Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 161

Calvin College

Engineering Department

Introduction to Electric Power and Energy Systems

Power Engineering = The Power to Transform and Restore

From a Garden To a City

Paulo F. Ribeiro, MBA, Ph.D., PE

Interim 2008

A Reflection on Technology

Despite its limitations and dangers, technology can alleviate in part the bind in
which humankind naturally finds itself. Appropriate technology can increase
lifes possibilities, decrease physical burdens and difficulties at work, and free
people from routine activities while opening the door to all kinds of mental
creative labor. Natural disasters can be averted, illness overcome, and, in a
certain sense, with the aid of electronics and microprocessors, the deaf can hear,
the blind can see, and the lame walk again. Technology development can
provide a degree of social security, and increase available information so as to
extend and deepen communications.
Adapted from Perspectives on Technology and Culture, by Egbert Schuurman

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3


Syllabus - Schedule - 2:00PM 5:00PM - - - Room SB 128

Professor: Paulo F. Ribeiro SB134 x 6407
pfribeiro@ieee.org Skype: aslan52

A Intro. to 02:00PM -
Power/Energ 05:00PM
y Systems

Course Instructions
Class Notes; Internet / Web Resources
References: The Electric Power Engineering Handbook. CRC / IEEE Press, 2000.
Power System Analysis, Hadi Saadat, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Power System Analysis, 2nd Edition, Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal, Prentice-Hall, 1999.
Power Systems Analysis John J. Grainger and William D. Stevenson McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Elements of Power Systems Analysis, 4th Edition, William D. Stevenson, McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Electrical Energy Systems Theory, Olle Elgerd, McGraw-Hill, 1971;
Power Systems Analysis, Charles Gross, John Wiley & Sons, 1979
Power System Analysis & Design, J.D. Glover and M. Sarma, 2nd Edition, PWS Publishers, 1994

Web Resources (?????????????????????????????????????????????)

Some Suggested Topics For Final Paper
Distributed Generation, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources
Exploring Grid Operations With PowerWorld
Exploring Power Systems and Power Electronics Transients With PSCAD/EMTDC
Designing A Distribution System With EasyPower
Harmonic Propagation Analysis (Using PSpice and/or MathCAD) Paper 8-10 Pages (IEEE Paper Format)
Power Quality Survey/Diagnostic at Calvin College (Using Fluke 43) Presentation 20 minutes
Perspectives on Deregulation of the Power Utility Industry Teams of two students
Environmental Impact of Power Systems
Using the Internet for Power Systems Monitoring
(based on homework assignments, class participation, final paper/presentation, class log/notes)
Pass (S)
Pass Honor (H) For Outstanding Work
Fail (U)(*)
(*) incomplete/insufficient assignments and/or missed two class periods 7
Course Instructions

My objective is to provide you with a learning environment in

which you will learn the fundamentals of power systems.

My approach is to encourage the student to learn how to

learn. To take ownership of the learning process: Initiative,
involvement, interactive participation are the keys to an
effective learning experience.

Please keep me informed if you do not feel that I have been

successful in this goal. Do not wait until evaluation time to
express your frustrations. I want to listen to your concerns or
difficulties with the material, and am always available to help
you outside the classroom.
Objectives/Introductory Words:
To introduce a broad range of theory and methods related to AC power system
analysis and design.
To develop familiarity with power system engineering components, equipment
and analytical tools
To understand and study of the largest machine ever built-the integrated power
To understand the use of transmission grids as a means of transport/delivery of
To use tools for the analysis of power systems (PowerWorld, EasyPower,
To investigate flow of power on a power grid.
To understand voltage regulation, real and reactive power, three phase power,
power quality, efficiency, practical stability limits, etc., etc.
To become familiar with management and environmental issues associated with
transmission grids / power systems.
Introduction to Power Systems: Syllabus
Concepts and Applications:
Introduction (Structure of Power Systems)
Basic Principles (AC Power)
Transmission Lines
Power Flow
Transient and Harmonic Studies
Computer Programs
MathCAD, PSpice, MATLAB / Simulink (PowerSym),
PowerWord, EasyPower, EMTDC/PSCAD
Advanced Topics:
Distributed Generation, Renewable Power, Efficiency

1 Small Hydro Power Plant City of Plainwell, Michigan

Feasibility Study for Recovery of Plant

2 Belknap Lookout Community Feasibility Study of

Developing Wind Power Generation Project

3 Consumers Energy Control Center in Ada Work on

possible projects at the Control Center.


