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Aim: How can I improve

my
understanding
of
Do Now:
the
Benchmark
Exam?
Homework:
Wednesday, March 30, 2016

1.Abnormal Psychology FRQ due Thursday (Quest on


this day on Abnormal-25 multiple choice)
2.Extra credit assignment due by tomorrow
3.Flashcards for the first page of the 425 words you
ought to know due by Friday (can be on cut up
paper or index cards)-word on the front/definition
on the back

1
When asked which of two countries has a larger population, participants
are likely to judge the country that is more familiar to them as being
more populous. Which of the following best explains this finding?
a.Means-end analysis (0%)
b.The representative heuristic (28%)
c.The availability heuristic (55%)
d.Algorithms (0%)
e.Inductive reasoning (17%)

4
Which psychologist reported that infant attachment to another goes
beyond the satisfaction of the need for nourishment?
a.Albert bandura (10%)
b.Jean piaget (38%)
c.Harry harlow (24%)
d.Erik erikson (24%)
e.Konrad lorenz(3%)

5
Edward Thorndike argued that responses that lead to satisfying
outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and that responses followed
by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This became
known as the law of
a . reinforcement (69%)
B. associations (10%)
C. punishment (7%)
D. effect (14%)
E. outcomes (0%)

3% did not answer)

The principles of operant conditioning are best illustrated by


a.Exposing a client to anxiety-provoking stimuli (3%)
b.Replacing a response to a stimulus with an alternative response
(34%)
c. Deep relaxation techniques (0%)
d.A token economy to reinforce adaptive behaviors (55%)
e.Development of intrinsic motivation (3%)

10

3% did not answer)

Researchers find that there is a significant positive correlation between the number of hours
students sleep and their grades. The researchers would be justified in concluding that
a. Earning good grades causes people to sleep more (0%0
b. Sleep more causes students to perform better in school (17%)
c. Students who earn good grades tend to sleep more than those who do not
(31%)
d. More sleep has a beneficial impact on students grades (48%)
e. Sleep deprivation has no impact on school performance (0%)

14

3% did not answer)

A psychologist describes the following steps to a client, while the client is practicing relaxation techniques,
in order to treat the clients psychological disorder:
1.

You are entering a large building

2.

You are pressing a button for an elevator

3.

You are stepping into an elevator

4.

You are watching the doors close after entering the elevator

5.

You are traveling five floors on the elevator

What type of treatment technique is described above?


a.

Aversion therapy (28%)

b. Systematic desensitization (45%)


c.

Extinction (3%)

15
A psychologist describes the following steps to a client, while the client is practicing relaxation techniques,
in order to treat the clients psychological disorder:
1.

You are entering a large building

2.

You are pressing a button for an elevator

3.

You are stepping into an elevator

4.

You are watching the doors close after entering the elevator

5.

You are traveling five floors on the elevator

Which type of therapy is most closely associated with the technique used in this method?
a.

Psychoanalytic (28%)

b. Behavioral (21%)
c.

Biomedical (3%)

16
A statistical technique that would allow a researcher to cluster such
traits as being talkative, social, and adventurous with extroversion is
called
A.Case study (21%)
B.Meta-analysis (14%)
C.Statistical significance (10%)
D.Factor analysis (41%)
E.Z score (14%)

17

3% did not answer)

Ralph is aware that smoking is harmful to his health, but he continues


to smoke. According to cognitive dissonance theory, it is most likely
that Ralph will
a.Gather information on the dangers of smoking (0%)
b.Start smoking more frequently (10%)
c. Argue that his friends should stop smoking (17%)
d.Focus on the social advantages to smoking (52%)
e.Experience no tension (17%)

18
Curare blocks action at acetylcholine synapses and causes paralysis.
This drug is an example of an
a.Antagonist (21%)
b.Agonist (14%)
c. Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (41%)
d.Excitatory postsynaptic potential (10%)
e.Excitatory neurotransmitter (7%)

20

7% did not answer)

Which of the following is a type of medication that has been linked to


the side effect of tardive dyskinesia?
a.Antidepressants (14%)
b.Benzodiazepines (28%)
c.Neuroleptics (41%)
d.Anxiolytics (10%)
e.tricyclics(0%)

