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INSPECTION

An item or component or
product which is manufactured
is required to perform certain
function.The act of checking
whether it actually does so or
not is inspection.

TYPES OF INSPECTION

VISUAL & DIMENSIONS


NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
FUNCTIONAL AND PERFORMANCE
TESTING

Duty of an inspector
BASICALLY , THE DUTIES OF THE INSPECTOR
ARE,
INTERPRETATION OF THE SPECIFICATION.
MEASUREMENT OF THE PRODUCT.
COMPARISON WITH THE STANDARD.
JUDGING FOR CONFORMITY.
DISPOSITION OF THE PRODUCT.
RECORDING OF THE DATA.

Operators discriminating
capability
True positive

False positive

False negative

True negative

IMPORTANCE OF
VISUAL INSPECTION

FIRST IN THE CHAIN


SIMPLE
ESSENTIAL
PREVENTIVE IN NATURE
CRITICAL FOR DECISION MAKING
CAN BE SUPPLEMENTED
ELIMINATES COSTLY REPAIRS

VISUAL INSPECTION
IDENTIFICATION
SURFACE QUALITY
COMPLETENESS
PAINTING QUALITY
APPEARANCE & COMPACTNESS

STANDARDISING CONDITIONS
TYPE
COLOUR
INTENSITY OF ILLUMINATION
ANGLE IF VIEWING
DISTANCE
FADING DISTANCE
AESTHETIC VISUAL QUALITIES
CLEANLINESS

VISUAL SUPPORTS

MAGNIFYING GLASS
COMPARATORS
DENTIST MIRROR
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLE
BOROSCOPE/ ENDOSCOPE
VIDEO BOROSCOPE
SHADOW GRAPH

EYE CHECKUP
VISION
COLOUR BLINDNESS

Visual Inspection

May or may not use accessories

Gauges for identifying the


dimensions of surface
Magnifying glasses
Borescope for internal inspection
Thermal chalks, Thermocouple, for
the temperature measurement
Etching for checking surface
condition

Stages in Weld Testing

Before welding
During welding
After welding

Visual Inspection
Before Welding

Dimensions
Fit up
Surface condition damage, rust,
paint etc.
Lamination in welding edge

Visual Inspection
Before Welding

Review drawings & Spec.


Check qualification of procedure,
welders, consumables, machines
Establish check points
Recording of result plan
Review of materials to be used
Base metal discontinuities
Fit up & alignment
Pre - heat

Visual Inspection
Before Welding

JOINT FIT UP

Groove Angle
Joint Alignment
Backing
Consumable Insert
Joint cleanliness
Tack welds
Pre heat

VISUAL TESTING
During Welding

Quality of root weld bead

Inter - layer NDT

Pre - heat and inter pass


temperature
Sequence of weld passes
Inter pass cleaning
Conformance to welding WPS

Visual Inspection
After Welding

Final weld appearance


Final Weld Size
Weld Length
Dimensional Accuracy
Distortion
Post Heating
Post weld heat treatment

Visual Inspection
Welding Discontinuities
Surface Porosity
Incomplete
Fusion
Incomplete
Penetration
Undercut

Overlap
Crack
Slag Inclusion
Excess
Reinforcemen
t

CRACKS

FILLET WELDS

OVERLAP & UNDERFILL

OVERLAP

UNDERFILL

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION
LACK OF FUSION

INCOMPLETE
PENETRATION

LACK OF FUSION

&

REINFORCEMENT
Weld Face
Root
Reinforcement
Face
Reinforcement

Weld Toe

Temperature Measurement

For checking the Pre heat , Post


heat and Inter pass temperature
Thermal chalk

Melting
Color Changing

Thermal crayons
Thermo couples

Etching

for identification of gross


metallurgical discontinuity
such as in welds.
For detecting the surface
opening Fore runner to
Penetrant Testing
Different Etchants
available for different
metals

Advantage& Disadvantage
Advantages
Simple
Less training required
Relatively less costly equipment
Disadvantages
Slow
Inspector Fatigue is more
Surrounding environmental factors are
important