


The
magnitude of maximum principal is given by
following equation

According to theory for safe design

Here is the stress at elastic limit state.


Better results for brittle materials

Maximum Principal Strain Theory


St.
Venants theory

Material fails when the maximum

principal strain exceeds the strain at


the elastic limit

According to theory
Good results for brittle materials
under biaxial tension

Total Strain Energy Theory

Proposed by Haigh and Beltrami


Failure of material occurs when the total

strain energy per unit volume exceeds the


total strain energy at the elastic limit
This strain energy is defined as the work
done by load provided no energy is added
or subtracted in the form of heat. Some
times strain energy is referred to as internal
work done.

Total Strain Energy Theory

Consider a simple bar which is subjected to tensile

force F, having a small element of dimensions dx, dy


and dz.

Total Strain Energy Theory


For
three dimensional case of stress

Strains in x, y and z direction is given by

Total Strain Energy Theory


For safe design

Maximum Shear Stress Theory


or Trescas theory
Coulombs

Material fails when the maximum shear stress

developed in the material exceeds the maximum shear


stress at the elastic limit

Maximum Shear Stress Theory


or
For uniaxial loading
For general case

By comparing

so

Maximum Shear Stress Theory


For
safe design

Shear Strain Energy Theory


energy theory or Von-Misess theory
Distortion

Material fails when its energy of distortion per unit

volume exceeds the distortion energy per unit


volume at the elastic limit
Total strain energy consists of two parts
Strain energy associated with change in volume
Strain energy associated with change in shape

Shear Strain Energy Theory


strain energy is already calculated and for unit
Total

volume it is given by

For volumetric strain energy consider a cubic element


under hydrostatic pressure

Only volumetric strain will occur and will be given as


here put

Shear Strain Energy Theory


values of and in initial equation and
Putting

simplifying we get

The shear strain energy at elastic limit state per unit


volume is given as

For safe design

Shear Strain Energy Theory


By comparing and simplifying

Example 1

Example 2

Example 2

Example 2

Example 2

Example 3

Example 3

Example 3

Example 3