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Engineering Department

Interim 2008

1

A Reflection on Technology

Despite its limitations and dangers, technology can alleviate in part the bind in

which humankind naturally finds itself. Appropriate technology can increase

lifes possibilities, decrease physical burdens and difficulties at work, and free

people from routine activities while opening the door to all kinds of mental

creative labor. Natural disasters can be averted, illness overcome, and, in a

certain sense, with the aid of electronics and microprocessors, the deaf can hear,

the blind can see, and the lame walk again. Technology development can

provide a degree of social security, and increase available information so as to

extend and deepen communications.

Adapted from Perspectives on Technology and Culture, by Egbert Schuurman

2

3

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

ENGR W8

MTWTHF

02:00PM

054

NH

08/IN

Professor: Paulo F. Ribeiro SB134 x 6407

pfribeiro@ieee.org Skype: aslan52

5

ENGR W84

A Intro. to 02:00PM -

08/IN NH 054 MTWTHF

Power/Energ 05:00PM

y Systems

6

Course Instructions

Text

Class Notes; Internet / Web Resources

References: The Electric Power Engineering Handbook. CRC / IEEE Press, 2000.

Power System Analysis, Hadi Saadat, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Power System Analysis, 2nd Edition, Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal, Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Power Systems Analysis John J. Grainger and William D. Stevenson McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Elements of Power Systems Analysis, 4th Edition, William D. Stevenson, McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Electrical Energy Systems Theory, Olle Elgerd, McGraw-Hill, 1971;

Power Systems Analysis, Charles Gross, John Wiley & Sons, 1979

Power System Analysis & Design, J.D. Glover and M. Sarma, 2nd Edition, PWS Publishers, 1994

Some Suggested Topics For Final Paper

Distributed Generation, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources

Exploring Grid Operations With PowerWorld

Exploring Power Systems and Power Electronics Transients With PSCAD/EMTDC

Designing A Distribution System With EasyPower

Harmonic Propagation Analysis (Using PSpice and/or MathCAD) Paper 8-10 Pages (IEEE Paper Format)

Power Quality Survey/Diagnostic at Calvin College (Using Fluke 43) Presentation 20 minutes

Perspectives on Deregulation of the Power Utility Industry Teams of two students

Environmental Impact of Power Systems

Using the Internet for Power Systems Monitoring

Grades

(based on homework assignments, class participation, final paper/presentation, class log/notes)

Pass (S)

Pass Honor (H) For Outstanding Work

Fail (U)(*)

(*) incomplete/insufficient assignments and/or missed two class periods 7

Course Instructions

which you will learn the fundamentals of power systems.

learn. To take ownership of the learning process: Initiative,

involvement, interactive participation are the keys to an

effective learning experience.

successful in this goal. Do not wait until evaluation time to

express your frustrations. I want to listen to your concerns or

difficulties with the material, and am always available to help

you outside the classroom.

8

Objectives/Introductory Words:

To introduce a broad range of theory and methods related to AC power system

analysis and design.

To develop familiarity with power system engineering components, equipment

and analytical tools

To understand and study of the largest machine ever built-the integrated power

grid.

To understand the use of transmission grids as a means of transport/delivery of

energy.

To use tools for the analysis of power systems (PowerWorld, EasyPower,

PSCAD/EMTP).

To investigate flow of power on a power grid.

To understand voltage regulation, real and reactive power, three phase power,

power quality, efficiency, practical stability limits, etc., etc.

To become familiar with management and environmental issues associated with

transmission grids / power systems.

9

Introduction to Power Systems: Syllabus

Concepts and Applications:

Introduction (Structure of Power Systems)

Basic Principles (AC Power)

Generation

Transmission Lines

Transformers

Power Flow

Stability

Transient and Harmonic Studies

Computer Programs

MathCAD, PSpice, MATLAB / Simulink (PowerSym),

PowerWord, EasyPower, EMTDC/PSCAD

Advanced Topics:

Distributed Generation, Renewable Power, Efficiency

10

Projects

Feasibility Study for Recovery of Plant

Developing Wind Power Generation Project

possible projects at the Control Center.