Erik Wilson, Manager

City of Plainwell


Steve Faber
Newberry Place

Mark Luehmann, Consumers Energy

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Power System Analysis, Computing and Economics

Computing applications
Distribution system analysis
Economics, market organization, cost structures, pricing, and risk management
Intelligent system applications
Reliability, uncertainty, and probability and stochastic system applications

Power System Dynamic Performance

Power system dynamic modeling: components and systems

Power system stability: phenomena, analysis, and techniques
Power system stability controls: design and applications
Power system dynamic measurements
Power system interaction with turbine generators
Dynamic security assessment: techniques and applications, risk-based methods

Power System Operations

Power system dynamic modeling: components and systems

Power system stability: phenomena, analysis, and techniques
Energy control centers
Distribution operation
System control
Operating economics and pricing
An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Power System Planning & Implementation

Generation system resource planning

Transmission system planning
Distribution system planning
Integrated resource planning and distributed resource planning
Load forecasting
Customer products and services planning and implementation
Industry restructuring planning and policy issues

Insulated Conductors

Construction and design of cables (materials and manufacturing)

Construction, design and testing of cable accessories (cable terminations and joints)
Construction, operation, and testing of cable system
Assembly, operation, and testing of station, control (including fiberoptic), and utilization cables (no
transmission and distribution cables)

Power Engineering Education

New instruction methods (software/ internet / laboratory / combined with research)

Virtual classrooms/laboratory
Distance education
Life-long learning

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Electric Machinery

DC Machines
Permanent magnet machinery systems
Switched and variable reluctance machines
Integral horsepower induction machinery
Wound rotor induction machinery
Single phase induction motors
Electronic drives for electric machinery
Induction generators for grid and isolated applications
Synchronous generators
Motor/generator sets for pumped storage
Synchronous motors materials to electric machinery
Electrical machinery theory
Numerical analysis of electric machinery
Power processing equipment
Insulation for electric machinery
Application of magnetic materials to electric machinery
Application of superconducting

Power System Communications

Communication systems
Communication media
Communication protocols
Communication standardization
Home automation and communication 17
An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Power System Instrumentation and Measurements

Digital technology for measurements

Electricity metering
High voltage testing
Measurement techniques for impedance elements

Power System Relaying

Digital protection systems

Adaptive protections
Power system protection
Protection of electrical equipment
Relaying communications
Relaying for consumer interface


Substation automation
Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs)
Programmable logic controllers (PLCs)
Substation design
High voltage power electronics stations
Gas insulated substations (GIS)

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Surge Proctective Devices

Design/testing of high voltage surge protective devices (>1000V)

Application of high voltage surge protective devices (>1000V)
Design/testing of low voltage surge protective devices (<1000V)
Application of low voltage surge protective devices (<1000V)

Nuclear Power Engineering

Nuclear power plant controls

Modeling, simulations and control
monitoring and instrumentation


Power and instrument transformers

Insulating fluids
Dielectric testing
Audible noise and vibration
Transformer modeling techniques

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Transmission and Distribution

AC transmission and distribution facilities

Lightning phenomena and insulator performance
Overhead line conductors: thermal and mechanical aspects
Corona, electric, and magnetic fields
Towers, poles, and hardware
Capacitors, shunt and series capacitor banks, and harmonic filter banks
HVDC transmission and distribution, FACTS and power electronic applications to ac transmission
Harmonics and power quality
Transients, switching surges, and electromagnetic noise
Maintenance and operation of overhead lines
Work procedures, safety, tools, and equipment
Superconductivity analysis and devices
Distributed resources

Energy Development and Power Generation

Excitation systems
Power system stabilizers
Advanced energy technologies, Renewable energy technologies
Station design, operations, and control
Modeling, simulation and control of power plants
Monitoring and instrumentation of power plants
Control of distributed generation
Hydroelectric power plants, Power plant scheduling, Engineering economic issues
International practices in energy development 20
An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Make sure you have your students run LOTS of load flows...
PowerWorld has an excellent demo package for schools.
You can be sure to tell them that in the "real world" though,
we are running 30,000+ bus load flows!
However, they will NOT have to know anything about
wavelets! :-)

We have a lot of positions open and will have more in the

near future.


W.G, Ph.D., P.E.

