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SOCIOLOGY

The Science of Society

Syllabus (in case youve


forgot!)
1. Introduction- Man, his social & physical
environment, social groups & social
structure & problems, cultural heritage,
rituals & community gatherings etc.
2. Urbanization- Trends & characteristics,
dynamics of urban growth & social
changes, urban attitudes, values &
behavior, review of commissions report
etc.

Previous Years Questions


Cultural Heritage of India (Dec. 2011,
10 marks)
Dynamics of Urban Growth & Social
Changes (Dec. 2011, 10 marks)
Prominent Features of Urban Growth;
Problems of Rapid Urbanization (Dec.
2012, 10 marks)
Man & His Social Structure
Rituals (Dec. 2011, 3/10 marks)

Sociology: Introduction
Involves studying human beings & their
patterns of behavior.
Focus is on groups (family, work,
education) effect upon peoples social
behavior.
All societies exhibit common elements &
constant feature.
Social Order- Elements which gives form,
shape, constitute the structure of a society.

Sociology: Introduction
Economics- Man as wealth-getter/disposal.
History- Human past with time order.
Anthropology- Study of men, community &
culture.
Psychology- Man as behaving individual.
Political Science- Man as a citizen/ruler.
Philosophy- Man as spiritual being.
Sociology studies ALL social relationships &
society in totality & how these influence human
behavior (individual & collective).
Although we dont study anything & everything,
but only for the light it throws on social
relationships.

Sociology: Uses
Scientific Study- for achieving progress in
various fields.
Throws light on social nature of manimpact of society on men & other matters.
Improves understanding of society & power
of social action- how to lead effective
social life.
Helps to know ourselves as well as otherstheir motives/aspirations/culture/traditions.
Makes people broad-minded- making life
rich, meaningful & fuller.

Sociology: Uses
Study of great social institutionsserving the men better.
Technical competence has its own
rewards- applied sociology.
Imp. for developing/under-developed
nations- social factors contributing to
economic backwardness.
Solving social problems
Understanding & planning of society- for
social planning/reforms/reconstitution.

Sociology: Uses
Better decision-making for social
planning.
Better welfare of tribal/weak sections of
society- socioeconomic/cultural problems.
Reducing the gap between groups &
communities.
Keeping us up-to-date on modern social
situations & developmentsunderstanding our changed role &
responsibilities.

Sociology: Uses
It teaches us how to become what we
want to be!
From birth to death, man is engaged in the
process of socialization.
Value of society isnt a question for
studying..
But how its actually to be used?
BINGO!!

SOCIETY
Web of Social Relationships

Society
Latin word socius- meaning
companionship/friendship.
Man is a social animal. Loneliness
brings fear & boredom & is a worse
punishment then death. Aristotle
Men needs society for living, working
& enjoying his life.
Each society is different because of
its own way of life, called culture.

Society
More then our environment, makes our
life livable.
Its within us & all around us.
Not only liberates the activities of man,
but limits their activities also.
Shapes our attributes, beliefs, morals
& ideals, IQ, EQ, satisfaction & comfort.
Ensures our growth, talents &
capacities.

Society
Characteristics Consists of
people
Mutual
interaction &
awareness
Depends on
likeliness &
differences
Cooperation &
division of labor

Social Control
Formal- law,
legislation,
constitution, police,
court
Informaletiquettes, manners,
customs, conventions
Culture
Due to

CULTURE
The Social Heritage

Culture
Its the expression of human nature in
our ways of living & thinking, in our
behaving & acting as the members
of the society.
Its comprises of attitude, judgment,
morals, values, beliefs,
ideas/ideologies, institutions-political,
legal, economic, science &
philosophy.

COMMUNITY
Total organization of social life
within limited space

Community
Geographical area of social living
having common centers of interests
& activities.
Its elements Locality- physical features & aspects
Community Sentiment- Sense of WeFeeling

ASSOCIATION
Group of people organized for
achieving a particular goal or aim

Association
3 methods for fulfilling the need:
Individual approach
Snatching/clashing/conflicts with others
Cooperation & mutual assistance- each
member contributing to ends of fellow
men

Ex.- Political- BJP, Religious- Arya


Samaj, Student- ABVP, ProfessionalsIIA, International- Greenpeace
We have multiple interests, so we can
be in multiple such associations.

