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Closed Conduit Flow

CEE 332

Monroe L. Weber-Shirk

School of Civil and


Environmental Engineering

Closed Conduit Flow


Energy equation
EGL and HGL
Head loss
major losses
minor losses

Non circular conduits

p1
V12
p2
V22
1
z1 h p
2
z2 ht hL

2g

2g

Conservation of Energy

Kinetic, potential, and thermal


energy
hp = head supplied by a pump
ht = head given to a turbine
hL = mechanical energy converted to thermal

downstream from cross section 1!


Cross section 2 is ____________
irreversible
Point to point or control volume?
V is average velocity, kinetic energy V 2
Why ? _____________________________________

Energy Equation Assumptions


Pressure is hydrostatic
_________ in both cross sections
pressure changes are due to elevation only p h
section is drawn perpendicular to the streamlines
(otherwise the _______
kinetic energy term is incorrect)
Constant ________at
density
the cross section
_______
Steady flow
p1
V12
p2
V22
1
z1 h p
2
z 2 ht hL

2g

2g

EGL (or TEL) and HGL


EGL
pressure
head (w.r.t.
reference
pressure)

V2
2g

p
HGL z

velocity
head

elevation
head (w.r.t.
datum)

downward (in
The energy grade line must always slope ___________
direction of flow) unless energy is added (pump)
The decrease in total energy represents the head loss or energy
dissipation per unit weight
EGL and HGL are coincident and lie at the free surface for water
at rest (reservoir)
If the HGL falls below the point in the system for which it is
lower____
than__________
reference______
plotted, the local pressures are _____
pressure

Energy equation
velocity
head

Energy Grade
Line G
Hydraulic
L

V2
2g
p

static
head
Why is static

pressur
e head

head important?
z

pump
z=0

elevatio
n

datum
p1
V
p
V
1
z1 h p 2 2
z 2 ht hL

2g

2g
2
1

2
2

Bernoulli Equation Assumption


Frictionless
_________ (viscosity cant be a significant
parameter!)
Along a streamline
__________
Steady
______ flow
Constant ________
density
No pumps, turbines, or head loss
z

2g

const

Why no
point velocity
Does direction matter? ____
no
Useful when head loss is small

Pipe Flow: Review


We have the control volume energy
equation for pipe flow.
We need to be able to predict the
relationship between head loss and flow.
How do we get this relationship?
__________
_______.
dimensional analysis
p1

2
1

2
2

V
p2
V
1
z1 h p
2
z2 ht hL

2g

2g

Flow Profile for Delaware


Aqueduct
Rondout Reservoir
(EL. 256 m)

Sea Level

70.5 km
West Branch Reservoir
(EL. 153.4 m)

p1
V12
p2
V22
1
z1 H p
2
z2 H t hl

2g

2g

(Designed for 39 m3/s)

hl z1 z2

Need a relationship between flow rate and head loss

Ratio of Forces
Create ratios of the various forces
The magnitude of the ratio will tell us
which forces are most important and which
forces could be ignored
Which force shall we use to create the
ratios?

Inertia as our Reference Force


F
f a

M
f 2 2
LT

F=ma F a
Fluids problems (except for statics) include a
velocity (V), a dimension of flow (l), and a
density ()
Substitute V, l, for the dimensions MLT
M l

Ll

l
V

Substitute for the


dimensions of specific
2
V
fi
force
l

Dimensionless Parameters
Reynolds Number
Froude Number

Vl
Re

V
Fr
gl

V2
fi
l

V
fu 2
l
fg g

Weber Number
f 2
l
r c2
fE =
Mach Number
V
l
M
c
( Dp +r g Dz )
2 p C 2Drag
Pressure/Drag Coefficients
d
Cp
2
2

V
A
V
(dependent parameters that we measure experimentally)
V 2 l
W

Problem solving approach


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Identify relevant forces and any other relevant parameters


If inertia is a relevant force, than the non dimensional Re,
Fr, W, M, Cp numbers can be used
If inertia isnt relevant than create new non dimensional
force numbers using the relevant forces
Create additional non dimensional terms based on
geometry, velocity, or density if there are repeating
parameters
If the problem uses different repeating variables then
substitute (for example d instead of V)
Write the functional relationship

Pipe Flow: Dimensional Analysis


What are the important forces?
viscous pressure Therefore
Inertial ______,________.
______,
Pressure coefficient .
Reynolds
________number
and _______________
What are the important geometric
diameter, length, roughness height
parameters? _________________________
Create dimensionless geometric groups
l/
/D
Other repeating parameters?
______,
______
D

Write the functional relationship


l
Re,
,
Cp f
D D

Cp

2p
V 2

Dimensional Analysis

Cp f
, , Re
D D

How will the results of dimensional analysis


guide our experiments to determine the
relationships that govern pipe flow?
If we hold the other two dimensionless
parameters constant and increase the length
to diameter ratio, how will Cp change?
Cp proportional to l
D

f Cp f
, Re
l

Cp f
, Re
l
D

f is friction factor

2 p
Cp
V 2

Pressure Coefficient and Head


Loss
hl p h

2p
Cp
V 2

2 ghAnalysis
hl pDimensional
C p 2 l More general
V

Assume horizontal flow

D
f Cp
l

L V2
hf f
D 2g

2 ghf D
f 2
V L

Definition of f!