Supervisor, Operations Engineering
Southwest Power Pool
Objectives/Introductory Words:
The Big Picture

Objectives/Introductory Words: Itaipu - A Great Story

The control center of the 18

generators - Left half of it (in
Brazil) controls the 60 Hz units,
right half (in Paraguay) controls
the 50 Hz units

A 18 kV to 525 kV transformer for 825 MVA Inside the ITAIPU Powerhouse

To increase the voltage of the generators, transformers Dimensions: length: 986 m, maximum height: 112 m and width: 99m. The
with a capacity of 825 MVA and 768 MV, for 50 and 60 red line on the floor indicates the border of Brazil and Paraguay
Hz respectively, were specified
Electricity (AC) leaving ITAPU to Sao Paulo - 6,300 MW of electrical power generated
by the 60 Hz units is transported by an 891 km AC transmission system, formed by
three lines of 750 kV.
Source: http://www.solar.coppe.ufrj.br/itaipu_conv.html
Objectives/Introductory Words:

Power System Components

Electrical Components

Light bulb Socket Wire to switch

Switch Wire to circuit box Circuit breaker
Watthourmeter Connection to distribution system Distribution transformer
Distribution system Substation Capacitors
Circuit breakers Disconnects Buses
Transformers Subtransmission system Capacitor
Tap changers Current transformers Potential transformers
Protective relaying Reactors Metal-oxide varistors
Transmission system Suspension insulators Lightning arrestors
Generator step-up transformers Generators

Objectives/Introductory Words:
Non-Electrical Components

Glass for bulbs Manufacture of bulbs Sockets

Switches Circuit box Steel for circuit box

Copper for wire Aluminum for wire Poles for overhead lines

Transmission towers Maintenance Plastics for capacitor insulation

Controls for protec. relaying schem. Communications for data and protection Fiber optics for communications

Foundations for substation equipment Excavation equipment and crews Ceramics and polymers for
suspension insulators

Oil for transformers and circuit breakers Gas for insulated substations Springs for circuit breakers

Process control for component manufacturing Computers for process control Computers for generation
control and dispatch

Turbines for turning generator Coal for making steam to turn turbine Trains for hauling coal

Cars Bridges People

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Basics Facts, Issues and Questions

Electricity discovery and development
The value of electricity as a commodity
Voltage and current, AC vs DC, single phase vs three phase
What is the difference between power and energy?
Reactive power, power factor and power factor correction
How is electricity generated?
Costs and characteristics of different types of generation traditional and emerging
(fossil, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, fuel cell, microturbine, etc.)
System impacts of distributed generation
How can electricity be stored?
Generation Transmission Distribution
Why are different voltage levels use?
Why do we have overhead lines instead of all underground?
Why do we interconnect?

Objectives/Introductory Words:
Power system operation and control

Typical load demand cycles: daily, seasonal; Load forecasting

How is power transmitted from one place to another and what are the costs?
Differences between short, medium and long lines
Why is it important to maintain frequency, voltages, synchronism, etc.?
Active and reactive power losses, voltage drop, reactive power transfer
How is frequency maintained?

Technical issues

Power system limits, stability

Power system reliability, security, contingencies, reserve margins
Lightning and Over-voltage Protection
Harmonics and distortion and their effects
Voltage sags and short-term interruptions: causes and effects
Power system transients (switching, fault initiation and clearing, transient recovery voltage)

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Regulatory and policy issues

History of regulation in the US and abroad

Federal and National organizations
Conservation: what works and are there new ideas?
The role of regulators in the US
Electricity restructuring
The role of the US Federal vs. State governments
What happened in California?

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Historical Context

Static electricity discovered about 600 BC by Thales.

Electromagnetism studied systematically by William Gilbert, 1600
First battery, Allessandro Volta, 1800
Relationship between current and magnetism, Andre Ampere, 1825
Ohms law, George Ohm, 1827
Faradays law, Michael Faraday, 1831
Maxwells Equations, James Clerk Maxwell, 1864
First practical generator and motor, Zenobe Thoephile Gramme, 1873
Incandescent Lamp, Thomas Edison, 1879
First power station Pearl Street, Manhattan, Thomas Edison, 1882
First Hydroelectric plant, Appleton Wisconsin, 1882
DC motor produced, Frank J. Sprague, 1884
Transformer demonstrated, William Stanley, 1886
Polyphase AC system, induction and synchronous motors, Nicola Tesla, 1888
First single-phase Transmission line in US, Oregon, 1889 - By 1900, over 3000
Objectives/Introductory Words:

Recent Developments

High-speed relay systems

High-speed, EHV circuit breakers

Surge Arresters (MOVs)

Communications applications in power systems

Energy control centers with SCADA and AGC

Development of power electronics devices

Adjustable speed drives / motors

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Current Issues
Two extensive outages in 1996
July 2, 1996
Combined issues of Power system stability
Protective Relaying
System Planning
Two million customers affected in 14 states, Canada and Mexico
Initiating event related to power line touching a tree
August 10, 1996
4 million customers affected in 9 states
Initiating event: over heated transmission lines sag to trees

Utility Deregulation
The intention is that removing state regulation from utility operation will reduce prices.
A number of states already have legislation in place requiring deregulation, California is
already phasing it in.