11

Projects

City of Plainwell

12

Projects

Steve Faber

Newberry Place

13

Projects

14

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Computing applications

Distribution system analysis

Economics, market organization, cost structures, pricing, and risk management

Intelligent system applications

Reliability, uncertainty, and probability and stochastic system applications

Power system stability: phenomena, analysis, and techniques

Power system stability controls: design and applications

Power system dynamic measurements

Power system interaction with turbine generators

Dynamic security assessment: techniques and applications, risk-based methods

Power system stability: phenomena, analysis, and techniques

Energy control centers

Distribution operation

System control

Operating economics and pricing

15

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Transmission system planning

Distribution system planning

Integrated resource planning and distributed resource planning

Load forecasting

Customer products and services planning and implementation

Industry restructuring planning and policy issues

Insulated Conductors

Construction, design and testing of cable accessories (cable terminations and joints)

Construction, operation, and testing of cable system

Assembly, operation, and testing of station, control (including fiberoptic), and utilization cables (no

transmission and distribution cables)

Virtual classrooms/laboratory

Distance education

Life-long learning

16

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Electric Machinery

DC Machines

Permanent magnet machinery systems

Switched and variable reluctance machines

Integral horsepower induction machinery

Wound rotor induction machinery

Single phase induction motors

Electronic drives for electric machinery

Induction generators for grid and isolated applications

Synchronous generators

Motor/generator sets for pumped storage

Synchronous motors materials to electric machinery

Electrical machinery theory

Numerical analysis of electric machinery

Power processing equipment

Insulation for electric machinery

Application of magnetic materials to electric machinery

Application of superconducting

Communication systems

Communication media

Communication protocols

Communication standardization

Home automation and communication 17

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Electricity metering

High voltage testing

Measurement techniques for impedance elements

Adaptive protections

Power system protection

Protection of electrical equipment

Relaying communications

Relaying for consumer interface

Substations

Substation automation

Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs)

Programmable logic controllers (PLCs)

Substation design

High voltage power electronics stations

Gas insulated substations (GIS)

18

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Application of high voltage surge protective devices (>1000V)

Design/testing of low voltage surge protective devices (<1000V)

Application of low voltage surge protective devices (<1000V)

Modeling, simulations and control

monitoring and instrumentation

Transformer

Insulating fluids

Dielectric testing

Audible noise and vibration

Transformer modeling techniques

19

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Lightning phenomena and insulator performance

Overhead line conductors: thermal and mechanical aspects

Corona, electric, and magnetic fields

Towers, poles, and hardware

Capacitors, shunt and series capacitor banks, and harmonic filter banks

HVDC transmission and distribution, FACTS and power electronic applications to ac transmission

Harmonics and power quality

Transients, switching surges, and electromagnetic noise

Maintenance and operation of overhead lines

Work procedures, safety, tools, and equipment

Superconductivity analysis and devices

Distributed resources

Excitation systems

Power system stabilizers

Advanced energy technologies, Renewable energy technologies

Station design, operations, and control

Modeling, simulation and control of power plants

Monitoring and instrumentation of power plants

Control of distributed generation

Hydroelectric power plants, Power plant scheduling, Engineering economic issues

International practices in energy development 20

An Overview of Power and Energy Systems

Make sure you have your students run LOTS of load flows...

PowerWorld has an excellent demo package for schools.

You can be sure to tell them that in the "real world" though,

we are running 30,000+ bus load flows!

However, they will NOT have to know anything about

wavelets! :-)

near future.

Regards,

Supervisor, Operations Engineering

Southwest Power Pool

21

Objectives/Introductory Words:

The Big Picture

22

Objectives/Introductory Words: Itaipu - A Great Story

generators - Left half of it (in

Brazil) controls the 60 Hz units,

right half (in Paraguay) controls

the 50 Hz units

To increase the voltage of the generators, transformers Dimensions: length: 986 m, maximum height: 112 m and width: 99m. The

with a capacity of 825 MVA and 768 MV, for 50 and 60 red line on the floor indicates the border of Brazil and Paraguay

Hz respectively, were specified

Electricity (AC) leaving ITAPU to Sao Paulo - 6,300 MW of electrical power generated

by the 60 Hz units is transported by an 891 km AC transmission system, formed by

three lines of 750 kV.