23
Gestalt psychology is concerned primarily with understanding which of
the following
a.Learning (7%)
b.Motivation (10%)
c. Development (24%)
d.Sensation (7%)
e.Perception (48%)

25
All summer Thomas hears the sound of the ice-cream truck approaching
before his brother Oscar hears it. Thomas most likely has which of the
following?
a.Lower absolute threshold for hearing than Oscar (55%)
b.A greater difference threshold for hearing than Oscar (38%)
c. A deficit in a sensory system other than hearing (3%)
d.A greater amount of experience with approaching ice-cream trucks
than Oscar (3%)
e.A tendency for confabulation (0%)

26
A therapist who emphasizes helping clients to identify and change
irrational beliefs that underlie feelings of anxiety is using which
therapeutic technique?
a.Client centered therapy (14%)
b.Rational-emotive behavior therapy (34%)
c. Aversion therapy (7%)
d.Psychoanalytic therapy (28%)
e.Social-learning therapy (10%)

27

21% did not answer

Julio has fragmented thinking and distorted false beliefs. Which of the
following psychological disorders is Julio most likely experiencing?
a.Simple phobia (0%)
b.Somatization disorder (28%)
c. Anti-social personality disorder (10%)
d.Obsessive compulsive disorder (0%)
e.Schizophrenia (41%)

28

3% did not answer

Which of the following statements best describes the role of biological processes in classical
conditioning
a. A biologically-based unconditioned stimulus must immediately follow a conditioned
stimulus for learning to occur (24%)
b. Any novel or familiar stimulus could serve as a CS because the biological mechanisms
underlying learning are very powerful (24%)
c. Because all animals share a common cellular history, the laws of classical conditioning
apply to all species (7%)
d. Certain species are biologically predisposed to learn particular associations
that enhance their survival (34%)
e. Biological reinforcers foster learning more quickly than do environmental reinforcers
(7%)

29
Respondents to surveys and questionnaires often report that they are
healthier, happier, and less prejudiced than would be expected based
on the results of other types of research. The finding can best be
explained by which of the following?
a.Sampling (28%)
b.Experimenter bias (10%)
c.The social desirability bias (38%)
d.The bystander effect (17%)
e.The placebo effect (3%)

30

10% did not answer

Synesthesia is a phenomenon that has been estimated to occur in only


a few people in a million. Because of its rarity, researchers are likely to
choose which research method to study it?
a.Naturalistic observation (14%)
b.Correlational research (0%)
c. Survey research (3%)
d.Case study (55%)
e.Experimental research (17%)

32

3% did not answer

Chuck recalls the day last summer when he fell of his bicycle and
scraped his knee. This is an example of
a.Iconic memory (21%)
b.Procedural memory (3%)
c. Semantic memory (3%)
d.Episodic memory (52%)
e.Short term memory (17%)

33
Researcher Renee Baillargeon found that four-month-old infants will look
longer at a ball if it appears to roll through a solid barrier,
demonstrating that babies seem to grasp basic physical laws intuitively.
Which of the following theories does this finding challenge?
a.Lawrence Kohlbergs theory of moral development (3%)
b.Lev Vygotskys social cognition learning model (24%)
c.Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development (41%)
d.Mary Ainsworths findings from the strange situation (17%)
e.Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development (10%)

34

7% did not answer

In vision, transduction occurs within the


a.Optic nerve (14%)
b.Visual cortex (28%)
c.Retina (34%)
d.Lens (10%)
e.Cornea (3%)

35

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7% did not answer

Latent learning (41%)


Observational learning (38%)
Avoidance learning (0%)
Counterconditioning (10%)
Aversive conditioning (3%)

36

3% did not answer

a.Become less aggressive (10%)


b.Become more aggressive (10%)
c.Eat more and gain weight (31%)
d.Stop eating and lose weight (28%)
e.Experience a loss of coordination and muscular control (17%)

37

3% did not answer

When a person is suffering from severe pain, the type of drug that will
best help alleviate the pain is
a.An opiate (38%)
b.An amphetamine (17%)
c. A depressant (21%)
d.A hallucinogen (7%)
e.A stimulant (14%)

38

7% did not answer

The defense mechanism of projection is best illustrated by which of the following examples?
a.