12 - 34,5 kV
Per Generator
750 MVA, 18 kV => 24.000 A


Transformer to 500 kV
890 A

7,2 kV

... Transmission

7,2 kV


LT Nova Ponte So Gotardo -
Bom Despacho 500 kV LT Nova Ponte -
Estreito 500 kV

LT Arauai 2 Irap
230 kV

LT Emborcao Nova
Ponte 500 kV

LT Itumbiara Nova
Ponte 500 kV

Jurupari-Macap 230kV

Tucuru-Manaus Norte-Nordeste
500 kV 500 kV

SE/CO 230 kV Norte-Sul III
500 kV

Reforos nas
Regies SE/CO
500 kV

525 kV


Objectives/Introductory Words:
Analytical Background Plus
Mechanical Energy
Circuit Analysis
Rotational Energy
Electrical Energy
Signal Processing
Electrical Power


Why do we use Alternating Current (AC) for
Electric Power?

Construction of Generators:Key component is the 3 phase generator

Simple in raising and lowering voltages:
Generators limited to about 25kV
Transmission at 345,500 and 765kV (low losses)
Subtransmission at 115, 69, 22kV
Distribution at 12, 8, 4kV
Key component:
power transformer

Power Generation

Itaipu - One 715 MW electrical generator

The diameter of the rotor is almost 16 m, the
rotating mass is 2 650 t

Voltage from generator to Customer

Typical voltages for different parts

of the American power system:

System Type From To

Residential 110 V 220 V (split single Phase)

Commercial 480 V (three Phase)

Industrial 480 V 4160 V.

Distribution 2300 V 32000 V

Subtransmission 25 kV 130 kV

Transmission 115 kV 765 kV

Generation 13.2 kV 36 kV

Power Transformers

Substations: where transmission lines interconnect

Where does AC come from?

AC voltages and currents are usually produced by rotating

generators in a power system and are represented by sine
AC voltages and currents can also be produced by an
electronic oscillator.

A one phase AC generator

Phase Angle

For AC circuits we must be concerned with

the phase angle between voltage and
Current may be in phase with voltage in
which case the phase angle is zero
Current may lead or lag voltage

AC Power and Phasors

A phasor is a representation of a sinusoidal voltage or current as

a vector rotating about the origin of the complex plane.
Example of Voltage and current calculations without phasors:

For a simple RL circuit with the above excitation voltage, find

the current:

This becomes a very difficult problem to solve, with the solution:

AC Power and Phasors
Eulers Equation
voltages using rotating vectors (called phasors)
Representation of voltages and currents as complex numbers:

We then shorten the notation, assuming that all phasors that will be used in a system are at the same
frequency, the (ejwt) term is implicit in all references to the value. Another assumption that is made is
that the magnitude of any voltage or current as a function of time is the real part of its complex
representation. Hence, may be represented in any of the following ways:

being called the exponential, polar, and rectangular forms respectively, where
is the root mean square (rms) of the voltage wave form.

Definition of RMS

AC Power and Phasors
Phasor representation of Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance

Advantages of Phasors
Less Cumbersome (short hand notation)
Simpler Calculations (complex arithmetic, calculators can do), generally less need
for integration and differentiation
Additional insights may be obtained about relations between currents, voltages,
and power
Applies only to sinusoidal steady-state systems
Power Calculated using phasors is only the time average
Voltage and Current are the same
(phase angle is zero)

Current leads voltage by a phase
angle of 45 deg

Current lags voltage by a phase
angle of 45 deg

Instantaneous Power in an
AC Circuit

Multiply Voltage at time t by the current at time t.

Note that power may flow in both directions.

