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What are the factors that determine the

individual consumption

Firms and Households: The Basic

Decision-Making Units
firm An organization that transforms resources
(inputs) into products (outputs). Firms are the
primary producing units in a market economy.
entrepreneur A person who organizes, manages,
and assumes the risks of a firm, taking a new idea
or a new product and turning it into a successful
households The consuming units in an economy.

Input Markets and Output Markets:

The Circular Flow
product or output markets The markets in which goods and
services are exchanged.

input or factor markets The markets in which the resources used

to produce goods and services are exchanged.

Circular Flow of
Economic Activity

Here goods and services flow

clockwise: Labor services
supplied by households flow to
firms, and goods and services
produced by firms flow to
Payment (usually money) flows in
the opposite (counterclockwise)
direction: Payment for goods and
services flows from households to
firms, and payment for labor
services flows from firms to

labor market The input/factor market in which households

supply work for wages to firms that demand labor.
capital market The input/factor market in which
households supply their savings, for interest or for claims to
future profits, to firms that demand funds to buy capital
factors of production The inputs into the production process. Land,
labor, capital and entrepreneurship are the key factors of production.

Input and output markets are connected through the

behavior of both firms and households.
Firms determine the quantities and character of outputs
produced and the types and quantities of inputs demanded.
Households determine the types and quantities of products
demanded and the quantities and types of inputs supplied.

The Law of

A households decision about what quantity of a particular

output, or product, to demand depends on a number of factors,

The price of the product in question.

The income available to the household.

The households amount of accumulated wealth.

The prices of other products available to the household.

The households tastes and preferences.

The households expectations about future income,

wealth, and prices.

In the ordinary parlance demand means desire or

willingness to buy a commodity.
In economics, demand has a particular meaning distinct
from its ordinary usage.
In the Economics terminology demand means Effective
Demand i.e., the amount the buyers are willing to
purchase at a given price and over a given period of
1. Desire for a commodity
2. Ability to buy a commodity
3. Willingness to spend money to acquire that

Effective Demand = desire to buy + Willing to buy + Ability to buy

Therefore, demand means desire backed by the willingness to buy a

commodity and the purchasing power to buy.

The demand for a product is always defined in reference to three key

factors, price, point of time and market place.

For example, the demand for milk is 100 liters per day at a price of
Rs. 50 litre in Mangalore city.

The Concept of Demand

The term demand refers to the quantity demanded of a commodity per

unit of time at a given price.

It implies a desire backed by ability and willingness to pay. A mere

desire of a person to purchase a commodity is not his demand.

He must possess adequate resources and must be willing to spend his

resources to buy the commodity.

Besides, the quantity demanded has always a reference to

a price and a unity of time.

Apparently there may be some problems in applying this

flow concept to the demand for durable consumer goods
like house, car, refrigerators, etc.

But this apparent difficulty may be resolved by

considering the fact that the total service of a durable
good is not consumed at one point of time and its utility is
not exhausted in a single use.

The service of a durable good is consumed over time. At a time, only a

part of its service is consumed.

Therefore, the demand for the services of durable consumer goods may
also be visualised as a demand per unit of time.

Important features of Demand


It is desires and willingness backed by adequate purchasing power.


There is an inverse relationship between price and demand


Price is an independent variable and demand is a dependent variables


It is only a qualitative statement and as such it does not indicate

qualitative changes in price and demand


Generally, the demand curve slopes downwards from left to right

Law of Demand

The law of demand is one of the fundamental laws of economics.

The law of demand states that the quantity of a product demanded per unit
of time increases when its price falls, and decreases when its price
increases , other factors remaining constant.

The law of demand states, there is an inverse relationship between the

price and quantity of demand. The other things which is generally stated
as ceteris paribus is an important qualification of the law of demand.

Demand is a dependent variable, while price is an independent variable. Therefore,

demand is a function of price and can be expressed as follows:
D = f (P)

demand schedule Shows how much of a given product a

household would be willing to buy at different prices for a
given time period.
demand curve A graph illustrating how much of a given
product a household would be willing to buy at different

Assumptions of Law of demand


There is no changes in consumers taste and preferences.


The Income of consumer remains same and constant


The prices of related commodities remains same


The commodity should not confer any distinction.


The demand for the commodity should be continuous.


No changes in weather condition

Demand Schedule

The demand schedule explains the functional relationship between price

and quantity variations.

It is a list of various amounts of a commodity that a consumer is willing to

buy at different prices at one instant of time.

It is necessary to note that the demand schedule is prepared with reference

to the price of the given commodity alone.