Source: http://www.solar.coppe.ufrj.br/itaipu_conv.html

23

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Electrical Components

Switch Wire to circuit box Circuit breaker

Watthourmeter Connection to distribution system Distribution transformer

Distribution system Substation Capacitors

Circuit breakers Disconnects Buses

Transformers Subtransmission system Capacitor

banks

Tap changers Current transformers Potential transformers

Protective relaying Reactors Metal-oxide varistors

Transmission system Suspension insulators Lightning arrestors

Generator step-up transformers Generators

24

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Non-Electrical Components

Copper for wire Aluminum for wire Poles for overhead lines

Controls for protec. relaying schem. Communications for data and protection Fiber optics for communications

Foundations for substation equipment Excavation equipment and crews Ceramics and polymers for

suspension insulators

Oil for transformers and circuit breakers Gas for insulated substations Springs for circuit breakers

Process control for component manufacturing Computers for process control Computers for generation

control and dispatch

Turbines for turning generator Coal for making steam to turn turbine Trains for hauling coal

25

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Electricity discovery and development

The value of electricity as a commodity

Voltage and current, AC vs DC, single phase vs three phase

What is the difference between power and energy?

Reactive power, power factor and power factor correction

How is electricity generated?

Costs and characteristics of different types of generation traditional and emerging

(fossil, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, fuel cell, microturbine, etc.)

System impacts of distributed generation

How can electricity be stored?

Generation Transmission Distribution

Why are different voltage levels use?

Why do we have overhead lines instead of all underground?

Why do we interconnect?

26

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Power system operation and control

How is power transmitted from one place to another and what are the costs?

Differences between short, medium and long lines

Why is it important to maintain frequency, voltages, synchronism, etc.?

Active and reactive power losses, voltage drop, reactive power transfer

How is frequency maintained?

Technical issues

Power system reliability, security, contingencies, reserve margins

Lightning and Over-voltage Protection

Harmonics and distortion and their effects

Voltage sags and short-term interruptions: causes and effects

Power system transients (switching, fault initiation and clearing, transient recovery voltage)

27

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Federal and National organizations

Conservation: what works and are there new ideas?

The role of regulators in the US

Electricity restructuring

The role of the US Federal vs. State governments

What happened in California?

28

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Historical Context

Electromagnetism studied systematically by William Gilbert, 1600

First battery, Allessandro Volta, 1800

Relationship between current and magnetism, Andre Ampere, 1825

Ohms law, George Ohm, 1827

Faradays law, Michael Faraday, 1831

Maxwells Equations, James Clerk Maxwell, 1864

First practical generator and motor, Zenobe Thoephile Gramme, 1873

Incandescent Lamp, Thomas Edison, 1879

First power station Pearl Street, Manhattan, Thomas Edison, 1882

First Hydroelectric plant, Appleton Wisconsin, 1882

DC motor produced, Frank J. Sprague, 1884

Transformer demonstrated, William Stanley, 1886

Polyphase AC system, induction and synchronous motors, Nicola Tesla, 1888

First single-phase Transmission line in US, Oregon, 1889 - By 1900, over 3000

Stations

29

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Recent Developments

30

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Current Issues

Two extensive outages in 1996

July 2, 1996

Combined issues of Power system stability

Protective Relaying

System Planning

Two million customers affected in 14 states, Canada and Mexico

Initiating event related to power line touching a tree

August 10, 1996

4 million customers affected in 9 states

Initiating event: over heated transmission lines sag to trees

Utility Deregulation

The intention is that removing state regulation from utility operation will reduce prices.

A number of states already have legislation in place requiring deregulation, California is

already phasing it in.

