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Aim: How does the embryo develop after implantation?

Development Timeline

Day 1

Fertilization

Day 1 8

Zygote Blastula

Day 8 21

Blastula Gastrula

Day 22 90

Organs Form

Day

91 180

Organs develop

Day

181 270

Organs fully functional

(Implantation = Day 7)

(First Trimester) (Second Trimester) (Third Trimester)

DEVELOPMENT (REVIEW)

DEVELOPMENT (REVIEW) A= zygote D= morula E= blastula (after this, blastula will implant in uterus) F=

A= zygote D= morula E= blastula (after this, blastula will implant in uterus) F= gastrula G= cell differentiation Arrows = cleavage (mitosis)

Differentiation

– Cells begin to specialize
– Cells begin to
specialize

Outer layer (ectoderm)

• Nervous system and epidermis

Outer layer (ectoderm) • Nervous system and epidermis

Middle layer (mesoderm)

• Muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system

Middle layer (mesoderm) • Muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system
Middle layer (mesoderm) • Muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system

Inner layer (Endoderm)

• Lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, liver, and pancreas

Inner layer (Endoderm) • Lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, liver, and pancreas
Inner layer (Endoderm) • Lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, liver, and pancreas

Gestation

Gestation period: length of pregnancy

– In humans is 280 days or 9 months – Divided into 3 trimesters

Embryo: up to 8 weeks Fetus: after 8 weeks

– 1” long and looks human like

Gestation • Gestation period : length of pregnancy – In humans is 280 days or 9
Gestation • Gestation period : length of pregnancy – In humans is 280 days or 9
Gestation • Gestation period : length of pregnancy – In humans is 280 days or 9

Protection for the Offspring

Uterus

– A.k.a womb – Blastula attaches to uterine wall = pregnancy

Amnion

– membrane around embryo filled with fluid (works as shock absorber)

Nutrition for

Nutrition

for the

the Offspring

Offspring

Nutrition for Nutrition for the the Offspring Offspring • Mammary Glands – Produce milk • Umbilical

Mammary Glands

– Produce milk

Umbilical cord: allows developing embryo to obtain nutrients and oxygen and to release wastes

Placenta: organ rich in blood vessels of mother and embryo

– Attached to wall of uterus – Allows movement by diffusion and active transport

Nutrition for Nutrition for the the Offspring Offspring • Mammary Glands – Produce milk • Umbilical

Chicken

Chicken Eggs

Eggs

Chicken Chicken Eggs Eggs • Large yolk: allows embryo to develop more fully before hatching •

Large yolk: allows embryo to develop more fully before hatching

Shell: protection

Chorion: lines the shell and aids in gas exchange between embryo and environment

Allantois: exchange of gases and waste • Amnion: contains amniotic fluid for protection from shock

Yolk sac: penetrated by blood vessels that transport food to embryo

Risks to developing embryo

  • 1. Faults in genes

  • 2. Nondisjunction

  • 3. Bad diet

  • 4. Alcohol

  • 5. Tobacco

  • 6. Drugs

  • 7. Toxins

  • 8. Infection

Weeks 4-8

Weeks 4-8 ???

???

11 weeks

11 weeks

14 weeks

14 weeks

16 weeks

16 weeks

18 weeks

18 weeks

24 weeks

24 weeks

Pregnancy

Pregnancy

Birth

• Uterus begins to contract • Amniotic sac breaks and fluid flows out • Cervix expands (dilates) • Head then body then feet pass through • Umbilical cord is tied and cut • Uterus continues to contract: this pushes out placenta and other fetal membranes (called afterbirth)

Birth

Birth
10. Twins
10. Twins

Fraternal twins: two eggs and two sperm

Identical twins: one zygote that separated in half early in cleavage

Infertility
Infertility

The inability to conceive or carry a child to term

Human reproductive technology:

Medically manipulate human ovulation, fertilization and/or implantation

Artificial Insemination

• Sperm are introduced artificially into female

Or Eggs are fertilized in one woman’s body and then transferred to another woman

Or Eggs and sperm are both put into fallopian tubes artificially at the same time

In Vitro Fertilization

• Fertilization of egg and sperm outside a woman’s body • Zygote is then placed into the woman’s body

In Vitro Fertilization • Fertilization of egg and sperm outside a woman’s body • Zygote is

Further Development

Infancy

Further Development Infancy Toddler Child Teenager (Adolescent) Adult Death Still developing Ability to walk Better motor
Toddler Child
Toddler
Child

Teenager (Adolescent)

Further Development Infancy Toddler Child Teenager (Adolescent) Adult Death Still developing Ability to walk Better motor
Adult Death
Adult
Death

Still developing

Ability to walk

Better motor skills

Puberty

Full maturity

Irreversible end of brain function

Practice Questions

Practice Questions • The diagram represents stages in the development of a chordate. Diagram 3 illustrates

The diagram represents stages in the development of a chordate. Diagram 3 illustrates

1. the formation of a blastula

  • 2. an early stage of gastrulation

  • 3. the start of cleavage

• The normal developmental sequence of the processes represented by the diagrams is 1. 4 -

The normal developmental sequence of the processes represented by the diagrams is

1. 4 - 1 - 2 - 3

  • 2. 1 - 4 - 3 - 2

  • 3. 4 - 1 - 3 - 2

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