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THE BIBLE

WORD OF GOD

Assoc. Prof. Tsard


Pazcoguin
How to distinguish Catholic
books from others:

Nihil Obstat
nothing
nothing hinders
hinders
Given
Given by
by aa Censor
Censor
Liborum,
Liborum,
it
it is
is an
an attestation
attestation aa
book
book contains
contains nothing
nothing
damaging
damaging to to faith
faith or
or
morals.
morals.
Imprimi Potest Imprimatur
let
let it
it be
be printed
printed
it
it may
may be be printed
printed Given
Given by
by the
the authors
authors
Given
Given by
by the
the major
major diocesan
diocesan bishop
bishop oror the
the
religious
religious superior
superior if
if the
the bishop
bishop of
of the
the place
place inin
author
author isis aa member
member of of aa which
which the
the book
book isis
religious
religious congregation.
congregation. published
published
THE BIBLE
Gk. Byblos papyrus
Biblion scroll, book ; (plural
biblia)
Multiple sheets of papyrus were
spliced together to form rolls were
wound around wooden dowels
called navels. This type of scroll
was called biblos in Greek, and
thus during the New Testament
times the word biblion simply
referred to a roll or book.

Later on, people discovered that


sheets of papyrus can be put on top
of each other, folded in the middle,
and bound, resulting in an easy-to-
use book called a codex.

Latin-speaking Christians then borrowed the term biblia


but treated it as a singular noun.
St. Jerome used the term bibliotheca divina (divine library)
Experience
The Bible is d,
Written
It is by
both Recorded,
BELIEVERS
MEMORY
The Bible is
HISTORICAL Received,
for
turned into
The Bible is
an event of
And Taught,
BELIEVERS.
TEXT.
a
COMMUNITY
RELIGIOUS Passed on
FAITH BOOK
. by the
COMMUNIT
Y
100%
WORD
OF
GOD

The Word of God 100%


written by men WORD
OF
through the inspiration of the Holy MAN
Spirit.
E BIBLE = THE WORD OF G
The Bible is The Bible is
WORD WORD
ABOUT FROM
GOD. GOD.

The Bible is The Bible is


WORD BY WORD TO
GOD. GOD.
JESUS, the WORD OF GOD, is himself
THE MESSAGE of GOD to humankind.
RELIGION WORD BY WHICH MESSENGER
GOD HAS SPOKEN
JUDAISM MOSES
TORAH

ISLAM QURAN MOHAMMED

CHRISTIANITY JESUS CHRIST THE BIBLE


The BIBLE is a CREDIBLE
SOURCE for knowledge of
JESUS
The BIBLE is subordinate to
JESUS and points to JESUS
The BIBLE and JESUS are
inseparable. JESUS loved the
SCRIPTURES.
JESUS CHRIST is the CENTER
andIgnorance of
FULFILLMENT of the
Bible.
Scripture is
ignorance of Christ.
ead the BIBLE with JESU
The Two Testaments OLD TESTAMENT
For God so loved
the world...

C
O
V
E
N
A
Written primarily in
Hebrew; some parts
N Written primarily in
Greek; some parts in
in Greek.
T Aramaic

I will be your God


and you will be my NEW TESTAMENT
people.
MOST SACRED BOOKS HISTORICAL NARRATIVES WISDOM AND POETRY PROPHECY

Bibliotheca Divina
Archbishop Stephen French printer, Robert
Langton on Estienne (Stephanus)
Canterbury divided divided the chapters of
the books of the Bible the Bible into verses.
into chapters. (1226) (1551)
DIVINE INSPIRATION

TG
EGT
he
od
ods
he
authors
was
role
ven the very
did
involved
was
authors
not
not
hear
in the
words used by
voices
entire
limited
were process
not
to
telling
the
the authors
them
of
pointing
possessed
writing.
exactly
out
were inspired
what
or
orprevention
intoawrite.
by God.
They
of
trance
error.
had to go
though
when allthey
the
processes
wrote the
involved
sacred in
writing,
texts.
Its not ecstatic
Its not verbal or mechanical dictation
Its not subsequent approbation
Its not simply negative assistance
Its not mere ideological inspiration (formal inspiration)
DIVINE INSPIRATION
Principle of
PCausality:
rovidentissim
us Deus
The Holy Spirit
Iisnspiration is
the principal
supernatural
cause of the
influence
Bible andand
the
assistance.
human person
is the
instrumental
cause.