When scolded by his parents, a college students reverts to childlike behavior to gain sympathy (7%)

b. A soccer player who does not have much athletic skill constantly criticizes other athletes
performances (48%)
c.

A young man who is shy becomes the center of attention at a party given by friends (7%)

d.

After exams were graded and returned, a college student looked at his low grade and decided that the
test was unfair and difficult (7%)

e. After a fight with her boyfriend, a woman yells at her roommate for sitting in her favorite chair (24%)

40

10% did not answer

a.Fetal alcohol syndrome (24%)


b.Down syndrome(7%)
c. Autistic disorder (0%)
d.Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (7%)
e.Phenylketonuria (48%)

41

7% did not answer

Stanley Milgrams classic research on obedience showed that


approximately what percentage of participants administered the highest
voltage shock?
a.10% (10%)
b.25% (14%)
c. 40% (17%)
d.60% (21%)
e.85% (28%)

42

3% did not answer

After staring at a green, black, and orange American flag for about a
minute, an individual will see a red, white, and blue flag afterimage.
Which of the following explains this phenomenon?
a.Trichromatic theory (34%)
b.Opponent-process theory (24%)
c. Retinex theory (21%)
d.Color constancy(14%)
e.Convergence (3%)

43

3% did not answer

Certain cultures often place more emphasis on collective than on


personal achievement. One result of this may be that people of these
cultures are more likely to develop which type of self-system?
a.Interdependent (17%)
b.Interrelated (24%)
c. Independent (24%)
d.Integrated (28%)
e.Inner-directed (3%)

44
A basic assumption underlying short-term memory is that it is
a.Limited in capacity (55%)
b.Unlimited in capacity (17%)
c. Long-lasting (14%)
d.Not under conscious control(7%)
e.Resistant to decay (0%)

46

7% did not respond

Carol Gilligan, in her criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg, proposed that the moral reasoning of males is primarily
based on
a.

Male repression of females, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on economics (7%)

b. Rational abstract principles, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on


relationships and the social context (21%)
c.

Legalistic ideals, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on more humanistic ideals (34%)

d.

Observational learning, whereas the moral reasoning of females is genetically determined for the most
part (10%)

e.

Physical strength, whereas males start developing morally later than females but surpass them soon
afterward (21%)

47

3% did not respond

Which process transfers information from sensory memory to short term


memory?
a.Attention (3%)
b.Cognition (14%)
c. Differentiation (21%)
d.Perception (45%)
e.Sensation (14%)

48

7% did not respond

When the word walk is changed to walked the suffix ed is an


example of a
a.Morpheme (48%)
b.Phoneme (17%)
c. Lexicon (14%)
d.Syntax (10%)
e.Language acquisition device (3%)

49

10% did not respond

The just-world hypothesis would best explain which fo the following


phenomena?
a.Blaming the victim (0%)
b.Cognitive dissonance (21%)
c. The need for power (21%)
d.Bystander apathy (31%)
e.Groupthink (10%)

50

3% did not respond

Which of the following is a binocular cue for depth perception?


a.Linear perspective (31%)
b.Texture gradient (21%)
c. Interposition (31%)
d.Retinal disparity (14%)
e.Motion parallax (0%)

52

7% did not respond

a.Collectivistic (14%)
b.Individualistic (7%)
c. Psychoanalytic (3%)
d.Evolutionary (24%)
e.Humanistic (41%)

53

3% did not respond

If Juan tried to learn a long list of words, he would most likely forget
words that
a.Appeared early in the list (3%)
b.Appeared near the end of the list (3%)
c.Appeared in the middle of the list (62%)
d.Were very unlike the rest of the words (28%)
e.Were randomly dispersed throughout the list (0%)

54

3% did not respond

Which of the following perspectives argues that every person has the
potential to become self-actualized?
a.Humanistic (55%)
b.Behavioral (24%)
c. Gestalt (7%)
d.Cognitive (0%)
e.Psychodynamic (10%)

56
a.Shaping (17%)
b.Generalization (14%)
c. Negative reinforcement (7%)
d.A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (52%)
e.Spontaneous recovery (10%)