HW 1 - Verify behavior of AC instantaneous power (using MathCAD,

Mathematica, PSpice). Assume sinusoidal (different phase-shifts) and non-
sinusoidal voltages / currents. Use a half-wave rectification load to generate a
non-sinusoidal load. Interpret the results.
Instantaneous Power in an
AC Circuit

Phase angle zero

Current leading
Voltage by
45 degrees

Instantaneous Power in an
AC Circuit
Current leading
Voltage by Current lagging Voltage
90 deg by
90 deg

Average Real Power

Complex Power Real and Reactive

Real and Reactive Power

Instantaneous power may flow in both directions

Instantaneous power may be broken up into two
Real Power only flows in one direction, its
average value is zero or positive
Reactive Power always oscillates in one
direction and then reverses an equal amount. Its
average value is always zero.

Real and Reactive Power in an
AC Circuit

Current leading Voltage

Phase Angle zero
45 degrees

Real and Reactive Power in an
AC Circuit

Current leading
Current lagging
Voltage by
Voltage by
90 deg
90 deg

What is RMS voltage and current?

If we use DC voltage and current then the power

delivered to a load is:
If we are given an AC voltage and current that are
in phase then:

Why must we use RMS voltages and currents?

Use RMS so that the product of voltage and

current gives the correct power value, or the
effective value of energy delivered per second to
the load.
If the current is not in phase with the voltage then:
The reactive power is

What is MVA, MW and MVARS

MW for Mega Watts (millions of watts)

The product of RMS voltage and RMS current is
the MVA (mega volt amperes) being delivered by
a circuit.

What is a 3 Phase AC system?

Three phase is generated by a generator with three

sets of independent windings which are physically
spaced 120 degrees around the stator.
Voltages are labeled phase a, phase b, and phase c
and are the same magnitude but differ in phase
angle by 120 degrees.

3 Phase Generator

3 Phase Voltages

Representing Three Phase voltages using Phasors

Why use 3 phases?

Smooth torque on generator shaft

Delivery of constant power to a 3 phase load
3 Wires and not 6

What about unbalanced conditions?

Single Phase Circuit

Current = I


V 0 deg

Requires 2 wires to deliver power

3 phase circuit

Phase a

Voltage a=
V 0 deg
3 Phase
Neutral Load
Voltage c=
V +120 deg Voltage b=
V -120 deg
Phase b

Phase c

If the three phase load is balanced the neutral

carries no current and can be eliminated.
3 phase circuit without a
neutral wire
Phase a

Voltage a=
V 0 deg
3 Phase
Voltage c=
V +120 deg Voltage b=
V -120 deg
Phase b

Phase c

3 Phase Quantities

Ia Ia Va
Iab Vab
Vc Vb

Voltage Drop and Reactive Power Compensation

V1 = 13.2*10^3 + j0 V2 / 2

ZLine = 1 +j7

ZLoad = 10 +j30

HW 2 - Calculate the voltage at the receiving end of the line. If the voltage is
too low, compute the size of the capacitor which will recover the voltage to
the same value of the sending end. Use MathCAD/Mathematica to calculate
the value of C and then PSpice to verify behavior.

AC Power - Class Exercise

Calculate the real and reactive power absorbed by the two configurations below (as a function of V, R
and L).

V 0 deg


V 0 deg R XL

AC Transmission - Power Flow - HW 3

Bus 1 Bus 2

I Z = R +jX

V1 deg V2 deg
S12 = P12 + jQ12

Demonstrate that

What happens when R<<X ?

Network Equations

KCL and KVL in phasor domain

Formulation of mesh equations
Formulation of nodal equations
Conversion of system of equations to matrices

Matrix operations

Solution of matrix equations

Example Discussion (Admittance and Impedance Matrix)

AC Power Transmission lines usually consist of
multiples of three wires

Short, Medium, Long Lines

What is the difference?

Transmission lines




Double Circuit Lines

Transmission Line Design Considerations
Shield Wires
Conductor types
Ground Wires
Lightning Protection
Electrical factors
Resistance and thermal loading
Dielectric integrity and clearance
Mechanical Factors
Structural Integrity
Support Structures
Environmental Factors
Visual Impact
Tubular Steel
EM exposure
Right of Way
Danger to Wildlife
Transmission Line Equations

Transmission Line Differential Equations

All Aluminium Conductors (AAC)

Aluminium Conductors Steel Re-inforce (ACSR)
All Aluminium Alloy Conductors (AAAC)

Derived from differential equations

Two Port Network Representation

Power Transformers
The Per Unit System

Generation /Generators


Generation /Generators

HW 4 - Analyze the actual composition of US power sources (compare with

other countries) and propose a more sustainable / realistic composition.
Use the internet for your research - substantiate your considerations.
Why use very high voltages?

