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Topic: Development and

Menstrual Cycle
Aim: What happens after an
egg is fertilized? (makin
babies!)
How do hormone interactions
regulate the menstrual cycle?

Fertilization

Fertilization is the fusion of sperm and egg.


This happens in the fallopian tubes (oviduct)
Within 24 hours (sometimes 2-3 days just
before, during & after) ovulation.
Note: Sperm can live inside the female
reproductive tract for up to 72 hours.

Fertilization
After egg and
sperm combine
(fertilization
occurs) the
fertilized eggs
becomes a
zygote.
The zygote then
undergoes
cleavage
(mitosis) for 610 days, then it

Embryonic Development
Development: series of orderly, precise
steps that transform a zygote into a
multicellular embryo ~early stage of
development of multicellular organism
Includes:

1. cell division
2. cell growth
3. cell differentiation
~changing of unspecialized embryonic cells
into specialized cells, tissues,& organs

Early Embryonic Development


Cleavage is the first
major phase of
embryonic development
It is the rapid
succession of cell
divisions (Mitotic)
It creates a
multicellular embryo
from the zygote
NO growth
Stages:
1. Morula: solid ball of
cells
2.Blastula: single layer
of cells

ZYGOTE

Blastocoel

BLASTULA Cross section


of blastula
(hollow ball)

Embryonic Development
Gastrulation is the
second major phase of
embryonic development
The cells at one end of the
blastula move inward

Organs start to form


after gastrulation
Embryonic tissue layers
begin to differentiate
into specific tissues and
organ systems

Development

After implantation, the zygote forms into an embryo.


The placenta forms connecting mother to embryo.
Amnion membrane that surrounds embryo contains fluid
for protection Amniotic fluid
Umbilical Cord blood vessels that carry nutrients to
embryo from placenta.

Estrogen

Female hormones

released from ovary cells around developing egg


stimulates growth of lining of uterus
decreasing levels causes menstruation

Progesterone
released from corpus luteum in ovaries
cells that used to take care of developing egg
stimulates blood supply to lining of uterus
decreasing levels causes menstruation

FSH & LH
released from pituitary
stimulates egg development & hormone release
peak release = release of egg (ovulation)

Menstrual Cycle

Begins at puberty Monthly release of eggs.


Normal (average) cycle is 28 days occurs in four
stages.

1. Follicle stage FSH (hormone)tells uterine lining to


thicken. This takes 10-14 days to complete
2. Ovulation release of egg into oviduct This happens
on day 14. This is when you can become pregnant.
3. Corpus luteum stage LH (hormone) helps ready
uterine lining for egg implantation
4. Menstruation occurs if no egg is fertilized. The
uterine lining breaks down and the tissue and blood are
expelled.

Menstrual
Cycle