Alfred Marshall was the first economist developed the techniques of

price theory it is a list of price and quantities.

The difference between demand and

quantity demanded
In economic terminology, demand is not the same as quantity demanded. When
economists talk about demand, they mean the relationship between a range of
prices and the quantities demanded at those prices, as illustrated by a demand
curve or a demand schedule.
When economists talk about quantity demanded, they mean only a certain
point on the demand curve or one quantity on the demand schedule. In short,
demand refers to the curve, and quantity demanded refers to a specific point on
the curve.

Demand scheduled is a list of quantities of a

commodity purchased by a consumer at different
Demand Schedule

Individual Demand Schedule

Market Demand Schedule

Individual Demand

refers to the demand for a commodity from the individual point

of view a family, household or person.

Individual demand is a single consuming entitys demand

D = f (P).
Market Demand

Refers to the total demand of all the buyers taken together.

Market demand is an aggregate of the quantities of product

demanded by all the individual buyers at a give price.

How much quantity the consumers in general would buy at a

given period of time.

Market demand is more important from the business point of

view sales depend on the market demand business policy and
planning are base on the market demand price are determined
on the basis of market demand.
Dx = f (Px Pr M, T, A, U)

Dx = f (Px Pr M, T, A, U)
Dx = Quantity demanded for commodity x

= functional relationship

Px = Price of commodity x
Pr = Prices of related commodities

= The money income of the


T = the taste of the consumers

A = the advertisement effect

= unknown variable

The Demand Curve

The law of demand can be presented through a curve called

demand curve.

A demand curve is a locus of points showing various

alternative price-quantity combinations.

It shows the quantities of a commodity that consumers or

users would buy a different prices per unit of time under the
assumptions of the law of demand.

Individual Demand Schedule

Price of Oranges (Rs)
Quantity demanded
of oranges (kg)








Table 2. Market Demand Schedule for orange

Price of
Oranges (Rs.
Per Kg

Quantity demanded of Oranges by

consumers (kg)

Demand for
Oranges (kg)
















Examples 1
The demand function for beer in a city Qd = 400 4P where Qd = quantity
demanded of beer per week) P = the price of beer per bottle

Construct a demand curve assuming price Rs. 10, 12, 15,

20 and 25 per bottle.
b. At what price would demand be zero
c. If the producer want to sell 3,80,000 bottles per week.
What price should it charge?

P = 10 : Qd = 400 4 x 10 = 360
P = 12 : Qd = 400 4 x 12 = 352
P = 15 : Qd = 400 4 x 15 = 340
P = 20 : Qd = 400 4 x 20 = 320
P = 25 : Qd = 400 4 x 25 = 300


b. At what price would demand be zero

Where the equation, lets up Qd = 0

Qd = 400 4p
400 4P = 0
4P = 400
P = 400/4 = 100

Therefore, at price Rs. 100 per bottle, the demand for beer will be zero

If the producer want to sell 3,80,000 bottles

per week. What price should it charge?

Given demand equation

Qd = 400 4P
Qd = 380
380 = 400 4P
By Manipulation
4P = 400 380 = 20
P = 20/4 = 5

Rs. 5 per bottle in order to sell 3,80,000 bottles

Example 2
Truett and Truett (1980), started the following demand function for a brand X
of Microwave Ovens
Qx = f (PX, PZ, NW, Y, A), Where

QX = Quantity demanded per year for brand X

of microwave Ovens in a city

PX = Price of X Brand

PZ = Price of Z brand

NW = Number of working women

Y = Mean annual household income

A = Annual advertising expenditure

Assuming hypothetical data

QX = 26,500 100 PX + 20PZ + 0.002 NW + 1.8Y +


On the basis, given that

PX = Rs. 800
PZ = Rs. 9,000
NW = 8,00,000 in a city
Y = Rs. 1,00,000
A = Rs. 60,000

We can estimate the demand for X Brand Microwave Oven as follows

QX = 26,500 (100 x 8,000) + (20 x 9,000) + (0.002

x 8,00,000) + (1.8 x 1,00,000 ) + (0.3 x 60,000)
= 26,500 (8,00,000 + 1,80,000 + 1,600 + 1,80,000 + 1,800)
11,93,200 11,634,000

Answer is 29,800 Microwave Ovens of X

Brand are purchase annually in this city

Example 3

Rajkumar & Co. the cabinet-maker has estimated the following demand
function for the steel cabinets produced by them