Inspiration is the active and dynamic influence of the Holy


Spirit to the human authors of the bible, thus enabling them to
write down what God wants them to.
Vatican II: Dei Verbum 11

In composing the sacred books, God chose men and


while employed by Him, they made use of their
powers and abilities, so that with Him acting in
them and through them, they, as true authors,
consigned to writing everything and only those
things which He wanted.
Therefore, since everything asserted by the inspired
authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted
by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of
Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching
solidly, faithfully and without error that truth
which God wanted put into sacred writings for the
sake of salvation.
Effects of Inspiration:
Because the BIBLE is
inspired:
It gives the revelation of God,
enabling us to know God and His will.
It is final and definitive. It contains all
that we need to know for our
salvation.
It is one integral whole. It cannot
contradict itself.
It is sacramental, a visible sign of
Gods presence, enabling us to
encounter Him concretely.
It moves us to live as God wants us to.
It contains only the truth.
It enables the Church to recognize its
divine influence.
Inerrancy
The Bible is
neither a
history nor a
science
textbook
The message
of the Bible is
not altered by
the errors
The message
of the Bible
was
incomplete
until the FINAL
WORD has
been spoken.
The Bible
contains
error but
Joshua
Genesis
Joshua
Matthew
John
10:24-26;
Luke
10:12-13
6:
19:2
2:7
27:3-5
19-20
11:12- Judges
Matthew
Genesis
Matthew
Acts
Isaiah
1:18-19
11:30-31
40:22
7:
27:28
2:11
2-3 teaches no
14 error. It
teaches only
the SAVING
Formation of Sacred Scriptures
Writing of
Scriptures

Oral
Tradition

Actual
Events
CANONIZATION

CRITERIA FOR CANONICITY


CRITERIA FOR CANONICITY
NEW
NEW TESTAMENT
OLD TESTAMENT
TESTAMENT
CANONICAL BOOKS,
having passed the standards for
inspiration
in themselves become
STANDARDS
Gk.ofKanon-
Canon OF
the FAITH
Scripturemeasuring stick
official listand
of
Canonicity the condition or state of a
book MORALITY
inspired books.
Canonization
after having the
passed
Churchs
the standards
official
(The earliest Catholic Canon perhaps
recognition
for determining
Coherence thatthe
with adivine
book inspiration,
is inspired.
Essential Gospel
Constant
Coherencewas
Prophetic
Apostolic
Use the
Language
with
In
inOrigin
the
theLiturgy
Torah
hence being declared
Message as canonical.
Damascene list 382)
APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS
Gk. Apocrypha veiled or secret
DID NOT pass the CRITERIA FOR
CANONICITY
The Church DID NOT sense their
INSPIRATION
May have been used sporadically by
SCATTERED GROUPS
DID NOT have APOSTOLIC GUARANTEE
Contents are either HERETICAL or
IRRELEVANT

Since these books are of doubtful


authority, they cannot be used as
STANDARDS of faith and morality.
2TYPES OF APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS THOSE THAT
CONTAIN
HERETICA
L DOCTRINES:
The GNOSTIC
Gospels

Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Mary
THOSE THAT NARRATE
PIOUS STORIES ABOUT Gospel of Judas
JESUS AND THE VIRGIN
MARY
Infancy Gospel of James
Generally
in agreement Pseudo Matthew Written to meet
with Church the demands
teaching Infancy Gospel of popular piety
The Nativity of Mary (tradition)

Pseudo Gospel of Thomas


CANON OF SCRIPTURES
REVIEW:
When a book fails to meet the standards, it is labeled as
APOCRYPHAL i.e. of doubtful authority

When a book has passed the standards, it becomes part of the


CANON OF SCRIPTURES. The CANON OF SCRIPTURES refers to the
official list of inspired books.
ROMAN CATHOLIC BIBLE NON-CATHOLIC BIBLE

73 (72) 66 BOOKS
BOOKS 39 Books in the
46 Books in the Old Old Testament
Testament 27 Books in the
(45 if Jeremiah and New Testament
Lamentations are
counted as one)
27 Books in the
New Testament
ASON FOR THE DIFFERENCE:
THE DEUTEROCANONICALS NO! We must follow
We must follow our
the decision of APOSTOLIC
the Jews at TRADITION.
Jamnia The Bible known to
our LORD and to the
Apostles was the
SEPTUAGINT.