31

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

12 - 34,5 kV

Itaip

Per Generator

750 MVA, 18 kV => 24.000 A

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

Transformation

Transformer to 500 kV

890 A

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

7,2 kV

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

... Transmission

7,2 kV

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

Substations

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

LT Nova Ponte So Gotardo -

Bom Despacho 500 kV LT Nova Ponte -

Estreito 500 kV

LT Arauai 2 Irap

230 kV

LT Emborcao Nova

Ponte 500 kV

LT Itumbiara Nova

Ponte 500 kV

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

Jurupari-Macap 230kV

Tucuru-Manaus Norte-Nordeste

500 kV 500 kV

Acre/Rondnia-

SE/CO 230 kV Norte-Sul III

500 kV

Reforos nas

Regies SE/CO

500 kV

Sul-Sudeste

525 kV

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

Transformers

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

PMS/UNIFEI/GQEE

Objectives/Introductory Words:

Analytical Background Plus

Mechanical Energy

Circuit Analysis

Rotational Energy

Electronics

Electrical Energy

Signal Processing

Power

Communications

Electrical Power

Controls

Economics

71

Why do we use Alternating Current (AC) for

Electric Power?

Simple in raising and lowering voltages:

Generators limited to about 25kV

Transmission at 345,500 and 765kV (low losses)

Subtransmission at 115, 69, 22kV

Distribution at 12, 8, 4kV

Key component:

power transformer

72

Power Generation

The diameter of the rotor is almost 16 m, the

rotating mass is 2 650 t

73

Voltage from generator to Customer

Subtransmission 25 kV 130 kV

Generation 13.2 kV 36 kV

74

Power Transformers

75

Substations: where transmission lines interconnect

76

Where does AC come from?

generators in a power system and are represented by sine

waves

AC voltages and currents can also be produced by an

electronic oscillator.

77

A one phase AC generator

78

Phase Angle

the phase angle between voltage and

current.

Current may be in phase with voltage in

which case the phase angle is zero

Current may lead or lag voltage

79

AC Power and Phasors

a vector rotating about the origin of the complex plane.

Example of Voltage and current calculations without phasors:

the current:

80

AC Power and Phasors

Eulers Equation

voltages using rotating vectors (called phasors)

Representation of voltages and currents as complex numbers:

We then shorten the notation, assuming that all phasors that will be used in a system are at the same

frequency, the (ejwt) term is implicit in all references to the value. Another assumption that is made is

that the magnitude of any voltage or current as a function of time is the real part of its complex

representation. Hence, may be represented in any of the following ways:

being called the exponential, polar, and rectangular forms respectively, where

is the root mean square (rms) of the voltage wave form.

Definition of RMS

81

AC Power and Phasors

Phasor representation of Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance

Advantages of Phasors

Less Cumbersome (short hand notation)

Simpler Calculations (complex arithmetic, calculators can do), generally less need

for integration and differentiation

Additional insights may be obtained about relations between currents, voltages,

and power

Limitations

Applies only to sinusoidal steady-state systems

Power Calculated using phasors is only the time average

82

Voltage and Current are the same

(phase angle is zero)

83

Current leads voltage by a phase

angle of 45 deg

84

Current lags voltage by a phase

angle of 45 deg

85

Instantaneous Power in an

AC Circuit

Note that power may flow in both directions.

Mathematica, PSpice). Assume sinusoidal (different phase-shifts) and non-

sinusoidal voltages / currents. Use a half-wave rectification load to generate a

non-sinusoidal load. Interpret the results.

86

Instantaneous Power in an

AC Circuit

Current leading

Voltage by

45 degrees

87

Instantaneous Power in an

AC Circuit

Current leading

Voltage by Current lagging Voltage

90 deg by

90 deg

88

Average Real Power

89

Complex Power Real and Reactive

90

Real and Reactive Power

Instantaneous power may be broken up into two

components:

Real Power only flows in one direction, its

average value is zero or positive

Reactive Power always oscillates in one

direction and then reverses an equal amount. Its

average value is always zero.