58
Although he finds it to be difficult and not much fun, Tomas puts in long
hours practicing field hockey in the hope of getting an athletic
scholarship to college. This best illustrates the idea of
a.Homeostasis (0%)
b.Attribution theory (10%)
c. Catharsis (0%)
d.Extrinsic motivation (62%)
e.Arousal theory (28%)

59
The term group polarization refers to the tendency for
a.Two opposing factions to emerge within a group (41%)
b.The prevailing opinion within a group to become more
extreme after discussion (29%)
c. A single leader to eventually dominate most groups (17%)
d.One or more group members to eventually have their opinions
disregarded (14%)
e.Democratic leadership to decrease as the length of meetings
increases (0%)

60
Which of the following assessment tools explores individuals
personalities by asking them to examine a series of inkblots and
describe what they see in the inkblot?
a.Thematic apperception test (3%)
b.Rorschach test (62%)
c. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (34%)
d.Halstead-reitan battery (0%)
e.bender-Gestalt II (0%)

61

14% did not answer

Which of the following neurotransmitters has been linked to Parkinson


disease and schizophrenia?
a.Acetylcholine (3%)
b.Dopamine (17%)
c. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (14%)
d.Norepinephrine (21%)
e.Serotonin (31%)

62

10% did not answer

According to Sigmund Freud, our sexual and aggressive instincts are


located primarily in the
a.Frontal lobes (14%)
b.Ego (0%)
c. Superego (7%)
d.Id (48%)
e.Latent stage (21%)

63

10% did not answer

Charles Spearmans concept of g is most accurately defined as


a.

A specific type of performance that is affected by intelligence (17%)

b.

One of seven fundamental abilities that determine behavior (10%)

c.

A single-underlying intellectual capacity measured by intelligence tests (38%)

d.

The ability to create novel situations to complex situations (17%)

e.

The storehouse of knowledge and facts that we accumulate during our adult years (10%)

64

7% did not answer

Which of the following studies demonstrates a cross-sectional research design?


a.

Testing the first graders, and testing them again when they are in third grade(38%)

b.

Testing first graders at the end of the school year (3%)

c.

Testing first, third and fifth graders at the beginning of the school year (10%)

d.

Observing first graders as they test in two different subject areas (24%)

e.

Observing first graders as they interact with either third graders or fifth graders (7%)

65

7% did not answer

Which type of therapy uses free association, dream interpretation, and


analysis of transference?
a.Cognitive-behavioral (7%)
b.Humanistic (7%)
c. Behavioral (7%)
d.Psychodynamic (48%)
e.Client-centered (24%)

66

3% did not answer

Which of the following psychometric properties is used to assess the


extent to which the items on an intelligence test measure a persons
intelligence?
a.Internal consistency (3%)
b.Split-half reliability (7%)
c. Standardization (31%)
d.Construct validity (41%)
e.Predictive validity (14%)

67

10% did not answer

Marc performs poorly on a psychology exam and explains his failure by


saying That test was so hard no one could pass it. This explanation
illustrates
a.Reciprocal determinism (14%)
b.Self-serving bias (41%)
c. The fundamental attribution error (24%)
d.The representative heuristic (3%)
e.The just-world hypothesis (7%)

68

3% did not answer

Martin fell off his skateboard and badly bruised his elbow. He
immediately began rubbing the area around the bruise until the pain
subsided . This method of reducing pain can be explained by which of
the following?
a.Gate-control theory (41%)
b.Opponent-process theory (24%)
c. Trichromatic theory (0%)
d.Expectancy theory (14%)
e.Phantom pain (17%)

69

3% did not answer

a.Illusions (7%)
b.Delusions (34%)
c.Hallucinations (41%)
d.Hypnosis (10%)
e.Grandiosity (3%)

70

17% did not answer

What is the dependent variable in this study?


a.Sex of the children (0%)
b.Duration of free play (0%)
c. Type of television program viewed (24%)
d.Level of televised violence (17%)
e.Incident of aggressive behavior (38%)

71

3% did not answer

What is the independent variable in this study?


a.Incidence of aggressive behavior (21%)
b.Type of television program viewed (38%)
c. Sex of the children (21%)
d.Number of groups (10%)
e.Duration of free play (7%)