Qd = 1,500 0.03P + 0.09AE

Qd = quantity demanded of steel cabinets
P = average price of the steel cabinet
AE = the firms advertising expenses

All date are on a quarterly basis. The firm currently spends Rs. 10,000 per
quarter on advertising

State the demand curve equation for the price-demand relationship. Give
graphical representation assuming rice variable values to be Rs. 10,000, Rs.
9,000, Rs. 8,000, Rs. 7,000 & Rs. 6,000

Solution - Substituting the value for AE variable in the above equation

Qd = 1,500 + 900 0.03P


P1 = Rs. 10,000 Q1 = 2,400 0.03 X 10,000 = 2,400 300 = 2,100

P2 = Rs. 9,000 Q2 = 2,400 0.03 X 9,000 = 2,400 270 = 2,130
P3 = Rs. 8,000 Q3 = 2,400 0.03 X 8,000 = 2,400 240 = 2,160
P4 = Rs. 7,000 Q4 = 2,400 0.03 X 7,000 = 2,400 210 = 2,190
P5 = Rs. 6,000 Q5 = 2,400 0.03 X 6,000 = 2,400 180= 2,200

Downward Sloping
Demand Curve and
Exception to the Law of

Why does the demand curve slope


Demand curves slope downwards from left to


This is because of the inverse relationship

between the price and quantity demanded.

But the question is why do people demand more

if prices come down ?

This is because of the following reasons -

Dx = f (Px)

Reasons for downward sloping demand curve from

left right

The operation law of diminishing marginal



Substitution effect.


Income effect


New consumers enter to market


Several uses/multiple uses


Psychological effects

1. Diminishing marginal utility

Diminishing marginal utility is responsible for increase in

demand for a commodity when its price falls.

When a person buys a commodity, he exchanges his money

income with the commodity in order to maximise is

He continues to buy goods and services so long as marginal

utility of money (MUm) is less then marginal utility of the
commodity (MUc)

Given the price of a commodity, he adjusts his purchase so that MUc

= MUm

This proposition holds good under both Marshallian assumption of

constant Mum and Hicksian assumption of diminishing MUm.

Under Marshallian approach, MUm remaining constant, MUc = Pc and

a utility maximising consumer reaches his equilibrium where
MUm = Pc = MUc

When price falls, (MUm = Pc) < MUc. Thus, equilibrium

condition is disturbed. To regain his equilibrium condition,
MUm = Pc = MUc

He purchases more of the commodity. When the stock of

commodity increases, its MU decreases and once again
MUm= MUc.

That is why demand for a commodity increases when its

price decreases.

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

Number of orange

Marginal Utility

Total Utility












2. Substitution effect

When the price of a commodity falls it becomes relatively

cheaper if price of all other related goods, particularly of
substitutes, remain constant. In other words, substitute
goods become relatively costlier.

Since consumers substitute cheaper goods for costlier ones,

demand for the relatively cheaper commodity increases.

3. Income effect

The fall in the price of a commodity is equivalent to an increase in

the income of the consumer.

After falling prices, - he has spend less money for purchasing the
same amount of commodity as before.

A part of this money can be used for purchasing some more units of
that commodity.

Similarly, if the price increases, the consumers income effect

reduced and he has to curtail his expenditure on the commodity.

4. New consumers

When the price of commodities falls new consumer can enter into

For example computer sets, laptops, mobile, refrigerators, washing

machines etc falling prices even the poor people can also buying
these goods.

5. Several uses

Some commodities can be put to several uses which lead to downward

slope of the demand curve.

When the price of such commodities goes up they will be used for
important purposes.

When price falls, the commodities will be uses for various purpose For
example electricity/power
6. Psychological effects

When the price of a commodity falls, people favour to buy more which is
natural & psychological entity.

Therefore, the demand increases with the fall in prices.

Exception to Law of Demand

Law of demand is a general statement describe that

prices and quantities of demanded a commodities
are inversely related.
There are certain peculiar cases law of demand
will not hold good.
Certain cases with the increases in price quantity
demand will increases and with the fall in price
quantity demand will falls. In such a case demand
curves slopes upward from left to right.
Robert Giffen was the first person to expose this
rare occasion, which is known as Giffen Paradox.

Veblen (ostentatious) goods, Giffen Goods and consumer


Both Veblen goods and Giffen goods have upward sloping

demand curve.

There is a positive relationship between the price of a

Veblen good and its quantity demanded.

Veblen goods are also called status-symbol or ostentatious

goods. Veblen goods are luxury goods

Prices of Commodities



Quantity of Demanded


Factors influences on exception to the law of demand


Prestige goods (Veblen effects).