In this example the load is connected through a

transmission line with resistance R. The motor is designed
to operate at the same voltage as the generator terminal
voltage. Losses are large and motor voltage is low.
Discuss DC vs. AC and importance of Reactive Power
on AC systems for voltage regulation.
Why use very high voltages?

Transformer increases voltage to 10 times

the generator terminal voltage. Current in
transmission line is 1/10 I, losses are 1/100,
and motor voltage is V-IR/100

High Voltage Transmission

Reduces losses
Transmission conductor can have a smaller cross
Provides better voltage regulation at the load bus

Power Transformers

Transformer Basics

Power IN = Power OUT

This neglects the internal losses in the transformer

Real Transformers

Test to Determine Parameters

Open Circuit Test:
Energize Low voltage winding at rated voltage, leaving other
winding open

Measure Current (Ioc) and Power (Poc) into energized winding.

Calculate Re+h and Xm

Short Circuit Test:
Energize Low current (high voltage) winding at rated current
with a solid short circuit applied across the other winding
Measure Voltage and Power at terminals of energized winding
Calculate other parameters
Real Transformers
Transformer Types
Power Transformers
Current Transformers
Voltage Transformers
Series Transformers
Transformer Purchasing Issues
Audible Noise
Installation Costs
Manufacturing Facilities
Performance Record

Questions? Discussions...

Tap Changing Transformers

Changing taps changes the turns ratio

Auto Transformer used for Tap Changing Under
Load or
TCUL Transformer

TCUL Transformer

Assume primary side voltage begins to go

down with heavy load
TCUL transformer changes taps to keep
secondary voltage within limits
Raise secondary voltage during heavy load
Reduce secondary voltage during light load

Three-Phase Transformers

Transformer Connections
Each leg is a single phase transformer
Y-Y connections (no phase shift)
connections (no phase shift)
Y- connections (-30 degrees phase shift)
Y connections (+30 degrees phase shift)

The Per Unit System

Allows engineers to analyze a single phase

network where:
All P and Q quantities are three phase
Voltage magnitudes are represented as a
fractional part of their standard or base value
All phase angles are represented in the same
units as normally used

1. Per-unit representation results in a more meaningful and correlated data. It gives relative magnitude

2. There will be less chance of missing up between single - and three-phase powers or between line and phase

3. The p.u. system is very useful in simulating machine systems on analog, digital, and hybrid computers for
steady-state and dynamic analysis.

4. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of a piece of apparatus in p.u. (or per cent) on the base of the
name plate rating of power ( ) and voltage ( ). Hence, it can be used directly if the bases chosen are the same as
the name plate rating.

5. The p.u. value of the various apparatus lie in a narrow range, though the actual values vary widely.

6. The p.u. equivalent impedance (Zsc) of any transformer is the same referred to either primary or secondary
side. For complicated systems involving many transformers or different turns ratio, this advantage is a
significant one in that a possible cause of serious mistakes is removed.

7. Though the type of transformer in 3-phase system, determine the ratio of voltage bases, the p.u. impedance
is the same irrespective of the type of 3-phase transformer. (Y D , D Y, D D , or Y Y)

8. Per-unit method allows the same basic arithmetic operation resulting in per-phase end values, without
having to worry about the factor '100' which occurs in per cent system.
Conversion Procedure
-Specify the MVA base. Typically this will be related to the rating of a generator,
transformer, or transmission line. Just choose the one that will result in the least
amount of computation. This base will remain constant throughout the system.
-At any location in the circuit, specify a voltage base. This will typically be the
nominal voltage for that particular location.
-Determine the voltage base for all other areas in the circuit by adjusting by the
turns ratio every time a transformer is encountered.
-Having specified the voltage and MVA base throughout the system, current and
impedance bases may be determined as:

-For each value, the per unit quantity is the actual value divided by the base value.

-For 3phase circuits, the following relationships must also be included:

Set Up the Per Unit System

Each region of the power system is uniquely

defined by a standard voltage determined by the
transformer windings, this sets base voltage
The entire system is given a base power to which
everything in the power flow is referred