72

7% did not answer

This research method is best characterized as


a.Experimental (48%)
b.Correlational (28%)
c. Longitudinal (7%)
d.Naturalistic observation (3%)
e.Case study (3%)

73
John is completing a lengthy test in which he must indicate whether
various written statement sare true or false about himself. He is most
likely taking which of the following?
a.A personality inventory (55%)
b.A projective test (38%)
c. An achievement test (3%)
d.An intelligence test (0%)
e.A neuropsychological test (3%)

74

14% did not respond

Damage to which of the following brain structures may cause the


inability to detect the emotional significance of facial expressions,
especially those demonstrating fear?
a.Hippocampus(10%)
b.Thalamus (10%)
c. Cerebellum (14%)
d.Hypothalamus (10%)
e.Amygdala (41%)

75
Of the following cognitive milestones which ability tends to be acquired
last?
a.Telegraphic speech (3%)
b.Use of schemas (10%)
c. Object permanence (0%)
d.Hypothetical thinking (59%)
e.Assimilation (24%)

76

7% did not answer

a.The facial feedback hypothesis (10%)


b.Display rules (48%)
c. Phlegmatic personalities (21%)
d.The two factor theory (3%)
e.Adaptation-level phenomenon (10%)

77

17% did not answer

A teacher finds that the distribution of scores on a final exam to be positively skewed with low variability.
ON the basis of this information, the teacher would be most justified in concluding that
a.

A small number of students in the class did poorly on the exam (24%)

b.

The students in her classroom have a very wide range of intellectual abilities (31%)

c.

The exam was too difficult (0%)

d.

The exam is not a reliable assessment tool (17%)

e.

Most of her students are of above average ability (17%)

10% did not answer

78

In which of the following techniques do researchers inject a harmless,


radioactive substance into the living human brain to examine activity
a.Lesioning (3%)
b.Electroencephalogram (EEG) (17%)
c. Computerized axial tomography (CAT) (41%)
d.Positron emission tomography (PET) (14%)
e.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (10%)

79

41% did not answer

An individual who stomps angrily out of a restaurant after being kept


waiting five extra minutes for a reseraved table may be exhibiting
symptoms of
a.Schizophrenia (0%)
b.Antisocial personality disorder (7%)
c. Avoidant personality disorder (10%)
d.Dependent personality disorder (7%)
e.Narcissistic personality disorder (28%)

10% did not answer

80
a.Latent learning (7%)
b.Self-fulfilling prophecy (24%)
c. Intermittent reinforcement (31%)
d.The overjustification effect (17%)
e.The law of effect (10%)

81

10% did not answer

Jim is better at computer games when his friends are watching than
when he plays along. Researchers would explain Jims behavior using
which of the following?
a.Social facilitation (24%)
b.Social loafing (24%)
c. Group polarization (21%)
d.Group think(10%)
e.Normative social influence (10%)

82

3% did not answer

Which of the following theories suggests that a physiological need


creates a state of tension that motivates an organism to satisfy a need?
a.Opponent process (0%)
b.Drive-reduction (28%)
c. Incentive (46%)
d.Arousal (10%)
e.Gate-control (14%)

83

10% did not answer

According to Jean Piaget, children cease to exhibit egocentrism during


which of the following stages?
a.Sensorimotor (0%)
b.Preoperational (17%)
c. Concrete operational (34%)
d.Post conventional (28%)
e.Pre conventional (10%)

84

14% did not answer

The fundamental attribution error occurs when individuals do which of the following?
a.

Mold their interpretations of the past to fit how events actually turned out (17%)

b.

Incorrectly assume that virtually all behavior is determined by genetic factors (17%)

c.

Underestimate the influence of unconscious motivation when trying to explain their own behavior
(17%)

d. Overestimate the influence of personal qualities relative to situational factors when trying
to explain the behavior of others (28%)
e.