91

Real and Reactive Power in an

AC Circuit

Phase Angle zero

by

45 degrees

92

Real and Reactive Power in an

AC Circuit

Current leading

Current lagging

Voltage by

Voltage by

90 deg

90 deg

93

What is RMS voltage and current?

delivered to a load is:

If we are given an AC voltage and current that are

in phase then:

Where

94

Why must we use RMS voltages and currents?

current gives the correct power value, or the

effective value of energy delivered per second to

the load.

If the current is not in phase with the voltage then:

The reactive power is

95

What is MVA, MW and MVARS

The product of RMS voltage and RMS current is

the MVA (mega volt amperes) being delivered by

a circuit.

96

What is a 3 Phase AC system?

sets of independent windings which are physically

spaced 120 degrees around the stator.

Voltages are labeled phase a, phase b, and phase c

and are the same magnitude but differ in phase

angle by 120 degrees.

97

3 Phase Generator

98

3 Phase Voltages

99

Representing Three Phase voltages using Phasors

100

Why use 3 phases?

Delivery of constant power to a 3 phase load

3 Wires and not 6

101

Single Phase Circuit

Current = I

Voltage=

V 0 deg

102

3 phase circuit

Phase a

Voltage a=

V 0 deg

3 Phase

Neutral Load

Voltage c=

V +120 deg Voltage b=

V -120 deg

Phase b

Phase c

carries no current and can be eliminated.

103

3 phase circuit without a

neutral wire

Phase a

Voltage a=

V 0 deg

3 Phase

Load

Voltage c=

V +120 deg Voltage b=

V -120 deg

Phase b

Phase c

104

3 Phase Quantities

Ia Ia Va

Iab Vab

Va

Vc Vb

105

Voltage Drop and Reactive Power Compensation

V1 = 13.2*10^3 + j0 V2 / 2

P&Q

I

ZLine = 1 +j7

ZLoad = 10 +j30

C=?

HW 2 - Calculate the voltage at the receiving end of the line. If the voltage is

too low, compute the size of the capacitor which will recover the voltage to

the same value of the sending end. Use MathCAD/Mathematica to calculate

the value of C and then PSpice to verify behavior.

106

AC Power - Class Exercise

Calculate the real and reactive power absorbed by the two configurations below (as a function of V, R

and L).

R

V 0 deg

XL

V 0 deg R XL

107

AC Transmission - Power Flow - HW 3

Bus 1 Bus 2

I Z = R +jX

V1 deg V2 deg

S12 = P12 + jQ12

Demonstrate that

108

Network Equations

Formulation of mesh equations

Formulation of nodal equations

Conversion of system of equations to matrices

Matrix operations

Inverse

Transpose

Conjugate

109

AC Power Transmission lines usually consist of

multiples of three wires

What is the difference?

110

Transmission lines

Short

Medium

Long

111

Double Circuit Lines

112

Transmission Line Design Considerations

Conductors

Shield Wires

Conductor types

Ground Wires

ACSR

Lightning Protection

AAC

Electrical factors

AAAC

Resistance and thermal loading

ACAR

Dielectric integrity and clearance

Configurations

Inductance

bundles

Capacitance

Insulators

Mechanical Factors

Porcelain

Structural Integrity

Polymer

Vibration

Support Structures

Thermal

Wood

Environmental Factors

Lattice

Visual Impact

Tubular Steel

EM exposure

Concrete

Right of Way

Fiberglass

Danger to Wildlife

113

Transmission Line Equations

Aluminium Conductors Steel Re-inforce (ACSR)

All Aluminium Alloy Conductors (AAAC)

114

Generators

Power Transformers

The Per Unit System

115

Generation /Generators

http://hydropower.inel.gov/state/stateres.htm

116

Generation /Generators

other countries) and propose a more sustainable / realistic composition.

Use the internet for your research - substantiate your considerations.

117

Why use very high voltages?

transmission line with resistance R. The motor is designed

to operate at the same voltage as the generator terminal

voltage. Losses are large and motor voltage is low.

Discuss DC vs. AC and importance of Reactive Power

on AC systems for voltage regulation.

