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Theories of Elastic Failure

Introduction

by utilizing the previous knowledge we can determine

the principal stresses, maximum shear stresses and the
distortions (strains) in the members subjected to

Inverse Problem

Introduction

The strength of material is generally determined in a

compression, shear or torsion whereas the structural
members may observe the combination of these
stresses.
Hence it is more complex to design a member to
resist combined loads because the strength /
mechanical properties cannot be determined for all

Introduction

To correlate the strength under various combined

materials THEORIES OF FAILURE were
developed
Maximum principal stress theory
Maximum principal strain theory
Total strain energy theory
Maximum shear stress theory
Shear strain energy theory

Theories of Failure

For this specific course we will limit our scope to

only ELASTIC FAILURE of materials.

a. Brittle failure
b. Combined ductile & brittle
failure
c. Complete ductile failure

Maximum Principal Stress Theory

Rankines theory
Material fails when maximum

principal stress developed due to

stress at the elastic limit state

Maximum Principal Stress Theory

The
magnitude of maximum principal is given by
following equation

Here is the stress at elastic limit state.

Better results for brittle materials

St.
Venants theory

principal strain exceeds the strain at

the elastic limit

According to theory
Good results for brittle materials
under biaxial tension

Proposed by Haigh and Beltrami

Failure of material occurs when the total

strain energy per unit volume exceeds the

total strain energy at the elastic limit
This strain energy is defined as the work
or subtracted in the form of heat. Some
times strain energy is referred to as internal
work done.

and dz.

Total Strain Energy Theory

For
three dimensional case of stress

Maximum Shear Stress Theory

or Trescas theory
Coulombs

developed in the material exceeds the maximum shear

stress at the elastic limit

or
For general case

By comparing

so

For
safe design

Shear Strain Energy Theory

energy theory or Von-Misess theory
Distortion

volume exceeds the distortion energy per unit

volume at the elastic limit
Total strain energy consists of two parts
Strain energy associated with change in volume
Strain energy associated with change in shape

Shear Strain Energy Theory

strain energy is already calculated and for unit
Total

volume it is given by

For volumetric strain energy consider a cubic element

under hydrostatic pressure

here put

Shear Strain Energy Theory

values of and in initial equation and
Putting

simplifying we get

The shear strain energy at elastic limit state per unit

volume is given as

Shear Strain Energy Theory

By comparing and simplifying

Example 1

Example 2

Example 2

Example 2

Example 2

Example 3

Example 3

Example 3

Example 3