Per Unit Conversions

Sample Power System

Power System Divided into base voltage regions

Numerical Example
Let. V = 118 00 volts
Z = 5 300 ohms
Then I = 23.6 -300 amperes
& S = V I* = (118 00)(23.6 +300) va
= 2,784.8 300 va
For this example, it is appropriate to choose:
SlB = 3,000 va
VlB = 120-volts
Then IlB = = 25 amperes
& ZlB = = 4.8 ohms
A three phase system consists of a generator, two transformers, two transmission lines, and two loads, as follows:

is a 300 MVA generator rated at 25 kV, with an impedance of .05 p.u. (Assume that generator is operating at rated terminal
is a bank of three single phase 25 kV/199.2 kV transformers, each rated at 100 MVA, connected D-Y with a leakage reactance
of 2.5%
is a three phase 200 MVA transformer rated 345 kV/13.8 kV, with X=j.08.
is a three phase 1 MVA transformer rated 345 kV/4160, with X=j.02.
is a transmission line having an impedance of j75 W
is a distribution line having an impedance of j5 W
is an industrial facility with an effective impedance
of 1 ohm at .85 power factor lagging
is a substation load with an effective impedance
of 17.5 ohm at .7 power factor leading

Using the MVA and voltage bases of the generator,

Draw the per unit equivalent circuit, neglecting shunt elements in transformers

Calculate the total current and power delivered by the generator (give answers in per unit and actual values).

Calculate the magnitude of the terminal voltage of load Z1 (per unit and actual).

Typical Per Unit Quantities

Voltages: 0.95 to 1.05 pu volts

System Base 100MVA
Real Power: 100 MW = 1.0 pu, 1000MW=10pu
Transmission Line: All quantities in per unit

Transmission Line Model

The Power Flow

Used to design the power system

Used to upgrade the power system
Used to study the power system in real time for
secure operation
By far the most useful calculation used by power
system engineers

The Power Flow

The Power Flow Problem

Compute voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus
Calculate real and reactive power flow through all equipment
Input Data
Transmission line data
Transformer Data
Bus Data

Bus Type Known Parameters Unknown Parameters

Swing Bus V=1<0o P, Q
Load Bus P+jQ V, delta
Gen Bus (Voltage Control) V, P Q, delta

Power Flow Equations

Power Flow Bus Operation

Load Bus: uses both P and Q equation

Solves for V and
Generation Bus: Uses only the P equation and
assumes V to be fixed (regulated voltage)
Reference or swing bus, assumes V and are
fixed (no P or Q equation possible.

Power Flow

Figure from Power World Simulator

Power Flow Standard Printout

BUS 1 Bus 1 345.0 MW MVAR MVA % 1.0000 0.00 2 2

GENERATOR 1 141.16 -14.21R 141.9
LOAD 1 100.00 0.00 100.0
TO 2 Bus 2 1 -36.75 8.09 37.6 25
TO 3 Bus 3 1 77.91 -22.30 81.0 27

BUS 2 Bus 2 345.0 MW MVAR MVA % 1.0000 3.51 1 Home

GENERATOR 1 363.00 100.22R 376.6
LOAD 1 200.00 100.00 223.6
TO 1 Bus 1 1 37.18 -5.83 37.6 25
TO 4 Bus 4 1 125.86 6.05 126.0 50

BUS 3 Bus 3 345.0 MW MVAR MVA % 1.0083 -3.73 1 Home

LOAD 1 100.00 15.00 101.1
SWITCHED SHUNT 0.00 81.33 81.3
TO 1 Bus 1 1 -76.92 27.55 81.7 27
TO 4 Bus 4 1 -23.15 38.71 45.1 23

BUS 4 Bus 4 138.0 MW MVAR MVA % 0.9813 -2.33 1 Home

TO 2 Bus 2 1 -123.48 6.66 123.7 49
TO 3 Bus 3 1 23.45 -37.11 43.9 22
TO 5 Bus 5 1 100.04 30.44 104.6 10 0.9625TA 0.0

BUS 5 Bus 5 34.5 MW MVAR MVA % 0.9946 -7.99 1 Home

LOAD 1 100.00 20.00 102.0
TO 4 Bus 4 1 -100.04 -19.92 102.0 10 0.9625NT 0.0

Linear Power Flow Analysis

Ignore bus Voltage Magnitude (only be concerned with bus

phase angle)
Ignore reactive power flows and loads (only be concerned
with MW flow)
Ignore transmission line resistance and charging
Accuracy suffers!

Linear Power Flow Equation

How does
power flow?
Flow from production
point to purchase point
uses every transmission
path available
Flow on each
transmission facility is
determined by its

Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs)

Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODFs)

PTDFs and LODFs can be combined to calculate the

resulting post contingency flow with a large transaction.

Load Flow Problem

Load flow calculations are used to determine the voltage, current,

and real and reactive power at various points in a power system
under normal steady-state conditions.