118

Why use very high voltages?

the generator terminal voltage. Current in

transmission line is 1/10 I, losses are 1/100,

and motor voltage is V-IR/100

119

High Voltage Transmission

Reduces losses

Transmission conductor can have a smaller cross

section

Provides better voltage regulation at the load bus

120

Power Transformers

121

Transformer Basics

122

Power IN = Power OUT

123

Real Transformers

Open Circuit Test:

Energize Low voltage winding at rated voltage, leaving other

winding open

Short Circuit Test:

Energize Low current (high voltage) winding at rated current

with a solid short circuit applied across the other winding

Measure Voltage and Power at terminals of energized winding

Calculate other parameters

124

Real Transformers

Transformer Types

Power Transformers

Current Transformers

Voltage Transformers

Series Transformers

Transformer Purchasing Issues

Efficiency

Audible Noise

Installation Costs

Manufacturing Facilities

Performance Record

Questions? Discussions...

125

Tap Changing Transformers

126

Auto Transformer used for Tap Changing Under

Load or

TCUL Transformer

127

TCUL Transformer

down with heavy load

TCUL transformer changes taps to keep

secondary voltage within limits

Raise secondary voltage during heavy load

Reduce secondary voltage during light load

128

Three-Phase Transformers

Transformer Connections

Each leg is a single phase transformer

Y-Y connections (no phase shift)

connections (no phase shift)

Y- connections (-30 degrees phase shift)

Y connections (+30 degrees phase shift)

129

The Per Unit System

network where:

All P and Q quantities are three phase

Voltage magnitudes are represented as a

fractional part of their standard or base value

All phase angles are represented in the same

units as normally used

130

Advantages

1. Per-unit representation results in a more meaningful and correlated data. It gives relative magnitude

information.

2. There will be less chance of missing up between single - and three-phase powers or between line and phase

voltages.

3. The p.u. system is very useful in simulating machine systems on analog, digital, and hybrid computers for

steady-state and dynamic analysis.

4. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of a piece of apparatus in p.u. (or per cent) on the base of the

name plate rating of power ( ) and voltage ( ). Hence, it can be used directly if the bases chosen are the same as

the name plate rating.

5. The p.u. value of the various apparatus lie in a narrow range, though the actual values vary widely.

6. The p.u. equivalent impedance (Zsc) of any transformer is the same referred to either primary or secondary

side. For complicated systems involving many transformers or different turns ratio, this advantage is a

significant one in that a possible cause of serious mistakes is removed.

7. Though the type of transformer in 3-phase system, determine the ratio of voltage bases, the p.u. impedance

is the same irrespective of the type of 3-phase transformer. (Y D , D Y, D D , or Y Y)

8. Per-unit method allows the same basic arithmetic operation resulting in per-phase end values, without

having to worry about the factor '100' which occurs in per cent system.

131

Conversion Procedure

-Specify the MVA base. Typically this will be related to the rating of a generator,

transformer, or transmission line. Just choose the one that will result in the least

amount of computation. This base will remain constant throughout the system.

-At any location in the circuit, specify a voltage base. This will typically be the

nominal voltage for that particular location.

-Determine the voltage base for all other areas in the circuit by adjusting by the

turns ratio every time a transformer is encountered.

-Having specified the voltage and MVA base throughout the system, current and

impedance bases may be determined as:

-For each value, the per unit quantity is the actual value divided by the base value.

132

Set Up the Per Unit System

defined by a standard voltage determined by the

transformer windings, this sets base voltage

The entire system is given a base power to which

everything in the power flow is referred

133

Per Unit Conversions

134

Sample Power System

135

Power System Divided into base voltage regions

136

Numerical Example

Let. V = 118 00 volts

Z = 5 300 ohms

Then I = 23.6 -300 amperes

& S = V I* = (118 00)(23.6 +300) va

= 2,784.8 300 va

For this example, it is appropriate to choose:

SlB = 3,000 va

VlB = 120-volts

Then IlB = = 25 amperes

& ZlB = = 4.8 ohms

137

138

A three phase system consists of a generator, two transformers, two transmission lines, and two loads, as follows:

G1

is a 300 MVA generator rated at 25 kV, with an impedance of .05 p.u. (Assume that generator is operating at rated terminal

voltage)

T1

is a bank of three single phase 25 kV/199.2 kV transformers, each rated at 100 MVA, connected D-Y with a leakage reactance

of 2.5%

T2

is a three phase 200 MVA transformer rated 345 kV/13.8 kV, with X=j.08.

