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SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

DEFINATION:

Software engineering is a discipline


whose aim is the production of fault
free software ,that is delivered on
time ,within the budget and satisfy the
user needs
Software engineering is defined as a
systematic approach to the

STRUCTURED ANALYSIS

Structured Analysis (SA) in


software engineering and its allied
technique, Structured Design (SD), are
methods for analyzing and converting
business requirements into
specifications and ultimately,
computer programs, hardware
configurations and related manual
procedures.
Structured analysis and design
techniques are fundamental tools of

OBJECTIVES OF
STRUCTURED ANALYSIS

Structured Analysis became popular in


the 1980s and is still used by many.
The analysis consists of interpreting the
system concept (or real world) into
data and control teIrminology, that is
into data flowdiagrams.

STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
INCLUDES:

Structure chart
Data Flow Diagram
Data Dictionary
Context Diagram
Data Model

DATA FLOW
DIAGRAM

DEFINATION:

flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation


ofA data
the "flow" of data through an Information System,
modelling its process aspects. Often they are a preliminary
step used to create an overview of the system which can
later be elaborated.
DFDs can also be used for the visaualization of data
processing
(structured design).

continuation

DFD is one of several notations that are called


structured analysis technique

It is a graphical tool that allows analyst-users to


depict the flow of data in an IS
It concentrates on the movement of data between
processes
DFD evolves four symbols for process modelling

NOTATION
or

PROCES
S

INPUT_OUTPUT

STORE DATA

FLOW OF DATA

1. square representing PROCESS, which


are sources or destinations of data.
2.

Rounded rectangles representing


EXTERNAL ENTITIES, which take data
as input, do something to it, and
output it.

3.

Open-ended rectangles representing


DATA STORE, including electronic
stores such as databases or XML files
and physical stores such as or filing
cabinets or stacks of paper.

4. Arrows representing the DATA FLOW,


which can either be electronic data or

TYPES OF DATA FLOW


DIAGRAM

0 level data flow


diagram(context diagram)

1st level data flow diagram

2nd level data flow diagram

0 LEVEL DATA FLOW


DIAGRAM

A diagram giving an entire


system data flow and
processing with a single
process(circle) is called 0
level DFD

Example of 0 level DFD

1ST LEVEL DATA FLOW


DIAGRAM

The first level DFD shows the


main processes within the
system. Each of these
processes can be broken into
further processes until you
reach pseudocode.

Appointments
Possible Appointments
1

Patient Name

Patient

Patient
Appointment
Appointment to
change/cancel

Maintain Patient
Records

Example of 1st level


DFD
D
1

Patient
Informatio
n

Patients

nd

LEVEL DFD

In 2nd level dfd each of the processes is


further sub divided into sub
processes

Example of 2
DFD

nd

level

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