Giffen effects or Paradox.


Speculative goods.


Scarcity and Inflation.


Ignorance of the people


Demand for necessaries


War or emergency

1. Prestige Goods or Status Goods

Articles of prestige value Snob appeal or articles of conspicous

consumption only rich people affording such article diamond,
gold, Luxurious Houses luxurious cars, precious stones, rare
painting etc.

Veblen in his doctrine of conspicuous consumption and hence this

effect is called Veblen Effect.

When prices of such goods rise, their status will increases and they are
purchase in larger quantities.

On the other hand, as the price of Veblen goods falls, their capacity to
perform the function of ostentation diminishes.

2. Speculative goods

The speculative market, particularly in stocks and shares,

more will be demanded when the prices are rising and less
demanded when the price declines.

People tend to buy more shares, bond & debentures when

their prices are rising in the hope that making profits in
future and they can reduces buying prices are falling.

3. Giffen Effect or Giffen Paradox

Robert Giffen is an Irish economist of 19th century discovered

Giffen Paradox.

It does not mean to any specific commodity.

Let us assume

monthly minimum consumption of family household is 20kg

of Bajra at Rs 10 and 10 Kg of wheat at Rs 20.
If the price of the bajra increases by Rs 12kg, the household forced
to reduce the consumption of wheat by 5Kg.

First Empirical Study

Some special varieties of inferior goods are termed as Giffen goods.

Cheaper varieties of this category like Ragi, bajra, potato and jower
cheaper vegetable under this category.

Sir Robert Giffen or Ireland first observed that people used to spend more
their income on inferior goods like potato and less of their income on meat.

But potatoes constitute their staple food. When the price of potato increased,
after purchasing potato they did not have so many surpluses to buy meat.

So the rise in price of potato compelled people to buy more potato and thus
raised the demand for potato.

This is against the law of demand. This is also known as Giffen paradox.

Second Empirical study

A research paper by Jensen and Miller suggests that there is

empirical evidence of Giffen behavior for rice in southern
China and for noodles in the north of China.

They noted that the very poors diet in China mainly

consists of rice and meat in the south, and of noodles and
meat in the north.

Rice/Noodles Inferior Goods


Superior Goods

They also noted that an increase in the price of rice results in an

increase in rice consumption in the south, while an increase in the
price of noodles results in an increase in noodle consumption in the

This behavior could be attributed to the increase in the price of the

giffen good resulting in a decrease in the income available to spend
on the other good, which induces them to buy more of the giffen
good, which is more filling.

4. Demand for Necessaries

The law of demand does not apply in the case of necessaries of

life food, clothing and shelter
Irrespective of price changes, people have to consume the
minimum quantities of necessary commodities.

5. Scarcity and Inflation

The law of demand cannot apply in the case of acute scarcity/shortage

of commodities.

People buying more out of panic when prices are rising.

Even at the time of hyper-inflationary situation people will try to

purchase more commodities even there is higher prices of

6. Consumers ignorance
Sometimes, people buy more of a commodities at a higher
price out of sheer of ignorance.
7. War or emergency
During the period of war, if there is fear of shortage,
people may start buying for hoarding & building stocks
even at higher prices.
On the other hand, if there is depression, they will buy
less at low prices.

Changes in Demand curve

Changes in demand curve takes place in two ways
1. Increase and decrease demand
2. Extension and Contraction demand
1. Increase and decrease demand - When demand changes due to changes
in other factors such as tastes & preferences, income of consumers,
prices of the related good (substitutes and complementary) etc it is
called as increase & decrease demand
2. Extension and contraction demand - A movement along a demand
curve takes place when there is a change in the quantity demanded due
to change in the commoditys own price and not due to any other

1. Increased and decreased demand

When demand changes due to changes in other
factors such as tastes & preferences, income of
consumers, prices of the related good (substitutes and
complementary) etc it is called as increased &
decreased demand.
Due to changes in other factors, if the consumers buy
more goods it is called increased demand.
On the other hand, if the consumers buy less goods it
is called decreased demand

Figure. 2

Figure. 1







Increased Demand



Quantity of Demanded
Decreased Demand

Figure 1 original demand curve is DD, the price is

OP and quantity demanded is OQ.

Due to change in the conditions of demand (income,

taste & price of substitute & complementary) the
quantity demand increases from OQ to OQ1 this is
called as increased demand.

Figure. 2 - Where OP is the original price of OP and

the OQ is the quantity demand. Due to fall in (other
factors) quantity demand decreases to OQ1 this
situation is called as decreased demand.


