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Learning Objectives:

1) To know the primary and secondary effects of

2) To learn how we cope with earthquakes and eruptions
3) To understand why some countries find it harder than
others to deal with natural hazards
This is a disaster survival kit.
Describe how the contents of
such kits help people survive
the first days after an
earthquake or volcanic
The effects of earthquakes
Collapsed buildings, roads and bridges
which kill many people.

People are killed by being trapped in their

homes, places of work and cars.

Those who survive can

suffer from trauma and
The effects of earthquakes
Fire- caused by fractured gas pipes and electricity wires being
brought down. Fires spread quickly in areas of poor quality housing.

Tsunamis- giant sea waves caused by a sea floor earthquake and

dangerous for people living in low-lying coasts.

Landslides- occur on steep slopes and in areas of weak rocks e.g.

sand and clays.

Disease e.g. typhoid and cholera spread easily when pipes burst and
there is shortage of fresh water and contamination from sewage.


Why do some people die in some earthquakes
more than others?

The Power of the Earthquake

The strength of an earthquake is measured on the Richter
scale. Earthquakes more than 6.0 usually result in some

The effect of an earthquake is less on solid rock and
greater on weak sands and clays

Depth of earthquake
Generally the closer the earthquakes focus is to the earths
surface, the greater the damage
Location of epicentre
The epicentre is the point on the surface directly above the
focus (start of the earthquake). It is at this point where
the energy from an earthquake is usually at its greatest.

Level of development of the country

Earthquakes which occur in the richer countries of the
world often have fewer fatalities simply due to the
greater state of preparedness which is facilitated by the
greater amount of money available to put into
earthquake research, monitoring and preparation.
Some examples of reasons for an often greater death toll in LEDCs
- Buildings are often not earthquake proof and built out of flimsy
- Emergency services in LEDCs have less training and equipment
- Lack of money for prediction and monitoring systems
- Cities in LEDCs are densely populated with houses packed close
together, resulting in danger from collapsed buildings and spread of

Time of day/ Year

There are seasonal differences in temperature which can exacerbate
the effects of the quake. People can be forced to live in tents with
freezing temperatures. Where conditions are much warmer bodies
will decay more rapidly and spread disease.

Population density
An area of dense population is likely to experience more deaths than a
rural area simply due to a greater likelihood of people being affected
by the quake and more buildings, road networks and bridges which
may collapse.
It is hard to predict earthquakes. A seismometer can be used to monitor
tremors inside the Earths crust and therefore identify potential earthquakes.
However, earthquake predictions are not accurate enough to rely upon. It is
more worthwhile to invest money and resources in preparing for earthquakes.

Buildings can be Encouraging

constructed to people to
be earthquake keep an
proof. The earthquake kit
How can people prepare for an in their homes
building absorb earthquake? including first
some of the
energy released aid items,
during an tinned food
earthquake and radio

Roads and buildings can

be constructed to reduce
the damage caused by
earthquakes e.g. electric
shutters to cover windows
Preparing for Earthquakes

Earthquake building design


Tectonic Management


Earthquake drills

Earthquake felt in Yorkshire

Earthquake Dominoes