Always true (laminar or turbulent)

Darcy-Weisbach
Darcy-Weisbach equation

Friction Factor : Major losses


Laminar flow
Hagen-Poiseuille

Turbulent (Smooth, Transition, Rough)


Colebrook Formula
Moody diagram
Swamee-Jain

Laminar Flow Friction Factor


D 2 hl
V
32 L
32 LV
hf
gD 2
L V2
hf f
D 2g
32 LV
L V2
f
2
gD
D 2g
64 64
f

VD Re

Hagen-Poiseuille
hf

128LQ
gD 4

Darcy-Weisbach

-1 on log-log plot
Slope of ___

Turbulent Pipe Flow Head Loss


L V2
hf f
D 2g

___________
Proportional to the length of the pipe
square of the velocity
Proportional to the _______
(almost)
________
Increases with surface roughness
Is a function of density and viscosity
Is __________
independent of pressure

Smooth, Transition, Rough


LV
Turbulent Flow h f D 2 g
2

Hydraulically smooth
pipe law (von Karman,
1930)
Rough pipe law (von
Karman, 1930)
Transition function for
both smooth and rough
pipe laws (Colebrook)

Re f
1
2 log

f
2.51
1
3.7 D
2 log

1
2.51
D
2 log

3.7
f
Re f

(used to draw the Moody diagram)

Moody Diagram
0.1

D
f Cp
l

friction factor

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
laminar
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005

0.01
1E+03

smooth

1E+04

1E+05

1E+06
Re

1E+07

1E+08

Swamee-Jain
1976
limitations

0.25
2

5.74
log 3.7 D Re0.9
/D < 2 x 10-2
no f

Re >3 x 103

less than 3% deviation



ghf
1.78
from results obtained
5/ 2

Q 2.22 D
log

with Moody diagram


L
ghf
3.7 D
3/ 2
D

easy to program for


L

computer or calculator
4.75
5.2 0.04
2

use

L
1.25 LQ
9.4
D 0.66
Q
L


ghf
hf

ghf
gh
f
L

Each equation has two terms. Why?

Swamee-Jain gets an f
The challenge that S-J solved was deriving
explicit equations that are independent of
the unknown parameter.
3 potential unknowns (flow, head loss, or
diameter): 3 equations for f
that can then be combined with the Darcy
Weisbach equation
2

LV
hf f
D 2g

8 LQ
hf f 2
g D5

0.25

5.74
log 3.7 D Re0.9

Colebrook Solution for Q


8 LQ 2
hf f 2
g D5
2

1 1 8 LQ

f hf 2 g D 5
4Q
Re
D
4Q
Re f
D

2 g D5
hf
8 LQ 2

1 2 ghf D 3
Re f

1
2.51
D
2 log

3.7
f
Re f

1
2.51
D
4 log

f
3.7
Re f

hf g
8
f 2 5
D
LQ 2

Colebrook Solution for Q

1 8 LQ 2

4 log

2
5
hf g D
3.7 D
1

L Q

log

5/ 2
ghf D
3.7 D
1

Q
D5 / 2
2

2 ghf D 3

2.51

2.51

2 ghf D 3

ghf

log
2.51
L
3.7 D

L
3
2 ghf D

Swamee D?D 0.66

8 LQ 2
hf f 2
g D5

Q
D 0.66

64 Q
D f 2
8g

Q
64
D
f 2

8 g

1/ 5

1/ 4

Q


Q
g

g


2

5/ 4

1/ 4

1/ 5

1
f
4 4

5/ 4

Q

g
2

1/ 4

Q
g

1/ 5

1/ 5

1/ 5 1/ 5

0.04

1/ 5 1/ 25

1/ 5 1/ 5

1/ 5

Q
g

2 1/ 4

5/ 4 Q

Q2
Q
D

8
g
g
Q
g


2 1/ 4
2 1/ 5

64
Q
5/ 4 Q
f 2

Q Q

g g

2
8
Q
D5 f 2
g

1.25

Pipe Roughness
pipe material
glass, drawn brass, copper
commercial steel or wrought iron
asphalted cast iron
galvanized iron
cast iron
concrete
rivet steel
corrugated metal
PVC

pipe roughness (mm)


0.0015
0.045
0.12
0.15
0.26
0.18-0.6
0.9-9.0
45
0.12

Solution Techniques
find

head loss given (D, type of pipe, Q)


0.25
2
8
LQ
f
4Q
2
hf f 2
Re
5

5.74

g
D
D
log 3.7 D Re0.9

find flow rate given (head, D, L, type of pipe)

Q
D5 / 2
2
find

ghf

log
2.51
L
3.7 D

2 ghf D 3

pipe size given (head, type of pipe,L, Q)

LQ
1.25
D 0.66

gh

4.75

L
Q

gh

5.2

9.4

0.04

Exponential Friction Formulas


RLQ n
hf = m
D

Commonly used in commercial and


industrial settings
Only applicable over _____
range __
of data
____
collected
Hazen-Williams exponential friction
formula
4.727 USC units
Cn
R
10.675