The word Deuterocanonical literally means: second canon. These


refers to the second set of canonical books, or secondly canonized
books. Catholics think of these books as inspired, or of equal inspiration
as the Protocanonicals, having passed the same standards.

During the Council of Trent, before the Catholic Church finally closed
the Canon (which means from then on, no other books will be added to
the bible), the Church also declared as canonical some Old Testament
books which were recognized ever since as inspired (e.g. in the
Damascene list ) but were not formally declared as part of the canon of
scriptures.

Unfortunately, the Protestants have already deviated from the Catholic Church
INTERPRETATION
OF THE BIBLE

I saw her duck


They fed her dog
meat
A woman without her
man is nothing

The moment we start reading, we are already


interpreting!
How do we know if our interpretation is
correct?
INTERPRETATION DRAWING OUT the meaning of the
text by
going back to and exploring its
STEP 1: original context
EXEGESIS

Distance

TEXT spatial
temporal
READERS
FIXED UNFIXED
UNCHANGING cultural EVER-
CHANGING

BRINGING BACK the text to the


present and reading it in the light of
STEP 2: present-day events and realities
THEREFORE, TO PROPERLY UNDERSTAND THE
BIBLICAL TEXT,
WE HAVE TO DO THE FOLLOWING:
LITERARY/ FORM
CRITICISM REDACTION CRITICISM

An analysis of An analysis of
the texts intentions of the
literary genre. author/editor in
Is it an epic, a poem, writing the text.
a legend, a myth, Who were the authors and
a parableetc.? editors? What were their
Was there an evolution in beliefs and biases?
What was their purpose for
the texts literary form? writing?

HISTORICAL CRITICISM LANGUAGE ANALYSIS


An analysis of An analysis of
the historical the text in
context in which relation to the
the text was original
written. languages used.
What was happening in the Is the translation faithful to the
world when the text was original text? Does it capture
written? What was the the original thought that was
situation of the texts conveyed through the original
prospective audience? language?
LITERARY/ FORM
CRITICISM
Midrash and Aggadah
Homiletic stories used to
interpret the Bible popular
among Jewish rabbis.
Rich in symbolism and
imagery.
Ergo replete with OT details!

REDACTION CRITICISM

Jewish Author intending


to give an extended
moralizing sermon to
convey an irony.

HISTORICAL CRITICISM
Destruction of the
Temple
Excommunication of
Christianity from
Judaism
The Adoration of the Wise Persecution of
Men Christians
Matthew 2:1-12 Conversion of Gentiles
and heroic witness of
LITERARY/ FORM
CRITICISM
Non-literary,
paradoxical and
paratactic
narrative

REDACTION CRITICISM

Persuasion and
exhortation
to intrigue, compel,
influence, and convert its
readers.

HISTORICAL CRITICISM

Reign of Nero
Persecution of
Christians
Mark 14:51-52 in Rome
Detail in Jesus Arrest
THE SENSES OF
SCRIPTURE
senses different layers of meaning

Literal Sense Spiritual Senses Fuller Sense

The face-value ALLEGORICAL


meaning of the
words as well What is signified?
as the authors Types? Antitypes?
intended Parallelisms?
meaning
TROPOLOGICAL/
MORAL A meaning
Instructions on how intended by
to live rightly; the God, which
moral lesson the human
author might
ANAGOGICAL not be aware
of, but was
Indicators of the discovered by
Last Things the Church
death, judgment, through her
heaven, hell
constant
reading of the
Bible.
A Miracle Story Mary is co-mediatrix,
ALLEGORICAL though subordinate
A SIGN Water to Wine OT to
to Jesus,
NT
The One Mediator
Stone Jars filled and
poured
Woman
TROPOLOGICAL/
MORAL
Do whatever he tells
you.

ANAGOGICAL
The Third Day
Wedding Feast

The Wedding Feast in


Cana
John 2:1-11
Catholic Principles in
Interpreting the Bible

Interpretation must be done within the living Tradition


of the Church, whose first concern is fidelity to the
revelation attested by the Bible
Due consideration must be given to the historical
character of biblical revelation since Gods self
disclosure took place through human language, within
human history.
Since the bible contains the universal Word of God, this
Word must be interpreted in such a way that it becomes
responsive to the needs of its reader today
The Scriptural text must always be interpreted in
relation Christ, to the whole of Scripture, and to life of
the Church.