T3

is a three phase 1 MVA transformer rated 345 kV/4160, with X=j.02.

L1

is a transmission line having an impedance of j75 W

L2

is a distribution line having an impedance of j5 W

Z1

is an industrial facility with an effective impedance

of 1 ohm at .85 power factor lagging

Z2

is a substation load with an effective impedance

of 17.5 ohm at .7 power factor leading

Draw the per unit equivalent circuit, neglecting shunt elements in transformers

Calculate the total current and power delivered by the generator (give answers in per unit and actual values).

Calculate the magnitude of the terminal voltage of load Z1 (per unit and actual).

139

Typical Per Unit Quantities

System Base 100MVA

Real Power: 100 MW = 1.0 pu, 1000MW=10pu

Transmission Line: All quantities in per unit

140

Transmission Line Model

141

The Power Flow

Used to upgrade the power system

Used to study the power system in real time for

secure operation

By far the most useful calculation used by power

system engineers

142

The Power Flow

Compute voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus

Calculate real and reactive power flow through all equipment

Input Data

Transmission line data

Transformer Data

Bus Data

Swing Bus V=1<0o P, Q

Load Bus P+jQ V, delta

Gen Bus (Voltage Control) V, P Q, delta

143

Power Flow Equations

144

Power Flow Bus Operation

Solves for V and

Generation Bus: Uses only the P equation and

assumes V to be fixed (regulated voltage)

Reference or swing bus, assumes V and are

fixed (no P or Q equation possible.

145

Power Flow

146

Power Flow Standard Printout

GENERATOR 1 141.16 -14.21R 141.9

LOAD 1 100.00 0.00 100.0

TO 2 Bus 2 1 -36.75 8.09 37.6 25

TO 3 Bus 3 1 77.91 -22.30 81.0 27

GENERATOR 1 363.00 100.22R 376.6

LOAD 1 200.00 100.00 223.6

TO 1 Bus 1 1 37.18 -5.83 37.6 25

TO 4 Bus 4 1 125.86 6.05 126.0 50

LOAD 1 100.00 15.00 101.1

SWITCHED SHUNT 0.00 81.33 81.3

TO 1 Bus 1 1 -76.92 27.55 81.7 27

TO 4 Bus 4 1 -23.15 38.71 45.1 23

TO 2 Bus 2 1 -123.48 6.66 123.7 49

TO 3 Bus 3 1 23.45 -37.11 43.9 22

TO 5 Bus 5 1 100.04 30.44 104.6 10 0.9625TA 0.0

LOAD 1 100.00 20.00 102.0

TO 4 Bus 4 1 -100.04 -19.92 102.0 10 0.9625NT 0.0

147

Linear Power Flow Analysis

phase angle)

Ignore reactive power flows and loads (only be concerned

with MW flow)

Ignore transmission line resistance and charging

capacitance

Accuracy suffers!

148

Linear Power Flow Equation

149

How does

power flow?

Flow from production

point to purchase point

uses every transmission

path available

Flow on each

intermediate

transmission facility is

determined by its

impedance

150

Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs)

151

Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODFs)

resulting post contingency flow with a large transaction.

152

Load Flow Problem

and real and reactive power at various points in a power system

under normal steady-state conditions.

For power systems with a large number of buses, the load flow

problem becomes computationally intensive. Therefore, for large

power systems, the load flow is solved using specific programs

based on iterative techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson

method.

less computational effort, and load flow algorithms can be

developed which function easily on personal computers.

153

Load Flow Problem

The approach used here for solving the load flow is based on the

Newton-Raphson iterative method. The required input to the

problem is the generated and load power at each bus and the

voltage magnitude on generating buses.

This information is acquired from load data and the normal system

operating conditions. The solution provides the voltage magnitude

and phase angle at all buses and the power flows and losses of the

transmission lines.