INSTITUTION
Social structure/machinery through which
society organizes, directs & executes the
activities for satisfying the human needs

Institution
The social structure & machinery through
which the human society organizes,
directs & executes the activities required
to satisfy human needs.
Ex.- if family is an association, then
marriage/property
system/inheritence/home are institutions.
If state is an institution, then
govt./legislature/parliament are
institutions.

Institution
Association

Institution

Types Primary- religion, family, marriage,


property/political system
Secondary- education, exam, law,
legislation, bussiness

SOCIAL GROUPS
When 2 or more people come
together & influence one another,
theyre said to be in a social group

Social Group
When 2 or more persons are in direct or
indirect contact & communication with
each other.
Then, people respond in some meaningful
way, which is called Social Interaction.
Social group is a system of Social
Interaction.
When this social interaction occurs
frequently, so that we can perceive a
pattern of behavior, then it becomes
Social Relation. Ex.- friendly/unfriendly,
intimate/non-intimate.

Social Group
Society comes from mutual interaction.
Society & culture are product of this
social interaction.
Characteristics Collection of individuals
Interaction among
members
Mutual awareness of one
another
We-feeling
Sense of
unity/solidarity/integration
Common interests

Similar behavior
Size
Dynamism
Influence on personality
Group normstraditions/laws
Stabilitytemporary/permanent

Social Group
Social Bonds enforce man to lead
group life.
Factors forming group Psychological factors
Recognition of similarities
Psychology equipped to live together
Reaction to fear

Biological factors- Desire for decedents


Kinship factors- Blood relations
Physical factorsGeographical/Cultural/Economic/Religious/
Political

Social Group
Society consists of groups of many
variety & kinds, out of necessity &
inevitability.
Groups are formed, knowingly or
unknowingly, willingly or unwillingly.
Importance Survival becomes problematic without them
Man becomes man only among man
Socially surviving- successful life
Development of personality

Social Group
Types In & Out Groups
we
they
Involuntary
or
caste/race/city
Institutional
or
state/school
Permanent
or
Horizontal
or
nation/pol. Parties
Territorial
or
city/community
Primary
or
nature/quality)
direct interaction
small size

Voluntary
unions/pol. Parties
Non-Institutional
crowd/mob/public
Temporary
Vertical
economic classes
Non-Territorial
crowd/public/caste
Secondary (on
indirect interaction
large size

SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Organized pattern of social
relationships & social institutions
that together compose society

Social Structure
Its the way the society is organized into
expected relationships.
Not visible but affect al sections of the
society.
Ex.- Social class shapes access that different
groups have to the resources of the society &
interactions, invisibly.
No fixed definition, but is dependent of
sociologists view of looking at the society.
Basically its the Ordered Arrangement of
Parts.
Its generally an arrangement, which restricts
or directs human behavior.

Social Structure
Sociologically speaking, its the
patterns of organization, which
dictates human behavior.
Concerned with types of groups,
associations & institutions.

Social Structure
Characteristics Normative System- Renders society with
ideals & values
Position System- Refers to role & status
of an individual
Sanction System- Proper enforcement of
norms
System of Anticipated Response- Calls
participants to participate in the social
system

Social Structure
Base of Social Structure: For
understanding its function Need to pursue a goal: lies at the root of
social inter-relationships.
Preparedness to accept ones role &
status: Every social status gives a fixed
status & role.
Norms & More: For allocating certain
rules & positions to the members of
Social Structure.

SOCIAL SYSTEM
Orderly & systematic arrangement
of social interaction

Social System
Orderly arrangement of the parts or
components of society, i.e., human
interactions
Without a system, no unit can function.
People interact with others according
to the shared norms & meanings.
Various sub-systems within a social
system (ex.- political system, religious
system, economic system)

RITUALS
Behavior w.r.t. superemperical
entities & sacred objects

Rituals
Implies a relationship not merely
between man & men but also between
man & some higher power.
Symbolic actions concerning the
sacred. Ex.- special clothing, recitation
of hymns.
Useful for understanding religion as an
institution.
Religious character comes from the
attitude towards it.