Extension and contraction demand

A movement along a demand curve takes place when

there is a change in the quantity demanded due to
change in the commoditys own price and not due to
any other factor.



Contraction demand
Expansion demand

M2 M M1
Quantity Demanded

When the price of the commodity is OP, the

quantity demanded is OM.

If the price of the good falls from OP to OP1

quantity demanded increases from OM to OM1 is
called as expansion demanded.

While, on the other hand, when the price of good

rises from OP to OP2 quantity demand decreases
from OM to OM2, thus situation is called as
contraction demand.

Determinants of demand

Demand may change not only because of a change in price

but also due to other factors.

These factors such as tastes & habits of the people, income

of the consumers, weather conditions, size of population &
substitution goods etc are leads to changes in demand ( nonprice factors) either rightward or leftward directions.

Factors determines the demand for a commodities

1. Price of the commodity
2. Income of the consumers
3. Tastes & preferences of the consumers
4. Prices of related goods
5. Advertisement & sales propaganda
6. Consumers expectations
7. Changes in size of population
8. Changes in weather condition
9. Prosperity and depression
10. Distribution of income and wealth

1. Price of the Commodity

The most important factor affecting amount demanded

is the price of the commodity.

There is a close relationship between the quantity

demanded and the price of the product.

Normally a larger quantity is demanded at a lower

price and vice-versa.

There is inverse relationship between the price and

quantity demanded.

It is not only the existing price but also the expected

changes in price which affect demand.

2. Income of the Consumer

The second most important factor influencing demand
is consumer income.
The relationship between the consumer income and
the demand at different level of income higher
income leads higher demanded for goods and vice
The ability to buy or purchasing power a commodity
depends upon the income of the consumer.
The demand for a normal commodity goes up when
income rises and falls down when income falls.
But in case of Giffen goods the relationship is the

3. Tastes and Preferences of the Consumers

The demand for a product depends upon tastes and

preferences of the consumers.

Demand for several products like ice-cream,

chocolates, beverages and so on depends on
individuals tastes.

People with different tastes and habits have different

preferences for different goods.

A Strict Vegetarian no demand for meat at any


Non-Vegetarian liking chicken even at high price.

Smokers and Non-smokers.

4. Prices of Related Goods

The demand for a commodity is also affected by the changes

in prices of the related goods.
There are two types of goods Substitute and
complementary goods
Substitutes - Tea and Coffee, Jower and Bajra, Pear and Beans,
Ground nut and Til-oil
The change in price of a substitute has effect on a
commoditys demand in the same direction in which price
The rise in price of coffee shall raise the demand for tea
Complementary goods satisfy one wants two or three
goods are needed in combination Joint Demand
Example Car and Petrol, Pen and Ink, Tea, Sugar and Milk,
Shoes and socks, Sarees and Blouse, Gun and Bullets etc

5.Advertisement and Sales Propaganda

In modern time, the preferences of consumers can be
altered by advertisement and sales propaganda.
Advertisement helps in increasing demand by
informing the potential consumers.
Advertisement are given in various means such as
news papers, radio, television.
6. Consumer Expectations
Changes in future expectation are also influence to
changes in demand.
If consumer expects as rise in prices he may buy large
quantities of that commodity and vice versa.
Expectation of rising income tend to increase his
current consumption.

7. The Growth of Population

The growth of population is also another
important fact that affects the market demand.
When population increases demand also increases
irrespective of the price level.
Similarly, composition of population of
population also brings about change in demand.
If the population consists more of babies then
demand for baby food, toys, feeding bottles will

8. Changes in weather condition

Demand for a commodity may change due to a change in
climatic conditions.
For example, during summer demand for cool drinks, icecreams cotton clothes, fan, cooler etc increases.
While, during winter and rainy seasons demand for woolen
clothes, rain-coats, umbrella increases.
9. Prosperity & depression
Demand for goods increases during the period of
prosperity and decreases during depression without any
reference to price.
10. Distribution of income and wealth
When income wealth is equally distributed the demand
will increase more than it is unequally distributed.

The Law Of Supply

The law of supply can be stated as the supply

of a product increase with increase in its price
and decreases with decrease in its price,
other things remaining constant.

TABLE 3.3 Clarence Browns Supply

Schedule for Soybeans
Price (per Bushel)

Quantity Supplied
(Bushels per Year)












Clarence Browns Individual Supply Curve

A producer will supply more when the

price of output is higher. The slope of
a supply curve is positive.

Determinants of Supply curve