SI units
n

1.852

10.675 L Q
hf = 4.8704
C
D

SI units

C = Hazen-Williams coefficient

Head loss:
Hazen-Williams Coefficient
C
150
140
130
120
110
100
95
60-80

Condition
PVC
Extremely smooth, straight pipes; asbestos cement
Very smooth pipes; concrete; new cast iron
Wood stave; new welded steel
Vitrified clay; new riveted steel
Cast iron after years of use
Riveted steel after years of use
Old pipes in bad condition

Hazen-Williams
vs

Darcy-Weisbach

10.675 L Q
hf

D 4.8704 C

1.852

SI units

8 LQ 2
hf f 2
g D5

Both equations are empirical


Darcy-Weisbach is dimensionally correct,
and ________.
preferred
Hazen-Williams can be considered valid
only over the range of gathered data.
Hazen-Williams cant be extended to other
fluids without further experimentation.

Head Loss: Minor Losses


Head loss due to
outlet, inlet, bends, elbows, valves, pipe size
changes
Flow expansions have high losses
Kinetic energy decreases across expansion
Kinetic energy potential
________ and _________
thermal energy
Examples ________________________________
Hydraulic jump
Vehicle drag
Minor losses!
__________________________________________
Vena
contracta

Losses can be minimized by gradual transitions

Minor Losses
Most minor losses can not be obtained
analytically, so they must be measured
Minor losses are often expressed as a loss
coefficient, K, times the velocity head.
High Re
C p = f ( geometry, Re)
Cp

2 ghl
V2

hl C p

V2
2g

V2
hl =K
2g

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion:


Conservation of Energy

V12
p2
V22
z1 1
Hp
z2 2
H t hl
1
2g
2
2g
p1

p1 p2

hl

V22 V12

hl
2g

p1 p2

V12 V22

2g

z1 = z2
What is p1 - p2?

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion:


Conservation of Momentum
A2

A1

M1 M 2 W Fp Fp Fss Apply in direction of flow


1

M 1 x M 2 x Fp Fp
1x

M 1 x V12 A1

Neglect surface shear

2x

M 2 x V22 A2

V12 A1 V22 A2 p1 A2 p2 A2

p1 p2

V22 V12
g

A1
A2

Pressure is applied over all


of section 1.
Momentum is transferred
over area corresponding to
upstream pipe diameter.
V1 is velocity upstream.

Divide by (A2 )

Head Loss due to


Sudden Expansion
hl

Energy

p1 p2

Momentum p1 p2

hl

V22 V12

V2
V1

V1 V2
hl
2g

V12 V22
2g

V22 V12

A1
A2

V V
2g
2
1

A1 V2
Mass A V
2
1

2
2

V
A1
hl
1

2g
A2
2
1

V22 2V1V2 V12


hl
2g
2

A1
K 1

A2

Contraction
EGL
V22
hc K c
2g

HGL

Expansion!!!
V1

vena contracta
losses are reduced with a gradual contraction

V2

Entrance Losses
Losses can be
reduced by
accelerating the
flow gradually and
eliminating the vena
contracta

reentrant
K e 1.0
K e 0.5

K e 0.04

V2
he Ke
2g

Head Loss in Valves


Function of valve type and
valve position
The complex flow path
through valves often results
in high head loss
What is the maximum
value that Kv can have?

_____

V
hv K v
2g

How can K be greater than 1?

Questions
EGL
HGL

What is the head


loss when a pipe
enters a reservoir?
Draw the EGL and
HGL

V2
2g

A
K 1 1
A2

Questions
Can the Darcy-Weisbach equation and
Moody Diagram be used for fluids other
than water? _____
Yes
What
Does

No
about the Hazen-Williams equation? ___

a perfectly smooth pipe have head loss?


Yes
_____
Is it possible to decrease the head loss in a
Yes
pipe by installing a smooth liner? ______

V12
p2
V22
z1 1
Hp
z2 2
H t hl
1
2g
2
2g
p1

cs1

Example

valve

100 m

cs

D=40 cm
D=20 cm 2
L=1000 m
L=500 m
Find the discharge, Q.
What additional information do you need?
V22
100m =
+hl
Apply energy equation
2g
Use S-J
on small pipe
How could you get a quick estimate?
_________________
Or spreadsheet solution: find head loss as function of Q.

Non-Circular Conduits:
Hydraulic Radius Concept
LV2
h f =f
D 2g

A is cross sectional area


P is wetted perimeter
Rh is the Hydraulic Radius (Area/Perimeter)
Dont confuse with radius!
p 2
A 4D
D
Rh = =
=
P pD
4

For a pipe
D =4 Rh

L V2
hf =f
4 Rh 2 g

We can use Moody diagram or Swamee-Jain with D = 4

Quiz
In the rough pipe law region if the flow rate is
doubled (be as specific as possible)
What happens to the major head loss?
What happens to the minor head loss?

Why do contractions have energy loss?


If you wanted to compare the importance of minor
vs. major losses for a specific pipeline, what
dimensionless terms could you compare?