For power systems with a large number of buses, the load flow
problem becomes computationally intensive. Therefore, for large
power systems, the load flow is solved using specific programs
based on iterative techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson

Power systems of smaller size, however, require considerably

less computational effort, and load flow algorithms can be
developed which function easily on personal computers.
Load Flow Problem

The approach used here for solving the load flow is based on the
Newton-Raphson iterative method. The required input to the
problem is the generated and load power at each bus and the
voltage magnitude on generating buses.

This information is acquired from load data and the normal system
operating conditions. The solution provides the voltage magnitude
and phase angle at all buses and the power flows and losses of the
transmission lines.

Load Flow Problem

For load flow calculations, the system buses are classified into three types:
The slack bus: There is only one such bus in the system. Due to losses in the network, the real
and reactive power cannot be known at all buses. Therefore, the slack bus will provide the
necessary power to maintain the power balance in the system. The slack bus is usually a bus
where generation is available. For this bus, the voltage magnitude and phase angle are specified
(normally the voltage phase angle is set to zero degrees). The voltage phase angle of all other
buses is expressed with the slack bus voltage phasor as reference.

The generating or PV-bus: This bus type represents the generating stations of the system. The
information known for PV-buses is the net real power generation and bus-voltage magnitude.
The net real power generation is the generated real power minus the real power of any local load.
The load or PQ-bus: For these buses, the net real and reactive power is known. PQ-buses
normally do not have generators. However, if the reactive power of a generator reaches its limit,
the corresponding bus is treated as a PQ-bus. This is equivalent to adjusting the bus voltage until
the generator reactive power falls within the prescribed limits.

Distribution substations and feeders may be treated as generating buses in distribution networks.

Load Flow Problem

The load flow equations are written in terms of the net power injection to each
bus. With reference to figure below, the net power injection into the kth bus is
the combination of generated and load power. The power flowing out of this
bus must equal the net injected power. Therefore, the power balance equation
at the kth bus is written as follows in terms of the system voltage

N is the number of network buses,
Pk is the net real power injected into the kth bus,
Qk is the net reactive power injected into the kth bus,
Yk,i is the total admittance between bus k and i: this
total can be found from the bus admittance matrix,
Ybus, of the system,
Vi is the voltage of the ith bus. 156
Load Flow Problem

where k,n is the angle of the admittance, Yk,n, and j is the voltage phase angle at bus, j.
A real power equation is written for every PV- and PQ-bus and a reactive power equation is
written for every PQ-bus. Thus, for a power system with N buses of which L are PQ-buses
there are (N-1) real power equations (excluding the slack bus) and L reactive power
equations (a total of N-1+L equations). The unknowns are the magnitude and phase angle
of the L PQ-bus voltages and the phase angle of the (N-1-L) PV-bus voltages (a total of N-
1+L unknowns).

The left-hand side of these equations are known and an iterative process is used for finding
the unknown voltages and phase angles such the above equations are balanced. 157
Load Flow Problem

The Newton-Raphson method provides a reliable approach for solving non-linear equations such as
the previous equations. The main advantages of this method are its convergence characteristics and
its speed. The procedure for applying the Newton-Raphson method is as follows:
From the network configuration and parameters the bus-admittance matrix is constructed. The
elements of this matrix are used to calculate the power flows according to the equations.
Each network bus is assigned a type and, accordingly, information about the bus real and reactive
power and bus voltage is collected.
From the above steps, the load flow equations can be assembled into the following form, with
reference to previous equations:

P is the vector of the known net real power injections at PV- and PQ-buses,
Q is the vector of the known reactive power injections at PQ-buses,
V is the vector of the unknown bus voltage magnitudes,
is the vector of the unknown bus voltage phase angles, and
fp, fq are functions defined according to Equations (3.1.2).
Load Flow Problem

Solution of the load flow problem requires finding the values of V and such that the right-
hand side of the equation equals the known power injections at the network buses. For any
estimation of V and , the difference between the known power injections, P and Q and the
power injections calculated by the equation is called the power mismatch.

where S is the net real and reactive power mismatch:

The power mismatch is a measure of how close to the solution the estimations of V and
are. A correction to these estimations is obtained using the Newton-Raphson method,
resulting in an iterative calculation process.

where the superscript, j, denotes variables calculated at the jth iteration step. J is the Jacobian matrix of the

The iteration process continues until the power mismatch at the jth step is smaller than a preset number .

To start the above iterative solution, an estimation of the unknown voltages and their phase angles is
required. This first solution approximation is called initial guess. Typically, the initial guess for the
voltage magnitudes is 1 pu and for their phase angles is 0 degrees (or radians).