154

Load Flow Problem

For load flow calculations, the system buses are classified into three types:

The slack bus: There is only one such bus in the system. Due to losses in the network, the real

and reactive power cannot be known at all buses. Therefore, the slack bus will provide the

necessary power to maintain the power balance in the system. The slack bus is usually a bus

where generation is available. For this bus, the voltage magnitude and phase angle are specified

(normally the voltage phase angle is set to zero degrees). The voltage phase angle of all other

buses is expressed with the slack bus voltage phasor as reference.

The generating or PV-bus: This bus type represents the generating stations of the system. The

information known for PV-buses is the net real power generation and bus-voltage magnitude.

The net real power generation is the generated real power minus the real power of any local load.

The load or PQ-bus: For these buses, the net real and reactive power is known. PQ-buses

normally do not have generators. However, if the reactive power of a generator reaches its limit,

the corresponding bus is treated as a PQ-bus. This is equivalent to adjusting the bus voltage until

the generator reactive power falls within the prescribed limits.

Distribution substations and feeders may be treated as generating buses in distribution networks.

155

Load Flow Problem

The load flow equations are written in terms of the net power injection to each

bus. With reference to figure below, the net power injection into the kth bus is

the combination of generated and load power. The power flowing out of this

bus must equal the net injected power. Therefore, the power balance equation

at the kth bus is written as follows in terms of the system voltage

where

N is the number of network buses,

Pk is the net real power injected into the kth bus,

Qk is the net reactive power injected into the kth bus,

Yk,i is the total admittance between bus k and i: this

total can be found from the bus admittance matrix,

Ybus, of the system,

Vi is the voltage of the ith bus. 156

Load Flow Problem

where k,n is the angle of the admittance, Yk,n, and j is the voltage phase angle at bus, j.

A real power equation is written for every PV- and PQ-bus and a reactive power equation is

written for every PQ-bus. Thus, for a power system with N buses of which L are PQ-buses

there are (N-1) real power equations (excluding the slack bus) and L reactive power

equations (a total of N-1+L equations). The unknowns are the magnitude and phase angle

of the L PQ-bus voltages and the phase angle of the (N-1-L) PV-bus voltages (a total of N-

1+L unknowns).

The left-hand side of these equations are known and an iterative process is used for finding

the unknown voltages and phase angles such the above equations are balanced. 157

Load Flow Problem

The Newton-Raphson method provides a reliable approach for solving non-linear equations such as

the previous equations. The main advantages of this method are its convergence characteristics and

its speed. The procedure for applying the Newton-Raphson method is as follows:

From the network configuration and parameters the bus-admittance matrix is constructed. The

elements of this matrix are used to calculate the power flows according to the equations.

Each network bus is assigned a type and, accordingly, information about the bus real and reactive

power and bus voltage is collected.

From the above steps, the load flow equations can be assembled into the following form, with

reference to previous equations:

where

P is the vector of the known net real power injections at PV- and PQ-buses,

Q is the vector of the known reactive power injections at PQ-buses,

V is the vector of the unknown bus voltage magnitudes,

is the vector of the unknown bus voltage phase angles, and

fp, fq are functions defined according to Equations (3.1.2).

158

Load Flow Problem

Solution of the load flow problem requires finding the values of V and such that the right-

hand side of the equation equals the known power injections at the network buses. For any

estimation of V and , the difference between the known power injections, P and Q and the

power injections calculated by the equation is called the power mismatch.

The power mismatch is a measure of how close to the solution the estimations of V and

are. A correction to these estimations is obtained using the Newton-Raphson method,

resulting in an iterative calculation process.

where the superscript, j, denotes variables calculated at the jth iteration step. J is the Jacobian matrix of the

equations:

159

The iteration process continues until the power mismatch at the jth step is smaller than a preset number .

To start the above iterative solution, an estimation of the unknown voltages and their phase angles is

required. This first solution approximation is called initial guess. Typically, the initial guess for the

voltage magnitudes is 1 pu and for their phase angles is 0 degrees (or radians).

160

http://www.deregulation.com/electric.html

161

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