Assume that very attractive people tend to be more intelligent and more competent than people who
are somewhat less attractive (7%)

85

24% did not answer

Which procedure can reduce problems associated with the use of


deception by a researcher?
a.Debriefing (10%)
b.Random sampling (28%)
c. Random assignment (10%)
d.Using only single blind studies (3%)
e.Using only double blind students (24%)

86

7% did not answer

Psychologists from which of the following perspectives of personality


are most interested in assessing a persons locus of control?
a.Psychoanalytic (3%)
b.Cognitive (21%)
c. Evolutionary (21%)
d.Humanistic (21%)
e.Gestalt (28%)

87

7% did not answer

Elizabeth picks up the clothes from her bedroom floor and puts them
away to avoid her mothers repeated nagging. Elizabeths behavior is
being influenced by
a.Classical conditioning (7%)
b.Positive reinforcement (7%)
c.Negative reinforcement (41%)
d.Extinction(31%)
e.Punishment (7%)

88

24% did not answer

The diathesis-stress approach would likely support which of the following statements about psychological
disorders?
a.

Disorders are a result of the social and economic situations in which people live (10%)

b.

Disorders are a result of unresolved, unconscious conflicts between the id and superego (17%)

c.

Disorders are a result of negative events that trigger irrational thoughts (21%)

d.

Disorders are a result of whether or not showing emotions is accepted by the individual (10%)

e. Disorders are a result of predisposed, biological factors triggered by the environment


(14%)

89

3% did not answer

a.Somatization disorder (10%)


b.Conversion disorder (10%)
c.Hypochondriasis (24%)
d.Generalized anxiety disorder (38%)
e.Dissociative disorder (14%)

90

14% did not respond

a.Adequate standardization (7%)


b.Internal consistency (14%)
c. Face validity (3%)
d.Predictive validity (34%)
e.Content validity (24%)

91

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

17% did not respond

Obsession (14%)
An avolition (21%)
A fixation (10%)
A panic attack (10%)
A compulsion (24%)

14% did not answer

92
a.James-Lange (14%)
b.Ekman (24%)
c. Cannon-Bard (24%)
d.Schachter-Singer (14%)
e.Opponent-Process (10%)

93
a.Dissociation (24%)
b.State (38%)
c. Role (24%)
d.Social influence (3%)
e.Age regression (10%)

94

a.An unconditioned stimulus (21%)


b.An unconditioned response (17%)
c.A conditioned stimulus (28%)
d.A conditioned response (21%)
e.A negative reinforcer (14%)

95

3% did not answer

Research on stereotype threats indicate that students might not do as


well as they can on a test if
a.They are informed that people of their ethnicity, age or
gender usually do not perform well on the tests (41%)
b.The group taking the test is not ethnically diverse (31%)
c. They are forced to take a test that is known to have low test retest
reliability (10%)
d.Other students perceive them to be a minority ethnic group (7%)
e.The test does not have standardized administration or scoring
procedures (7%)

96

3% did not answer

a.Permissive (41%)
b.Authoritative (45%)
c. Authoritarian (7%)
d.Rejecting-neglecting (3%)
e.Pessimistic (0%)

97

3% did not answer

Which of the following is the best example of a homeostatic process?


a.Manny decides that he is overweight and goes on a diet (3%)
b.Cathy drinks a large amount of water to reduce thirst after
a long race (45%)
c. Bert eats nothing but fruits and grains for a week before a huge
holiday dinner (41%)
d.Edesa stays up later than normal to study for a test (3%)
e.Lian becomes angry after sitting in traffic for an hour and a half
(3%)

98

3% did not answer

a.Decide to begin a low calorie diet and increase his physical activity
(0%)
b.Believe the second new story and discontinue his diet (14%)
c. Study low carbohydrate diets on his own (28%)
d.Continue to believe in the beneficial effects of low
carbohydrate diets (34%)
e.Decide to try a high carbohydrate diet instead (21%)

14% did not answer

99

Which of the following brain regions is


indicated by the arrow?
a.Cerebellum (3%)
b.Amygdala (10%)
c. Hypothalamus (17%)
d.Hippocampus (21%)
e.Pons (31%)

100

14% did not respond

What is the primary function of the brain region indicated by the arrow?
a.Memory formation (17%)
b.sleeping , waking and dreaming (24%)
c. Problem solving (14%)
d.Regulation of body temperature (14%)
e.Emotional responses (10%)
It also plays a key role in sleep and dreaming, where REM sleep, or the sleeping state where dreaming is
most likely to occur, has been proven to originate here, in the pons